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y FORMATION IN A NICKEL-BASE DISK SUPERALLOY Timothy P. Gabb*, Daniel G. Backman**, Daniel Y. Wei**, David P.

Mourer **, David Furrer***, Anita Garg*, and David L. Ellis**** *NASA Glenn ResearchCenter **General Electric Aircraft Engines ***Ladish Co., Inc. ****Case WesternReserveUniversity

Abstract A streamlined,physics-based kinetic model was formulated, calibrated, and validated on a nickel-base superalloy. It was designedto be simplified and streamlined,to speedup calculations and facilitate linkage to finite elementmodeling thermal codes. The model describesand predicts the formation of y precipitates during the heat treatmentprocess. Standardizedexperimental methodswere employed to calibrate and initially validate the microstructure model. The model was then validated on an oil-quenched generic disk. Predictions of primary cooling y size and areafraction agreedwell with experimental measurements over a large range of values and cooling rates. Introduction Many mechanical properties of nickel-base superalloys are strongly influenced by the morphology of the strengtheningy precipitates (I,2 ). Both the sizes and areafractions of different populations of precipitates are influential and therefore needto be quantified and modeled. These microstructural characteristics are strongly affected by the heat treatmentsa componentundergoes(3-5). Previous work has often modeled precipitate size through heat treatmentsusing cubic coarsening equations(5). For physically accuratetreatments,it is necessary to describethe kinetics of nucleation and subsequentgrowth and coarseningof y precipitates as theseprocesses occur within a given heat treatment. This requires tracking multiple populations of precipitates through heat treatmentscontaining multiple steps. The NASA-industry Integrated Design and ProcessAnalysis Technologies (IDPAT) program had the objective of developing computational tools that could be applied togetherto improve the product and processdevelopmentcycle for aircraft engine components. It was recognized that this required a fast-acting y precipitation model for superalloy components,which could rapidly perform the necessarycomputationswhile integrated with material processingand mechanical property models. This would enable prediction of y precipitate microstructure and resulting mechanical properties from the processing. This paper describesthe work performed in developmentof this fast-acting y precipitation model. The objective of this work was to model y precipitation for the caseof a powder metallurgy disk superalloy. A physics-based kinetic model was formulated, calibrated, and validated on an 405

advanceddisk superalloy. The model describesand predicts the nucleation, growth, and coarseningof y precipitates during the heat treatmentprocess. However, it was designedto be simple and streamlined,in order to speedup calculations and facilitate linkage to finite elementthermal and structural codes. Standardizedexperimental methodswere employed to calibrate and initially validate the microstructure model. The model was then further validated using an oil quencheddisk. y precipitate morphologies were extensively quantified as functions of thermal histories and comparedto model predictions. Model calibration and validation efforts describedhere were focussed on the primary cooling y precipitates,which form during the first (primary) burst of nucleation during the solution quench. Model Formulation During the quench of a nickel-base superalloy from solution temperatures,supersaturationof y phasesolutesbuilds up in the y phase. When the supersaturationbuilds up to a sufficient degree,a burst of nucleation of new y precipitates occurs. This greatly reducesthe supersaturationof y solutes. Both the new and prior precipitates continually grow by interface-diffusion controlled growth. The precipitates also undergo coarsening, where smaller precipitates dissolve to provide solute for larger precipitatesto grow. A precipitation model of the y phasein nickel-basesuperalloys had been previously developedby General Electric Aircraft Engines (6) using classical nucleation and diffusion controlled growth. That model encompasses the full consideration of thermodynamic excessfree energy, supersaturationbuildup, nucleation, growth and coarsening. In contrast,the presentwork was focused on a precipitation model that is fast-acting such that it can be integrated with finite elementmodel thermal analyses. However, this precipitation model must still encompass entire precipitate physics the including supersaturationbuildup, nucleation, growth and coarsening,to ensurethe streamlined model is capableof predicting the y structure under the full spectrumof heat treatmentconditions. The fast-acting y precipitation model has two basic requirements:i) to generatehigh-fidelity predictions and provide explanations for subtle but important relationships betweeny size distribution and the heat treat schedule,and ii) to provide a computationally efficient algorithm that can be easily matedto FEM thermal codeswithout burdening the overall computational effort.
Superalloys2ooo Fdk-d by T.M. Pollock, R.D. Kissinger,R.R. Bowman, K.A. Gmn, M. McLean, S. Olson, aadJ.J.Schima TMs CrheMinerals, Metals &Materials Society), 2000

