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Summary of Assumptions

A. Summary of Assumptions for Mass Balance For Washing Tank (T-2) y y y Forty percent of the C2H5OH solution is used to wash the feather 1.5 gallons of C2H5OH solution per pound of feather is used as a washing agent All dirt are removed

For Filter Press (F-1) y y y y y No keratin feather is carried at the filtrate All fats are dissolved in C2H5OH All dirt are removed 1% of the liquids adhered on the cake 0.5% lost due to accumulation in the equipment

For Dryer (D-1) y y 100% of ethanol is evaporated since temperature is carried out at 140-160 C 0.50% moisture content/keratin feather

For Grinder (G-1) y The size of feather fiber length will be reduced to 0.20 mm For Separator (C-1) y y 40% keratin fiber in feather will be separated Negligible amount of water

For Rotary Grinder (G-2) y The size of feather fiber length will be reduced to <0.020 mm For Screener (S-1) y 10% (oversize) of the ground fiber will be recycled back to the prior grinder

For Plasticizer Mixing Tank (T-3) y The ratio of the feed (keratin Additive) is 3:2

For Air Cooler (C-2) y Only heat transfer will occur

Material Balance Per Equipment

Equipment: WASHING TANK

C2H5OH Solution C2H5OH H2 O TOTA = = = 97 938. 53 kg 146 907. 79 kg 244, 846.32 kg Washed Feather

Chicken Feathers

T-2
P = 1 atm

Dirt Feather C27H46O H2O

= = = =

2 095.55 kg 18 859.86 kg 207.46 kg 1 489.93 kg 17 162.47 kg 20, 955.40 kg

Dirt Feather C27H46O H2O

= = = =

2 095.55 kg 18 859.86 kg 207.46 kg 1 489.93 kg 17 162.47 kg

Keratin Feather = TOTAL =

Keratin Feather =

C2H5OH Solution = 244, 846.32 kg TOTAL = 265, 801. 72 kg

Chicken Feathers = 20, 955.40 kg C2H5OH Solution TOTAL IN = 244, 846.32 kg = 265, 801. 72 kg TOTAL OUT = 265, 801. 72 kg

Assumptions: All dirt are removed 1.5 gallons of C2H5OH solution per pound of feather is used as a washing agent Forty percent of the C2H5OH solution is used to wash the feather (Ref: Gassner, III et al., 1995. Fiber and Fiber Products Produced from Feathers.)

Basis: 20 955. 40 kg/day Computations: Feed: Dirt = 0.1 (20955.40 kg) = 2 095. 54 kg

Feather = 0.9 (20955.40 kg) = 18 859. 86 kg C27H46 = 0.0099 (207. 46) = 207. 46 kg H2O = 0.0711 (207. 46) = 1 489.93 kg Keratin Feather = 0.819 (207. 46) = 17 162.47 kg

C2H5OH Solution Added: Volume 40% C2H5OH = 262. 09 m3 Average Density of C2H5OH Solution = 934. 21 kg/ m3 40% C2H5OH solution Added = (262. 09 m3) (934.21 kg/ m3) = 244 846.32 kg C2H5OH = 0.4 (244 846.32 kg) = 97 938. 53 kg H2O = 0.6 (244 846.32 kg) = 146 907. 79 kg

Product: Dirt = 2 095.55 kg Feather = 18 859.86 kg C27H46 = 0.0099 (207. 46) = 207. 46 kg H2O = 0.0711 (207. 46) = 1 489.93 kg Keratin Feather = 0.819 (207. 46) = 17 162.47 kg C2H5OH Solution = 244 846.32 kg

Dirt Balance: Dirt In = Dirt Out Dirt Out = 2 095. 54 kg Feather Balance: Feather In= Feather Out Feather Out = 18 859.86 kg Feather Composition Balance: C27H46O Balance: C27H46O In = C27H46O Out C27H46O Out = 207. 46 kg Keratin Feather Balance: Keratin Feather In = Keratin Feather Out Keratin Feather Out = 17, 162.47 kg H2O Balance: H2O in Chicken Feathers+H2O in C2H5OH solution = H2O Out 1 489.93 kg + 146 907. 79 kg = H2O Out H2O Out = 146 907. 79 kg

