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Ad Hoc on Narcotics Legalization of Marijuana Tanzania A.

The use of nowadays-illicit drugs such as cannabis, or marijuana, dates back to antiquity, when they were used within practices of medicine, religion, and ce remony. However, their uses have been degenerated over the course of the last ce ntury, due to criminal organizations that have and continue to exploit these as a source for lucrative trade. Despite the negative uses of marijuana witnessed g lobally, predominantly in Mexico and South America where the cannabis productio n of Mexico saw a 35% increase (from 8,900 hectares to 12,000 hectares) in 2010 the legalization of medical marijuana was seen as a growing movement over the la st two decades. It has proven to treat the nausea associated with chemotherapy, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, and AIDS, and relieves the pain and stiffness of v arious ailments as well. Researchers claim that its low toxicity and inability t o cause a lethal overdose in humans make it arguably effective as a form of medi cation. Thus far, sixteen States in the U.S., Canada, and five countries within Europe have legalized marijuana for medical purposes only. Differing from these nations, Mexico has decriminalized the use of illicit drugs on August 21, 2009 d eclaring them legal in small amounts. Regulations state that users may only be i n possession of 5 grams of marijuana. In addition to Mexico, the decriminalizati on of cannabis and other forms of illicit drugs has become a trend in Latin Amer ica. Countries such as Ecuador, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia have eliminated offenses regarding the personal use of narcotics. After decriminalizing illegal drug use in 2001, research showed that the Portuguese government was able to att ain firmer control on product security and distribution with neither an increase in the use of narcotics, nor the sudden attraction for recreational-drug touris m in the nation from its neighboring countries. B. The United Nations takes a firm stance against the use and distribution of ma rijuana and other illicit drugs, and in 1961, it adopted the Single Convention o n Narcotic Drugs (amended by the 1972 Protocol) which not only categorized the e xisting multilateral treaties on drug control, but extended its regulations to p lants and raw materials utilized in the drug-making procedures as well. However, the Convention also supervises the trade, manufacturing, distribution, and poss ession of marijuana for scientific and medical purposes, which it hopes, through international cooperation, will deter acts of drug trafficking. Established in 1997, the UNODC was founded to assist member states in their struggle to suppres s and manage illicit drug trade, as well crime and terrorism. It works closely w ith NGOs, recognizing the influence they have on the attitudes of the general po pulation and society, including the International Drug Control Programme, which had established an international framework for the control of narcotics. Held in October of 1998, the Declaration on the Guiding Principles of Drug Demand Reduc tion was adopted by the 20th Special Session of the General Assembly on the Worl d Drug Problem. In accordance with the adopted principles, NGOs were called upon to take part in their goal of a society devoid of substance abuse, and the educ ation of the youth on that topic. A/RES/54/132, adopted by the General Assembly on February 2, 2000, urged nations to ratify or accede the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, the U nited Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs, and Psychotr opic Substances of 1988, and to implement the Action Plan in their national, int ernational, and regional actions against illicit drug use. According to the Worl d Drug Report in 2009, the United Nations approved of Portugals drug decriminaliz ation policy, stating, It appears that a number of drug-related problems have dec reased, and that the radical approach had not led to an increase in drug tourism fr om neighboring countries, as the UN was previously led to conceive. C. There is an estimated 42,000 annual and 10,000 daily abusers of cannabis in t he nation of Tanzania ranging from the age of 15-50 years, making it the most wi dely abused drug in that area. Although it is not party to any international dru g control treaties, Tanzania takes a stance against the use of illicit drugs wit hin its borders. An Inter-ministerial Coordinating Committee on Drug Abuse Contr ol was designed to cover the following aspects with regards to substance abuse:

law enforcement, mass media, social welfare, city councils, health, home affairs , foreign affairs, justice, pharmacy, government chemist, education, and communi ty development. In addition, this committee coordinates the exchange of informat ion, and the development of policy and programmes, while seeking to facilitate c ommunications between all parties striving to achieve the same goal in the field of drug abuse control. However, the responsibility of coordinating the national drug control policy lies with the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Drug Abuse Con trol within the Ministry of Health. Furthermore, Tanzania has also taken drug co ntrol measures to implement its policies within the workings of society, includi ng the creation of a licensing system for the manufacture, trade, and distributi on of these drugs, such as marijuana. Recently enacted laws and regulations comp rise of the Proceeds of Crime Act, 1991, as well as the Mutual Assistance in Cri minal Act. A control system for hard-drug substances is yet another measure Tanz ania has taken with respect to drug control. It demands a prescription requireme nt and warnings on packages or accompanying leaflet information for the purpose of safeguarding users on these substances. Tanzania believes that in order to ef fectively combat the use of marijuana, the producers and consumers of this subst ance must be addressed through focusing on the four main factors which include e radication, interdiction, international cooperation, and demand reduction. Since cannabis plants are illicitly cultivated by small farmers, Tanzania proposes th at these crops must be eradicated through crop-dusting via airplane, mechanical and manual destruction, or burning. However, $300 will compensate for every acre that is destroyed. In addition, alternate cash crops will be provided as an inc entive to lure farmers away from growing marijuana. Seed programs, such as Seed Programs International will distribute seeds and materials required to start cro ps anew at little or no cost. To ensure that farmers are kept from growing canna bis crops again, Tanzania proposes that Western agricultural ideas be introduced to these rural areas as new programs and community-based projects: the expansio n of irrigation systems, modernization of animal husbandry techniques, rehabilit ation of northern forests to diminish soil erosion, establishment of textile pla nts, and federal charity groups that provide for seed and fertilizer. Another ke y aspect that requires attention would be interdiction. Utilizing mobile x-ray s canners, ultrasound equipment, and satellites in their drug fight, Moroccos strat egy has proven effective officials have seized a record 11 metric tons of cannab is resin in Tangier in December 2006 and Tanzania recommends that such methods b e implemented in the struggle against marijuana in other countries as well, and further suggests that counternarcotics checkpoints and staff observation posts, that are to be stationed along ports of transportation, take the same measures t o address precursor chemicals as well. Tanzania would also like to bring up the point that much of the transportation is done in unstable areas, and therefore, urges extra attention to be placed in those regions. International cooperation i s necessary in this endeavor, and calls for the support of international organiz ations such as the UNODC, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the In ternational Narcotics Control Board (INCB), and INTERPOL, all whom have previous ly assisted with Moroccos initiative. Demand reduction remains an issue with the consumers of marijuana, mainly Europe and the U.S. Tanzania urges that these reg ions utilize a similar system of x-ray/ultrasound equipment and checkpoints to d etect the presence of unlicensed cannabis upon receiving new arrivals from afar. Works Cited "Cannabis: A Health Perspective and Research Agenda." Libdoc.who.int - /. Web. 0 7 Jan. 2012. <http://whqlibdoc.who.int>. "DEMAND REDUCTION." Welcome to the United Nations: It s Your World. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.un.org/ga/20special/demand.htm>. "Drug Law Changes Little for Life in Mexico." Arizona Local News - Phoenix Arizo na News Phoenix Breaking News - Azcentral.com. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.azcentral.com/news/articles/2010/01/10/20100110mex-drugs.html>. Entekhabi, Kourosh. "World Drug Report: Highlights." Welcome to the United Natio ns: It s Your World. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.un.org/ga/20special/wdr/e_ hilite.htm>. "National Strategies." Artengine. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://artengine.ca/eli

any/html/drugprofiles/drugsinglobalvillage/afrika/africaregionalre port/str ategies.html>. "Programs." Seed Programs Inc. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.seedprograms .org/programs.htm>. "Report of the International Narcotics Control Board." INCB. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.incb.org/>. "Tanzania." Artengine. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://artengine.ca/eliany/html /drugprofiles/drugsinglobalvillage/afrika/tanzania.html>. "United States Diplomatic Mission to Morocco - Key Reports." Home United State s Diplomatic Mission to Morocco. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://morocco.usembassy .gov/policy/keyreports/2008-international-narcotics-control-strategy-re port-for-morocco.html>. Wilkinson, Tracy. "MEXICO UNDER SIEGE: Mexico Moves Quietly to Decriminalize Min or Drug Use - Latimes.com." Los Angeles Times - California, National and Wo rld News Latimes.com. Web. 07 Jan. 2012. <http://www.latimes.com/features /health/medicine/lafg-mexico-decriminalize21-2009jun21,0,6336338.story>.