The fast-acting precipitation model includes the following elementsto meettheserequirements: A pseudo-binary solvus formulation that describesthe a solvus curve for the y formers. b. A kinetic model that predicts the minimum size of nuclei as a function of supersaturation. This model employs a simple kinetic criterion to determinethe onsetof nucleation in lieu of a sophisticatedthermodynamic model to computethe free energy and strain energy for nucleation. Classical nucleation expressionsthat predict nucleation C. rate as a function of supersaturationand time. A precipitate growth relationship basedon an asymptotic d. solution that accountsfor diffusive transport driven by the interfacial concentration gradient. These gradientsform becauseof the concentration difference betweenthe supersaturated matrix and the precipitate. Particle coarseningrelationships that predict changesin e. the averageparticle size of a size distribution basedon the functional dependencyof particle solubility upon particle radius. These elementswere integrated into a computer codethat numerically integratesthe effect of theserelationships as a function of time and tracks mean size as shown in Figure 1 in contrastto a conventional approach. For eachtime step,the calculation startsby invoking maSsconservation to calculate the supersaturation. If sufficient supersaturationis present, nucleation of new y precipitates occurs, and theseprecipitates are addedto the size distribution. Precipitatesare allowed to grow, driven by interface diffusion basedon the level of supersaturation. Coarsening is then allowed to modify the existing particle size distribution through mean size and y volume conservation. This mechanismallows someprecipitates to dissolve, removing them from the distribution. Conventional Approach uclei Size Empirical Coarsening Constant Cooling Curve MODEL 4 Cubic CoarseningLaw INPUT Current Approach + Allov Comuosition Physical Properties Cooling Curve -c Mass Conservation ~1

Each of the models elementsis elucidated in the following: a. Equilibrium y solvus The solvus line in a binary systemof limited terminal solubility can be expressedby the following equation (7)

where:

(1) CY=C 0exp(-e(L R T iii C, = y solubility Co= initial composition of y former (e.g., Al + Ti + Ta) Q = excessfree energy per mole of y former in y solution R = gas constant Tsolvus solvus temperature =

The lever rule can be statedas:

c,=

v,.c; -c,
Y.-l

(2)

where V, is they volume fraction. Equation (1) can be restated Ci.5:

c 0 (I-exp(-@&,, v,. =

R T

Lw

(3)

c 7-c 0q&l-1,) R T I;nhur The y composition was consideredindependentof temperature. Therefore, a seriesof measurements equilibrium 7 volume of fraction at temperatures to the y solvus was usedto correlate up the constantQ and approximatethe solvus line of y formation C, as a function of temperature. b.-c. Nucleation The classical solid statehomogenousnucleation theory (8-12) defines the free energy AG* required for a spherical nucleus as: 1 I (4) where: AG, = volume free energy AG, = induced strain energy in the precipitates CJ = precipitate/matrix interfacial energy

Free Energy +

Transient Nucleation

OUTPUT Pre;ti cts: - Mean y Size

i+ Diffusion Driven Growth I Coartening 4 Predicts: - Mean y Sizes - y Volume Fractions - y Number Densities

For the casewhere AG,, AG,, and o are independentof radius, the critical radius r* of nuclei can be expressedas:
I I

20 *=(AG,+AG,)

(5)

In the fast acting model, this time-intensive thermodynamic calculation was avoided. The critical size r* of surviving y

Fig. 1. Flowchart of model approachcomparedto a conventional approach. 406

nuclei was defined to satisfy the following stability criterion employing an adjustablenucleation scaling factor S: 2ov s r* =m RT ln(CY< /C,) (6)

