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THE ELECTRONICS LABORATORY Department of Electrical Engineering Military College of Signals

LAB IV : Feedback Amplifier Circuits

OBJECTIVES

To learn about the effects of feedback on amplifier circuits by simulation and by experimental work.

INFORMATION

Negative feedback structures are used in electronic amplifiers mainly to:

Desensitize the amplifier gain from variations in circuit elements values (for example, variations in transistor beta have negligible effect on feedback amplifier gain)

Extend the bandwidth of the amplifier

Control the input and output impedance of the amplifier

Reduce the nonlinearity of the amplification

Reduce the noise generated by amplifier components or external interference

In this experiment, two feedback amplifier topologies will be investigated: the shunt-series (or current-mixing current-sampling) topology and the shunt-shunt (or current-mixing voltage- sampling) topology.

1. SHUNT-SHUNT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

The basic structure of a shunt-series feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 4.1. The input source is either a current source or its Norton equivalent circuit and the output is a voltage signal; therefore, it is a trans-resistance amplifier.

The basic idea of this feedback scheme is to sense the output voltage then adjust the input current, depending on what the output voltage is. The output voltage is sensed (or sampled) by a circuit connected in shunt and a feedback signal is generated that is fed to the input. The feedback signal is a current that can be mixed with the input current in shunt. Figure 4.1. Basic shunt-shunt feedback amplifier structure (from Sedra and Smith).

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An example of a shunt-shunt feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 4.2. The feedback network in this circuit is the resistor R f , which connects the output of the circuit to the input side. Vcc
Rc
Vo
Rf
Is
Q1
Rof
Rs
Vs
Rinf
Figure 4.2. A shunt-shunt feedback amplifier circuit.

Vcc = 12 V

Rs = 10k

Rc = 3.3k

The overall shunt-shunt feedback amplifier can be analyzed by separating the feedback network from the basic amplifier or A-circuit, then modeling the effect of the feedback network on the A-circuit (called "loading effect") using appropriately placed resistors. The analysis procedure is shown below. Figure 4.3. General analysis procedure for shunt-shunt feedback amplifiers (from Sedra and Smith).

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The closed loop gain of the feedback amplifier (

) is calculated based on

(Equation 4.1)

where is the gain of the basic amplifier without feedback but with considering the loading effects of the feedback network and is the feedback network gain.

This type of feedback decreases the input and output impedances of the amplifier according to:

and

(Equation 4.2)

(Equation 4.3)

2. SHUNT-SERIES FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

The basic structure of a shunt-series feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 4.4. The input source is either a current source or its Norton equivalent circuit and the output is a current signal; therefore, it is a current amplifier.

The basic idea of this feedback scheme is to sense the output current then adjust the input current, depending on what the output current is. The output current is sensed (or sampled) by a circuit connected in series and a feedback signal is generated that is fed to the input. The feedback signal is a current that can be mixed with the input current in shunt. Figure 4.4. Basic shunt-shunt feedback amplifier structure (from Sedra and Smith).

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An example of a shunt-series feedback amplifier is shown in Figure 4.5. The feedback network in this circuit is the resistor R f , which connects the output of the circuit to the input side. Capacitor C 3 is a DC blocking capacitor that removes R f from the circuit so that it does not interfere with the DC biasing.

Vs Vcc
Rc2
Rb1
Rc1
Vo
C4
Q2
Is
Rof
Io
Q1
RL
Rs
C1
Re2
C3
Rb2
Re1
C2
Rinf
Rf

Vcc = 12 V

Rs = 10k

Rb1 = 82k

Rb2=33k

Re1=2.2k

Rc1=6.8k

Re2=4.7k

Rc2=5.6k

Figure 4.5. A shunt-series feedback amplifier circuit.

Like the shunt-shunt feedback amplifier, the overall shunt-series feedback amplifier can be analyzed by separating the feedback network from the basic amplifier or A-circuit, then modeling the loading effect of the feedback network on the A-circuit using appropriately placed resistors. The analysis procedure is shown below. Figure 4.6. General analysis procedure for shunt-shunt feedback amplifiers (from Sedra and Smith).

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The closed loop gain of the feedback amplifier ( ) is calculated based on Equation 4.1, where is the gain of the basic amplifier without feedback, but with the loading effects of the feedback network considered, and is the feedback network gain.