C2H5OH Balance: C2H5OH In = C2H5OH Out C2H5OH Out = 97 938. 53 kg

Equipment: FILTER

Cake

Keratin Feather Adhering Amount H2O C2H5OH

17 076.66 kg

= =

2 959. 01 kg 979.39 kg 21 015. 05 kg

Washed Feather

Filtrate

F-1

Dirt Feather C27H46O H2O

= = = =

2 095.55 kg 18 859.86 kg 207.46 kg 1 489.93 kg 17 162.47 kg

C2H5OH H2O Dirt C27H46O TOTAL

= = = =

96 469.45 kg 144 704.18 kg 2 085.06 kg 206. 42 kg

Keratin Feather =

= 243, 465. 11 kg

C2H5OH Solution = 244, 846.32 kg TOTAL = 265, 801. 72 kg Losses = 1321. 56 kg C2H5OH H2 O Dirt C27H46O = = = = 489. 69 kg 734. 54 kg 10. 48 kg 1.04 kg

Keratin Feather = 85. 82 kg TOTAL IN = 265, 801. 72 kg TOTAL OUT = 265, 801. 72 kg

Assumptions: No keratin feather is carried at the filtrate All fats are dissolved in C2H5OH All dirt are removed 1% of the liquids adhered on the cake 0.5% lost due to accumulation in the equipment (Ref: Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Peter and Timmerhaus, 5th Edition, p.855)

Computations:

Feed (Washed Feather): Dirt = 2 095.55 kg Feather = 18 859.86 kg C27H46O = 0.0099 (207. 46) = 207. 46 kg H2O = 0.0711 (207. 46) = 1 489.93 kg Keratin Feather = 0.819 (207. 46) = 17 162.47 kg C2H5OH Solution = 244 846.32 kg

Cake: Keratin Feather Adhering amount H2O = 1 489.93 kg + (146 907. 79 kg) (0.01) = C2H5OH = (97 938. 53 kg) (0.01) = 979. 39 kg Filtrate: C2H5OH = (97 938. 53 kg)(0.985) = 96 469.45 kg H2O = (146 907. 79 kg) (0.985) = 144 704.18 kg 2959.01 kg = 17 162.47 (1-0.005) = 17076.66 kg

Dirt = 2 095.55 kg - 10. 48 kg = 2 085. 06 kg C27H46O = 207.46 kg - 1.04 kg = 206.42 kg

Lost Amount: C2H5OH = (97 938. 53 kg)(0.005) = 489.69 kg H2O = (146 907. 79 kg) (0.005) = 734.54 kg Dirt = kg = (2 095.55 kg) (0.005) = 10.48 kg C27H46O = (17 162.47 kg) (0.005) = 1.04 kg

Dirt Balance: Dirt In = Dirt Out Dirt In = Dirt in Cake + Dirt in Filtrate + Dirt Lost 2 095.55 kg = 0 + 2 085. 06 kg + Dirt Lost Dirt Lost = 10.48 kg

C27H46O Balance: C27H46O In = C27H46O Out C27H46O In = C27H46O in Filtrate + C27H46O Lost 207. 46 kg = 206. 42 kg + C27H46O Lost C27H46O Lost = 1. 04 kg

H2O Balance: H2O In = H2O Out H2O In = H2O in Cake + H2O in Filtrate + H2O Lost 148 397. 72 kg = 2959. 01 kg + 144 704.18 kg + H2O Lost

H2O Lost = 734.54 kg

Keratin Feather Balance: Keratin Feather In = Keratin Feather Out Keratin Feather In = Keratin feather in Cake + Keratin Feather in Filtrate + Keratin Feather Lost 17 162.47 kg = 17076.66 kg + 0 + Keratin Feather Lost Keratin Feather Lost= 85. 81 kg