The number of nuclei AN, at time interval At and available volume V(t) is then: AN,,=f AtV(5) I d. Growth Once a precipitate nucleates,its rate of growth in a supersaturated matrix is determinedby [13-171: (11)

where C, is the saturatedsolute concentration in the y matrix, Ce is the equilibrium solute concentration in they matrix and V,,,= a3/4 is the averageatomic volume in the y precipitate using a, the lattice parameter. The interfacial energy cr and nucleation scaling factor S in equation 6 are determinedthrough iterative estimation of these constants,followed by comparisonto measurements from calibration heat treatments. For eachtime stepin the precipitation model algorithm, r* is first calculated using equation 6. r* is then used in equation 5 to obtain (AG+AG,). AG* is then obtained from equation 4. Formally, the isothermal nucleation rate J* is given by nucleation theory as (11): J*=NZ$ exp(-AG* I kT)exp(-rl t) (7)

dr z=

(C,, - Crlrrr )

(12)

where the varying concentration field in the matrix is determinedby solving the diffusion equation with abovemoving boundary: D V2C= E/c% Now total solute massconservationrequires: (13)

in which N is the density of active nucleation sites per unit volume, Z is the Zeldovich non-equilibrium factor which correctsthe equilibrium concentration of critical nuclei for the loss of nuclei to growth and thus to the concentrationpresentat steadystate, S* is the rate of atomic attachmentto the critical nuclei, AG* is the activation energy for the formation of a critical nucleus as defined above,k and T have their usual meaning, and c is the incubation time to form embryosbefore nucleation. However, to keep the entire calculation manageable in the fast-acting model, the latter incubation effect was instead related to r*. For an f.c.c. or LIZ lattice, the frequency factor S* was defined as: /3* = (C, D /n4) 4 zY2 (8)

c,v-c,,v,,v, cs = (V-v,q,> @)

(14)

at any instant, where C, (t) is the solute composition in the matrix, V is the total volume consideredin the simulation, q is the solute composition in the precipitates,V.,+is the total volume of precipitatesat any instant, Vr is molar volume ratio between matrix and precipitate, and Co is the total solute composition in the alloy. The solute concentration C!.), the r/y interface for a precipitate at with radius r can be determinedusing the equation: 20 v CyIyIIo=C, exp(*) (15)

where h = a& is the atomic spacing, D the diffusion coefficient of the rate limiting speciesin the matrix, and r* was determined before. The Zeldovich factor was calculated using: Z=[AG*/(3nkT)l2 (9)

where R is the gas constantand Vm is precipitate molar volume per atomic site. The interface kinetics are likely to be rate limiting during the very early stageof growth, since the diffusion distancetends to be negligible. However, diffusion is likely to becomedominant, asthe precipitatesgrow larger. For the growth of spherical precipitates,an invariant size approximation solution can be statedas:

where AG* was determinedas previously describedfrom equation 4. A volume-related time dependentnucleation rate was derived, given that as nucleation proceeds,a portion of the volume will have been transformedinto y precipitates. Within this volume and its neighborhood further nucleation is not possible. Therefore, it was assumed the stationary that nucleation rate can proceedonly in the remaining (non-depleted) volume, using the expression:
V(t)=V,-~4/3an,(r,+Br,)3
i=I

where V0 is the total volume considered,k is the number of nucleation bursts, and V(t) the remaining non-depletedvolume. 407

where h is a non-dimensional parameterrelated to growth rate and Q is a saturation index factor. The saturation index factor R

describesthe level of supersaturationof y formers in the matrix, driving both nucleation and growth:

sz (C/-C,) =
The resulting growth rate relationship is then defined as:

2(C, -G)

(17)