Shunt-series feedback decreases the input impedance of the amplifier according to Equation 4.2, but increase the output impedance according to

EQUIPMENT

(Equation 4.4)

1. Digital Multimeter

2. Oscilloscope

3. Function Generator

4. Two DC Power Supply (one is ungrounded)

6. BJT 2N3904 and 2N2222, two each

7. Resistors according to the circuit figures

8. Capacitors 5 x 47F.

PRE-LABORATORY PREPARATION

The lab preparation must be completed before coming to the lab. Show it to your Lab Instructor for checking and grading (out of 15) at the beginning of the lab and get his/her signature.

1. SHUNT-SHUNT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

1.1. Calculate the DC quiescent conditions ( ,

feedback gain (

for the feedback amplifier of Figure 4.2. Use

), the input resistance (

and

), the voltage gain (

), the

)

), and the output resistance (

(transistor forward beta).

1.2. Figure 4.7 shows the basic amplifier (including the loading effects of the feedback network) and the feedback network for the shunt-shunt feedback amplifier of Figure 4.2. The power supply is used to bias the transistor to the same operating point as in the previous step (Step 1.1). Calculate the amplifier gain ( ), feedback gain

( ), input resistance ( ), and output resistance ( ). Compare to

,

to

, and

to

according to Equations 4.1 to 4.3.

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Vb

Vs Vcc
Rc
Vo
Is
Q1
Ro
Rs
Rf
Rf
C1
C2
Rin
(a)

I f

Rf (b)

Vo

Vcc = 12 V

Rs = 10k

Rc = 3.3k

Rf = 56k

C1 = C2 = 47

Figure 4.7. The shunt-shunt feedback amplifier: (a) basic amplifier (A-circuit). (b) feedback network

 1.3. Simulate the circuit in Figure 4.2 by MicroCap and record the operating point DC values in Table 4.1, and the small signal parameters in Table 4.2. Note that determined by is ⁄ (Equation 4.5) Compare the results of simulation to the results of your calculations in Step 1.1. 1.4. Run AC Analysis in MicroCap and plot and print the frequency response of the feedback amplifier circuit. 1.5. Simulate the basic amplifier circuit in Figure 4.7(a) by MicroCap and record the small signal parameters in Table 4.3. Compare the results of simulation to the results of your calculations in Step 1.2. 1.6. Run AC Analysis in MicroCap and plot and print the frequency response of the basic amplifier circuit. 2. SHUNT-SERIES FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER 2.1. Calculate the DC quiescent conditions ( , gain ( ⁄ ), the feedback gain ( and , ⁄ ), the input resistance ( , , , ), the voltage ), and the output resistance (R of ) for the shunt-series feedback amplifier of Figure 4.5. 2.2. Figure 4.8 shows the basic amplifier (including the loading effects of the feedback network) and the feedback network for the shunt-series feedback amplifier of Figure 4.5. Calculate the amplifier gain ( ⁄ ), feedback gain ( ⁄ ), input resistance ( ), and output resistance ( ). Compare to ⁄ , to , and to . 2.3. Simulate the circuit in Figure 4.5 by MicroCap and record the operating point DC

is

calculated according to Equation 4.5. Compare the results of simulation to the results of your calculations in Step 2.1.

values in Table 4.4, and the small signal parameters in Table 4.5. Note that

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2.4.

Run AC Analysis in MicroCap and plot and print the frequency response of the feedback amplifier circuit.

2.5. Simulate the basic amplifier circuit in Figure 4.8(a) by MicroCap and record the small signal parameters in Table 4.6. Compare the results of simulation to the results of your calculations in Step 2.2.

2.6. Run AC Analysis in MicroCap and plot and print the frequency response of the basic amplifier circuit.

Vs Vcc
Rb1
Rc1
Is
Q1
Rs
C1
Rf+Re2
Rb2
Re1
C2
C5
Rin

Rc2 C4
Q2
Ro
Io
RL
C3
Rf

Vo Re2

(a)

I f Io
Rf
Re2

(b)

Figure 4.8. The shunt-series feedback amplifier: a) the basic amplifier and b) the feedback network

IN-LAB REQUIREMENT

PROCEDURE

1. SHUNT-SHUNT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

1.1. Build the circuit in Figure 4.2 using BJT transistor 2N3904 and the other provided components.

When the layout has been completed, have your Lab Instructor check your breadboard for errors and get his/her signature on the Marking Sheet.