C2H5OH Balance: C2H5OH In = C2H5OH Out C2H5OH In = C2H5OH in Cake + C2H5OH in Filtrate + C2H5OH Lost 97 938. 53 kg = 979. 39 kg + 96 469.45 kg + C2H5OH Lost C2H5OH Lost = 489. 69 kg

Equipment: Dryer

Evaporated Liquid H2 O C2H5OH TOTAL = = = 1398. 59 kg 979. 39 kg 2, 377. 98 kg

Cake

Drier Feather

D-1

Keratin Feather = H2O C2H5OH TOTAL = = =

17076. 66 kg 1483. 98 kg 979. 39 kg 19540.02 kg

Keratin Feather= H2 O C2H5OH TOTAL = = =

17 076. 66 kg 85. 38 kg 0 kg 17, 162. 04 kg

Evaporated Liquid = Dried Feather TOTAL IN = 19540. 02 kg TOTAL OUT =

2, 377. 98 kg 17, 162. 04 kg

= 19 540. 02 kg

Assumptions: 100% of ethanol is evaporated since temperature is carried out at 140-160 C 0.50% moisture content/keratin feather (Ref: Plant Design and economics for Chemical Engineers, 5th edition)

Computations: H2O in Drier Feather = 0.0050 (17076. 66 kg) = 85.38 kg C2H5OH Evaporated = 1 (979. 39 kg) = 979. 39kg

Keratin Feather Balance: Keratin Feather In = Keratin Feather Out Keratin Feather Out = 17 076. 66 kg H2O Balance: H2O In = H2O Out H2O in Cake = H2O Evaporated + H2O in Drier Feather 1483. 98 kg = H2O Evaporated + 85. 38 kg H2O Evaporated = 1398. 59 kg C2H5OH Balance: C2H5OH In = C2H5OH Out C2H5OH in Cake = C2H5OH Evaporated + C2H5OH in Dried Feather 979. 39 kg = 979. 39 kg + C27H46O Drier Out Evaporated C2H5OH = 0 kg

Moisture Content =

 

   





Moisture Content = 0. 1443

Equipment: Grinder

Dried Feather

G-1

Ground Fiber

Keratin Feather = H2 O TOTAL IN = =

17 076. 66 kg 85. 39 kg 17, 162. 04 kg

Keratin Feather = H2 O TOTAL OUT = =

17 076. 66 kg 85. 39 kg 17, 162. 04 kg

Assumptions: The size of feather fiber length will be reduced to 0.20 mm (Ref: Gassner, III et al., 1995. Fiber and Fiber Products Produced from Feathers.)

Computations:

Keratin Feather Balance: Keratin Feather In = Keratin Feather Out Keratin Feather Out = 17 076. 66 kg H2O Balance: H2O In = H2O Out H2O Out = 85. 39 kg Ground Fiber: Keratin Feather = H2O = 17 076. 66 kg 85. 39 kg = = 99.50% 0.50%

Equipment: Separator

Ground Fiber Keratin Feather = 17076 .66 kg

C-1

Keratin Fiber

Keratin Feather = 6830.66 kg

QUILL = 10 246 kg

QUILL

= 10 246 kg

Keratin Fiber = 6 830.66 kg


TOTAL IN = 17076 .66 kg

TOTAL OUT = 17 076. 66 kg

Assumptions: 40% keratin fiber in feather will be separated Negligible amount of water (Ref: Gassner, III et al., 1995. Fiber and Fiber Products Produced from Feathers.) Computations: Keratin Fiber = 0.40 (17 076 .66 kg) = 6830. 66 kg Over-all Material Balance: Ground Fiber = Quill + Keratin Fiber 17076 .66 kg = Quill + 6830.66 kg Quill = 10 246 kg

Equipment: Rotary Grinder

Keratin Fiber

G-2

Ground Fiber

Keratin Fiber = 6830.66 kg

Keratin Fiber

= 6830.66 kg

Ground Fiber = 6830.66 kg TOTAL IN = 6830.66 kg TOTAL OUT = 6830.66 kg

Assumption: The size of feather fiber length will be reduced to < 0.020 mm (Ref: Barone, J.R., Liebner, C. & Schmidt, W.F., 2004. Thermally Processed Keratin Films.