I Ar = 2 h (D At)
where D is estimatedas describedbefore, R and h are determinedthrough equations 16 and 17. e. Coarsening Particle coarseningis driven by the higher solubility of small particles, which tend to dissolve as solute diffuses to larger particles. The driving potential is provided by the reduction of total interfacial energy while conserving the total volume fraction of precipitates. From coarseningtheory (18-23), the general form of precipitate coarseningcan be written as: I I
dr 2DC, oV, dt=RTr(C,,, -C,) (&i)(l+6r) r r (19)

determinethe equilibrium areafraction of y as a function of temperature,in order to calibrate the solvus formulation. Other small specimenswere supersolvussolution heat treated, cooled to temperatures below the solvus for short dwells of up to 20 minutes, and then rapid quenchedin water to determinethe kinetics of y formation near the solvus, for the kinetic model. Theserapid quencheswere accomplishedvia a drop quench furnace, where a specimenwas directly droppedfrom the hot zone of the furnace into a chamberof water for a transfer time of lessthan 1 second. StandardizedJominy bar end quench tests and sampling techniqueswere adaptedto establish a uniform and reliable test for the kinetics of y formation in rapid quenching conditions. One end of thermocoupledbars 25.4 mm in diameterand 63 mm in length was quenchedwith water. Sectionsof the bars were extractedusing precision numerical controlled electro-dischargemachining and preparedfrom three locations selectedto spanthe range of cooling rates expectedin oil quencheddisks. Other small specimenswith attached thermocoupleswere cooled in a programmedfurnace to assess slower cooling ratesthan that achieved in the Jominy bars. The model was further validated on a generic disk via measuring gammaprime sizes at specific locations where cooling rates were measuredby thermocouples. Disks were subsolvus solution heat treated at 1149W2h, and then quenchedin oil. Thermocoupleswere embeddedwithin one disk to gather accuratetemperature-timedata at selecteddisk locations during the oil quenching process. Another disk was then heat treatedin the sameprocesswith no thermocouplesattached. Microstructural specimenswere excised from bore and rim locations of the seconddisk. Specimensevaluatedin the SEM were first metallographically polished and then electrolytically etchedto leach away the y matrix to exposey particles. Specimensevaluated in the TEM were electrochemically thinned. At leasttwo TEM foils were examinedfrom each selectedspecimen. Multiple weak beam dark field imageswere consistently taken from near the [OOl] zone axis, selecting grains which required tilting of less than 30. Precipitate size measurements included major and minor axis widths, equivalent circle (feret) diameter, and several shape parameters.Size-frequencyhistogramswere then generatedfor primary cooling and tertiary y precipitates. Over 100 precipitateswere measuredto estimateeach distribution. Precipitateswere then grouped into 3 classesfor areafraction measurements point counting: remnanty particles > 1.0 pm by in diameterthat were not solutioned during subsolvus solution heat treatments,cooling y precipitatesbetween 0.05 and 1.0 pm, and tertiary y precipitates less than 0.05 urn in diameter. Results and Discussion Model Calibration After formulation, the model had to be initially calibrated with heat treatmentexperiments. Equilibrium y matrix solubility was determinedaspart of the kinetic model calibration. Specifically, the solubility curve for the y/y pseudobinary systemwas correlatedagainstvalues of y volume fraction measuredat severaltemperatures to the solvus temperature. This up solubility relationship was usedto model y solubility for temperatures ranged from the solvus temperaturedown to that
408

where C, is the equilibrium solute content, and b is correction factor for the casewhere volume fraction of precipitatesis high (19,20). The correction factor b tendsto broadenthe precipitate size distribution, which is not tracked by the current mean size approximation. So this correction factor was neglectedduring the coarseningcalculation. All other terms in this equation had previously been estimated. Summarizing, these elementsand associatedequationswere integrated into a computer codethat numerically integratesthe effect of theserelationships as a function of time and tracks meansize as shown in Figure 1. For eachtime step,the calculation startsby invoking massconservation (eq. 14) to calculate the supersaturation. Nucleated particles (eq. 6) are then addedto the size distribution if sufficient driving force (eq. 4) is present. Precipitatesare allowed to grow basedon the level of supersaturation(eq. 17) using the growth relationship (eq. 18). The coarseninglaw (eq. 19) is finally applied to modify the existing particle size distribution through mean size and y volume conservation. This did allow small precipitatesto dissolve, removing them from the distribution. Experimental Procedure The powder metallurgy nickel-base disk superalloy CH98 (24) was selectedfor evaluation. This alloy has a nominal composition in weight percent of 4A1-0.03B-0.03C-18Co-l2Cr4Mo-3.8Ta-4Ti-O.O3Zr-bal.Ni. Alloy powder was atomized, then hot compacted,extruded, and isothermally forged. A variety of heat treatment experimentswere first performedon the alloy to help formulate, calibrate, and initially validate the y model. Small cube specimenswere heatedto a variety of temperaturesand soakedfor a sufficient period of time to