1.2. Initially apply only DC power to the circuit, measure the amplifier's Q point using the Digital multimeter, and record them in Table 4.1. Compare the measured data to the DC quiescent conditions from the MicroCap simulations.

 V CE V BE I B I C [V] [V] [A] [A] Simulation Experiment

Table 4.1. DC quiescent conditions for the shunt-shunt feedback amplifier

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1.3.

Turn ON the Function Generator to supply the input AC signal to the amplifier circuit. Set the frequency to 10 kHz.

 1.4. Connect CH1 of the oscilloscope in parallel with the input AC source to measure V S . Connect CH2 of the oscilloscope in parallel with the transistor collector-emitter terminals to measure the parameters of the output signal V o . 1.5. Set the input voltage level to V S = 50 mV (RMS), as measured by the CH1 of the oscilloscope. Since the values are small, read the peak-peak values of the V S (CH1) and V o (CH2) from the oscilloscope display and record the data in Table 4.2. 1.6. To determine the input current, I S , first measure the voltage across the resistor R S . To do so, measure the voltage at each of its two terminals using CH1 of the oscilloscope. Subtract the lower value of the higher one, and divide the result by the actual measured value of R S . Record the calculated I S in Table 4.2. 1.7. Calculate voltage gain (V O / V S ), feedback amplifier gain (A f = V O / I S ), and the input resistance (R inf = V S / I S – R S ), and record in Table 4.2. V S V O I S V O / V S A f R inf [V] [V] [A] [V/A] [ohm] Simulation Experiment Table 4.2: Shunt-shunt feedback amplifier parameters 1.8. Turn OFF the AC signal generator and DC power supply, replace the existing BJT transistor with 2N2222, turn ON the DC power supply and AC signal generator, measure the input and output voltages and ) and calculate the voltage gain ( / ). Compare this value with the / value from Table 4.2 and provide an explanation in your report. 1.9. Change your circuit to the one shown in Figure 4.7(a) (the basic amplifier). Replace back the BJT transistor with 2N3904. Use the DC power supply for V b , which provides the required bias voltage for the BJT.

NOTE: Please note that the value for V b is small around 0.8 V. Its value can be calculated through:

V b = V BE + R S I B where V BE and I B are the measured values from Table 4.1.

(Equation 4.6)

1.10. Turn ON the DC power supplies and measure the DC operating points. If needed, change V b slightly to get the same V CE you had measured and recorded in Table 4.1.

1.11. Turn ON the Function Generator to supply the input AC signal to the amplifier circuit. Set the frequency to 10 kHz.

1.12. Connect CH1 of the oscilloscope in parallel with the input ac source to measure V S . Connect CH2 of the oscilloscope in parallel with the transistor collector-emitter terminals to measure the parameters of the output signal V o .

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1.13. Set the input voltage level to V S = 50 mV (RMS) or any other value which will not result in clipping at the output voltage (CH2). Since the values are small, read the peak-peak values of the V S (CH1) and V o (CH2) from the oscilloscope display and

record the data in Table 4.3.

1.14. Similar to Step 1.6, measure the input current I S and record in Table 4.3.

 V S V O I S A R in [V] [V] [A] [V/A] [ohm] Simulation Experiment

Table 4.3: Parameters for the amplifier circuit in Figure 4.3.

2. SHUNT-SERIES FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

2.1. Build the shunt-series feedback amplifier circuit in Figure 4.5 using 2N3904 BJT transistors and the other provided components.

When the layout has been completed, have your Lab Instructor check your breadboard for errors and get his/her signature on the Marking Sheet.

2.2. Initially apply only DC power to the circuit. Measure the amplifier's quiescent points (Q-points) using the Digital Multimeter, and record them in Table 4.4. Compare the measured data to the corresponding Q-points obtained from the MicroCap simulations.

 V CE1 V CE2 I C1 I C2 [V] [V] [A] [A] Simulation Experiment

Table 4.4: DC quiescent conditions for the shunt-series feedback amplifier

2.3. Turn ON the Function Generator to supply the input AC signal to the amplifier circuit. Set the frequency to 10 kHz.

2.4. Connect CH1 of the oscilloscope across the input AC source to measure V S . Connect CH2 of the oscilloscope in parallel with load resistor to measure the output signal V o .