Computations:

Keratin Balance: Keratin Fiber In = Keratin Fiber Out Keratin Fiber Out = 6830.66 kg

Equipment: Screener

Ground Keratin Fiber

S-1

Keratin Fiber

Keratin Feather = 6830.66 kg

Keratin Fiber = 6147. 60 kg

Oversize = 683.07 kg

TOTAL IN = 6830.66 kg

Keratin Fiber = 6147. 60 kg Quill = 6830.66 kg

TOTAL OUT = 6830.66 kg Assumptions: 10% (oversize) of the ground fiber will be recycled back to the prior grinder Computations: Oversize (back to G-2) = 0.10 (6830.66 kg) = 683.07 kg Keratin Fiber Out = 6830.66 kg 683.07 kg = 6 147. 60 kg

Equipment: Plasticizer Mixing Tank

Additive

C3H8O3 NA2SO3 H2 O TOTAL

= = = =

3 073. 80 kg 204. 92 kg 819. 70 kg 4 098. 40 kg

Keratin Fiber

T-3

Paste

Keratin Fiber = 6 147. 60 kg

Keratin Fiber = C3H8O3 NA2SO3 H2O TOTAL = = = =

6 147. 60 kg 3073. 80 kg 204. 92 kg 819. 68 kg 10 246 kg

Keratin Fiber = 6 147. 60 kg Additive TOTAL IN = = 4 098. 40 kg 10 246 kg TOTAL OUT = 10 246 kg

Assumptions: The ratio of the feed (keratin Additive) is 3:2

(Ref: Barone, et.al, Extrusion of Keratin, p. 2)

Computations: Additive added = 6 147. 60 keratin ( = 4 098. 40 kg Additives composition: 75% C3H8O3 5% Na2SO3 20% H2O
 

C3H8O3 added= 0.75 (4 098. 40 kg) = 3 073. 80 kg

Na2SO3 added = 0.05 (4 098. 40 kg) = 204. 92 kg

H2O added = 0.20 (4 098. 40 kg) = 819. 70 kg

Over-all Material Balance: Fiber Keratin + Additive = Paste 6 147.60 kg + 4 098. 40 kg = Paste Paste = 10 246 kg

Keratin Fiber Balance : Keratin Fiber In = Keratin Fiber Out Keratin Fiber Out = 6 147. 60 kg

H2O Balance : H2O In = H2O Out H2O in Additive = H2O Paste 819. 70 kg = H2O Paste H2O Paste = 819. 68 kg

C3H8O3 Balance: C3H8O3 In = C3H8O3 Out C3H8O3 in Additive = C27H46O Paste 3 073. 80 kg = C27H46O Paste C3H8O3 Paste = 3 073. 80 kg

Na2SO3 Balance: NA2SO3 In = NA2SO3 Out NA2SO3 in Additive = NA2SO3 Paste 204. 92 kg = Na2SO3 Paste NA2SO3 Paste = 204. 92 kg

Equipment: Extruder

H2O Evaporated = 788.94 kg

Paste

E-1

Film

Keratin Fiber = C3H8O3 NA2SO3 H2O TOTAL = = = =

6 147. 60 kg 3073. 80 kg 204. 92 kg 819. 68 kg 10 246 kg

Keratin Fiber = C3H8O3 NA2SO3 H2O TOTAL = = = =

6 147. 60 kg 3 073. 80 kg 204. 92 kg 30. 74 kg 9 457. 05 kg

Film

= 9 457. 05 kg 788.94 kg 10 246 kg

H2O Evaporated = TOTAL IN = 10 246 kg TOTAL OUT =

Computations: Paste: Keratin Fiber C3H8O3 Na2SO3 H2O = = = = 6 147. 60 kg = 3 073. 80 kg = 204. 92 kg = 819. 68 kg = 60% 30% 2% 8%