870 OC. The empirically derived solubility curves were then usedto compute the solute supersaturationlevels in they matrix. These experiments indicated a y solvus of approximately a 12OOC CH98. for The objective of the rapid quench coupon testswas to determine the time to onset and resulting fraction of y precipitation within the temperaturerange between the alloy solvus temperatureand 80 C below the solvus. All sampleswater quenchedin these testshad a cbackground)) quantity of y precipitates lessthan 0.015 pm in size. These were presenteven in specimens directly water quenchedin lessthan 1 sec. This indicated that nucleation could not be fully suppressed here in this alloy. Samplesquenchedbefore nucleation took place in the nearsolvus dwell periods exhibited no coarsey, whereassamples quenchedfollowing nucleation near the solvus had coarse primary y. Coarsey precipitateswere observedafter 1200s dwells at 1160Cor lower temperatures,and after 180 s dwells at 1150C or lower. The morphology of y precipitatesformed near thesetemperatureshad a roughly cuboidal morphology, with somedendritic growth of the cube comers. Precipitates agedat lower temperatureexhibited a more cuboidal morphology. These observationsare consistentwith y morphological transitions reportedin the literature (13). The results of these experimentswere then mappedon to a y timetemperature-transformation diagram shown in Figure 2 for CH98. These observationsare essentialto calibrate the nucleation portion of the kinetic model. The fast acting model contains four additional adjustablekinetic parameters also required calibration: that the nucleation scaling factor S which is assumed be to 9 temperatureindependent, ii) the value of the y/y interfacial energy cr. iii) the diffusion activation energy Q of y former% iv) the diffusivity D for the y formers. 1220

Model calibration and validation efforts were focused on the primary (larger) cooling y sizes. The models cooling rate responsewas calibrated using cooling curve and microstructural measurements from a programmedfurnace cooling experiment run at a cooling rate of 1.lC/s. A seriesof size estimatesat intermediatetimes during the quench were also generatedby both the fast-acting and full thermodynamic model (6) after initial calibrations. This was performed to model the thermal path dependence they microstructure. A non-linear of regressionanalysis was then conductedto obtain the values of the four kinetic parametersin the fast-acting model that gave the best data fit and most reasonablepredictions of intermediate sizes. 0.1 0.09 0.08 c 0.07 3 0.06 i 0.05 .g 0.04 j 0.03

Wull

Therm0Model

,I,.

800

900

1000 Temperature (C)

1100

1200

Fig. 3. Saturation levels predicted using the models.

c
1

1 -Model Curve -Solvus

-m-m--

1160

800

900

1000

1100

1200

Temperature (C) 1140 10 100 Time (set) Fig. 2. Time-temperature-transformationdata and model curve near the y solvus temperature,open symbols indicate no coarse ywas present,solid symbols indicate the presenceof coarsey. 409 1000 10000 Fig. 4. Primary cooling y size predicted by the models.