2.5. Set the input voltage level to V S = 100 mV (RMS), as measured by CH1 of the oscilloscope. Since the values are small, read the peak-peak values of the V S (CH1) and V o (CH2) from the oscilloscope display and record the data in Table 4.5.

2.6. Similar to Step 1.6, measure the input current, I S , and record in Table 4.5.

2.7. To calculate the output current I O , measure the voltage across the resistor R e2 and R f and determine the current flowing through each resistor, like in the previous step. I O

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is equal to the sum of the currents through the R e2 and R f resistors. Record this value of I O in Table 4.5.

2.8. Calculate voltage gain (V O / V S ), feedback amplifier gain (A f = I O / I S ), and input resistance (R inf = V S / I S R S ), and record the result in Table 4.5.

 V S V O I S Io V O / V S A f R inf [V] [V] [A] [A] [A/A] [ohm] Simulation Experiment

Table 4.5: Shunt-shunt feedback amplifier parameters

2.9. Turn OFF the AC signal generator and DC power supply and replace the BJT transistors with 2N2222 devices. Turn ON the DC power supply and AC signal generator, then measure the input and output voltages (V S and V O ) and calculate the voltage gain (V O / V S ). Compare this value with the V O / V S value from Table 4.5 and provide an explanation in your report.

2.10. Change your circuit to the one shown in Figure 4.9 (the basic amplifier circuit). Replace the BJT transistors with 2N3904 devices.

FG

+12 V 82k
6.8k
Q1
10k
47u
15k
33k
2.2k
47u
4.7k
47u
Rin Vo
47u
Q2
CH2
Io
2.2k
47u
15k
GND

5.6k 4.7k

Is CH1
10k
+
Vs
-
GND

Figure 4.9. The basic amplifier of the shunt-series feedback amplifier

2.11. Turn ON the DC power supply and measure the DC operating points. They should be almost the same as what you recorded in Table 4.4.

2.12. Turn ON the Function Generator to supply the input AC signal to the amplifier circuit. Set the frequency to 10 kHz. Since the Function Generator is not capable to supply less than 60mV amplitude at it’s output, use the 10 kpotentiometer built in the Proto Board to obtain the necessary V S , as shown in Figure 4.9.

2.13. Connect CH1 and CH2 of the oscilloscope according to the Figure 4.9 to measure V S and V O , respectively.

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2.14. Set the input voltage level to V S = 15 mV (RMS) or any other value that will not result in the clipping of the output voltage (CH2). Since the values are small, read the peak- peak values of the V S (CH1) and V o (CH2) from the oscilloscope display and record

the data in Table 4.6.

2.15. Similar to Steps 2.6 and 2.7, measure the input current I S , output current I O , and record in Table 4.6.

 V S V O I S Io A R in [V] [V] [A] [A] [A/A] [ohm] Simulation Experiment

Table 4.6. Parameters for the amplifier circuit in Figure 4.4.

REPORT

1. For the shunt-shunt amplifier, compare A f to A/(1+AB), R inf to R in , and R of to R o resulted from pre-lab simulations in Steps 2.3 and 2.4. Are the results consistent with feedback theory?

2. For the shunt-shunt amplifier, compare the bandwidth of the feedback amplifier to that of the basic amplifier. Comment on any differences between the two and briefly explain.

3. Repeat 1. and 2. for the shunt-series-amplifier. In terms of feedback theory, does it matter whether the feedback is shunt-shunt or series-series?

4. When an amplifier with feedback has its transistor(s) changed, what is the effect on its operation? Briefly explain why this is so?

5. Compare simulated and experimental results and comment on any differences or lack thereof.

Your Lab report is due one week later. Please submit it to your Lab Instructor in the beginning of your next lab session. Note: You must copy/print the Signature and Marking Sheet from your manual before coming to the lab session.

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SIGNATURE AND MARKING SHEET LAB #4

To be completed by the Lab Instructor during your lab session

STUDENT NAME:

LAB INSTR. NAME:

 Check Task Max. Granted Lab Instr. boxes Marks Marks Signature Pre-lab completed 15 Shunt-Shunt Feedback completed 20 Shunt-Series Feedback completed 20 Overall Report Preparation 45 TOTAL MARKS 100

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