H2O Evaporated = (0.9625) (819.68 kg) = 788.94 kg Over-all Material Balance: Paste = H2O Evaporated + Film 10 246 kg = 788.94 + Film Film = 9 457. 05 kg Keratin Fiber Balance : Keratin Fiber In = Keratin Fiber Out 6 147.60 kg = Keratin Fiber Out Keratin Fiber Out = 6 147. 60 kg H2O Balance : H2O In = H2O Out H2O in Paste = H2O Evaporated + H2O in Film 819.68 kg = 788.94 + H2O in Film H2O in Film = 30.74 kg C3H8O3 Balance: C3H8O3 In = C3H8O3 Out 3 073. 80 kg = C3H8O3 Out C3H8O3 in Film = 3 073. 80 kg Na2SO3 Balance: Na2SO3 In = Na2SO3 Out 204. 92 kg = Na2SO3 Out Na2SO3 in Film = 204. 92 kg

Equipment: Air Cooler

Film

C-2

Film

Keratin Fiber = C3H8O3 NA2SO3 H2O TOTAL = = = =

6 147. 60 kg 3 073. 80 kg 204. 92 kg 30.74 kg 9 457. 05kg

Keratin Fiber = C3H8O3 NA2SO3 H2O TOTAL = = = =

6 147. 60 kg 3 073. 80 kg 204. 92 kg 30. 74 kg 9 457. 05 kg

Film TOTAL IN = 9 457. 05 kg

= 9 457. 05 kg

TOTAL OUT = 9 457. 05 kg

Assumption: Only heat transfer will occur

Computations: Over-all Material Balance : Film In = Film Out 9 457. 05 kg = Film Out Film Out =9 457. 05 kg

Keratin Fiber Balance : Keratin Fiber In = Keratin Fiber Out 6 147. 60 kg = Keratin Fiber Out Keratin Fiber Out = 6 147. 60 kg

C3H8O3 Balance : C3H8O3 In = C3H8O3 Out 3 073. 80 kg = C3H8O3 Out C3H8O3 in Film = 3 073. 80 kg

Na2SO3 Balance: Na2SO3 In = Na2SO3 Out 204. 92 kg = Na2SO3 Out Na2SO3 in Film = 204. 92 kg

H2O Balance : H2O In = H2O Out 30. 74 kg = H2O Out H2O in the film = 30. 74 kg

Equipment: Flattening Rolls

Film

R-2

Film

Keratin Fiber = C3H8O3 NA2SO3 H2O TOTAL = = = =

6 147. 60 kg 3 073. 80 kg 204. 92 kg 30. 74 kg 9 457. 05 kg

Keratin Fiber = C3H8O3 NA2SO3 H2O TOTAL = = = =

6 147. 60 kg 3 073. 80 kg 204. 92 kg 30. 74 kg 9 457. 05 kg

Film TOTAL IN = 9 457. 05 kg

= 9 457. 05 kg

TOTAL OUT = 9 457. 05 kg

Computations:

Over-all Material Balance : Film In = Film Out 9 457. 05 kg = Film Out Film Out =9 457. 05 kg Keratin Fiber Balance : Keratin Fiber In = Keratin Fiber Out 6 147. 60 kg = Keratin Fiber Out Keratin Fiber Out = 6 147. 60 kg

C3H8O3 Balance : C3H8O3 In = C3H8O3 Out 3 073. 80 kg = C3H8O3 Out C3H8O3 in Film = 3 073. 80 kg

Na2SO3 Balance: Na2SO3 In = Na2SO3 Out 204. 92 kg = Na2SO3 Out Na2SO3 in Film = 204. 92 kg

H2O Balance : H2O In = H2O Out 30. 74 kg = H2O Out H2O in the film = 30. 74 kg