Figures 3 and 4 show the calibration results, comparing fast acting model and full scalethermodynamic predictions for CH98. Figure 3 shows good agreementof predicted supersaturationlevels, as indicated by the saturation index Sz, during quench for the full scaleand fast acting models. As can be clearly observed,the fast-acting model is capableof tracking the balancebetweennucleation and growth in accordancewith the predictions of the full scalemodel for the primary burst of cooling y nucleation. There is room for further improvements in predictions of subsequentbursts of precipitate nucleation. However, predictive capability for the subsequentprecipitation bursts was not a prime goal for the fast acting model. Figure 4 comparesthe primary cooling y sizes generatedby the two models. Excellent agreementwas achievedbetweenthe experimental measurements, fast acting model predictions, the and full scalemodel calculations. The full scalemodel has previously been demonstrated provide good agreementwith to experimental observationson other alloys. Model Validation The model was initially validated using controlled cools of other small specimensand standardizedJominy bar end-quenchtests. Cooling curves from the various validation experimentsare comparedin Fig. 5. The Jominy end quench testswere usedto initially validate the model for fast cooling conditions in CH98. A slow programmedfurnace cooling heat treatmentwas used to validate the model for slow cooling paths. They distributions produced in the Jominy bar at distancesof 1.9cmand 5.7cm after water quenching from supersolvussolutioning are comparedto the slow furnace cooling casein Fig. 6. Histograms illustrating the primary cooling y size distributions for thesecasesare also shown. The size distributions were considerednormally distributed and a normal curve fit is shown. The mean size of the primary cooling y slightly increasedwith decreasingcooling rate, while the areafraction remained comparable. Excellent agreementwas obtained between predicted and experimentally measuredmean sizes of the primary cooling y particles for thesecases. Due to the promising results with the supersolvussolution heat treatmentquench tests,subsolvus Jominy testswere also performed. The precipitate distributions developedin the Jominy bar after water quenching from subsolvus solutioning conditions are comparedin Fig. 7. The subsolvus cases producedmuch smaller primary cooling y sizes, aspredicted by the model. Model predictions of precipitate sizes again agreed well with observedresults. A CH98 disk of generic shapeshown in Fig. 8 was then subsolvus solution treatedand oil-quenched for further model validation. Thermocouple temperatureversus time data collected during the disk oil quenching from the bore, web, and rim locations indicated the bore location clearly cooled slower than the web and rim, which had similar cooling responses.The temperature-timeresponses were employed for model predictions at several locations. Typical SEM imagesof bore and rim edgemicrostructuresfrom an as-quenched disk are comparedin Fig 9. Predicted and measuredsizes of primary cooling y at the bore hole, bore, and rim edge locations agreed well, as shown in the comparisonsof Fig. 10. Another disk was oil quenchedand then aged760W16h. Typical microstructuresfrom the bore, mid rim, and rim edgeof this disk are comparedin Fig. 9. Predicted and measuredsizes 410

0 . 0 mw -Disk

CalibrationRun Slow Cool JominyBar (1.9cm) JominyBar (5.7cm) Disk (Bore) (Rim Edge)

200

400 600 Time (set)

800

1000

Fig 5: Comparisonof representativecooling curves from heat treatments. of primary cooling y at bore, web, and several rim locations are comparedin Fig. 10 - 11. The model predicted the trend of the measurements, predicted consistently lower sizes for these but cases. This may be due to the lack of any calibration experimentsfor aging effects. Comparisonsof measuredand predicted primary cooling y precipitate sizes and areafractions for various validation experimentsare shown in Fig. 10 and 11. The model gave good predictions of primary cooling y size for the heat treat coupons, jominy bar, and generic disks, over a very broad range of precipitate sizes. The models predictions of areafractions of primary cooling y were also reasonable,but showed room for further improvements. Differences betweenpredicted and measuredy sizes and quantities can be attributed to model inaccuraciesas well as measurement difficulties. As can be seenin they imagesof Fig. 4-6, several groupsy precipitates having different sizes and morphologies can be presentin the samemicrostructure, as predicted by the model. Also, tips and comersof the somewhat rectangular precipitatescan be sectionedin a metallographic section or TEM foil. This effect is most notable for slow cooled primary cooling y, where the cube corners show enhanced growth (19). The size vs. frequency distribution of all these precipitateswas combined together for measurements. However, the size distributions of eachof thesegroups sometimescould not be separated deconvoluted in the or combined measurements.Objective experimental analyseswere capableof grouping precipitates into 3 classesfor size and area fraction measurements: remnant y particles that were not dissolved during subsolvus solution heat treatmentswhich were greaterthan 1.Opm in diameter,cooling y precipitatesbetween 0.05 and 1.0 pm, and tertiary y precipitates less than 0.05 pm in diameter. Attempts to subdivide and measurerelative quantities and areafractions of each of several groups of cooling y

Predicted 20 18 16

4 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

J
800 Feret Diameter (nm)

Predicted

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

Feret Diameter (nm) Predicted I 18 16 *Predicted by Model

Gaussian Fit

In
500

CMeasurements R

100

200

300

400

600

700

4 800

Feret Diameter (nm) Fig. 6: Comparison of f microstructures and size histograms after supersolvus heat treatments: (a) Jominy bar 1.9cm and (b) Jominy bar 5.7cm from the quenched end, (c) slow furnace cool. 411

Fig. 7. Comparison of the y microstructures in subsolvus solution heat treated Jominy bars: (a) 1.9cm and (b) 5.7cm from the water quenched end.

\I

.AnalyizdLocations

Fig. 8. Generic disk shape used for further model validation. Fig. 9. y microstructures produced in oil quench and aged generic disk: a) bore, b) mid rim, c) rim edge 412

300 PredictedY Size (nm)

500

precipitatesbetween0.05 and 1.Opm in size would require more subjective selectionsamongprecipitates. Yet, the model was capableof predicting the precipitation of several groups of cooling f, through later bursts of nucleation and subsequent growth during the quench. Two groups of cooling y were in fact predicted for the caseof the disk rim edge. There were possible indications of this in the associated micrographs and histograms,but this could not be fully proven due to the above mentioned limitations. However, the model would benefit from further refinementsin predictions of the formation of theselater groups of secondarycooling y precipitates. The ability of this model to track both size and quantity of multiple distributions of y particles can be very important in fully relating microstructuresto mechanicalproperties in disk superalloys. Inspection of Fig. 9- 12 indicates the mean size of the primary cooling y precipitates did not decrease linearly with cooling rate as often expected. However, their areafraction decreased the web and rim, allowing a larger areafraction of in tertiary y precipitates <O.O2ymin size. Mechanical testing underway indicates these subtle changesproduce a significant increasein tensile and creepproperties of the rim and web, over the bore. Both primary cooling and tertiary y needto be quantified for mechanical property modeling in such cases Further model refinements are contemplatedto refine area fraction prediction capabilities and enhancesecondaryy prediction capabilities. Further calibration experiments are planned to improve the thermal path modeling and include more effects of multi-step stressrelief and aging heat treatmentsused on many disk alloys. Integration trials have already successfully linked this model to typical processingcodesfor processing sensitivity studies. This allows prediction of microstructures and mechanicalpropertiesresulting from processinginputs, This enhancedprediction capability allows reducing the forging design cycle time and expandsmodeling capabilities to improve the product and processdevelopmentcycle for aircraft engine components. Summaryand Conclusions 1. 2. A streamlinedphysics-basedmodel describing the evolution of y precipitates during the heat treatment processwas formulated. The resultant calibrated model gave reasonablepredictions of primary cooling y size over a very broad range of conditions, agreeingwell with measurements from experimentsrun on coupons,Jominy bars, and a generic disk. Improvements in predictions of primary y areafraction and secondarysizes and areafractions are planned in future work. The streamlinedy model was successfully linked with a commercialheat treat code enabling prediction of y sizes and areafractions acrossa componentin a computationally efficient manner.

Fig. 10. Comparison of predicted and measuredprimary cooling y sizes. 80 ,

80 Predicted+rArea Fraction (%) Fig. 11. Comparison of predicted and measuredprimary cooling y areafractions. 600

n Supersolvus Predicted

3. 4. 1.0 2.0 3.0 AverageCooling Rate(C/s) 4.0

Fig. 12. Comparisonof predicted and measuredprimary cooling f as a function of averagecooling rate from solution temperatureto 870C. 413

Acknowledgements This work was sunoortedbv the NASA IDPAT Program, managedby Douglas Rohn-andJohn Gayda The authors also wish to acknowledgethe work of Howard Merrick, Honeywell Engines and Technologies (Allied-Signal Engine Co.) and Timothy Howson, Wyman-Gordon Forgings Co.
I.

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