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SUBMITTED TO: Sanyam Anand SUBMITTED BY: Abhishek Bhardwaj Reg No: -10808046

WORKING OF DHCP: For working of DHCP we first need to know about DHCP. Introduction To DHCP: The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network configuration protocol for hosts on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Computers that are connected to IP networks must be configured before they can communicate with other hosts. The most essential information needed is an IP address, and a default route and routing prefix. DHCP eliminates the manual task by a network administrator. It also provides a central database of devices that are connected to the network and eliminates duplicate resource assignments. In addition to IP addresses, DHCP also provides other configuration information, particularly the IP addresses of local Domain Name Server (DNS), network boot servers, or other service hosts. DHCP is used for IPv4 as well as IPv6. While both versions serve much the same purpose, the details of the protocol for IPv4 and IPv6 are sufficiently different that they may be considered separate protocols. Hosts that do not use DHCP for address configuration may still use it to obtain other configuration information. Alternatively, IPv6 hosts may use stateless address auto configuration. IPv4 hosts may use link-local addressing to achieve limited local connectivity. DHCP Architecture The DHCP architecture consists of DHCP clients, DHCP servers, and DHCP relay agents on a network. The clients interact with servers using DHCP messages in a DHCP conversation to obtain and renew IP address leases. DHCP Client Functionality A DHCP client is any network-enabled device that supports the ability to communicate with a DHCP server in compliance with RFC 2131, for the purpose of obtaining dynamic leased IP configuration and related optional information. DHCP provides support for client computers running any of the following Microsoft operating systems:
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Windows NT version 4.0 Windows 2000 Windows XP Windows Server 2003 Windows 98

Windows Millennium Edition

Automatic IP Configuration DHCP supports Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA), which enables computers running Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 to configure an IP address and subnet mask if a DHCP server is unavailable at system startup and the Automatic private IP address Alternate Configuration setting is selected. This feature is useful for clients on small private networks, such as a small-business office or a home office. The DHCP Client service on a computer running Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 uses the following process to auto-configure the client: 1. The DHCP client attempts to locate a DHCP server and obtain an IP address and configuration. 2. If a DHCP server cannot be found or does not respond after one minute, the DHCP client checks the settings on the Alternate Configuration tab of the properties of the TCP/IP protocol. If Automatic private IP address is selected, the DHCP client auto-configures its IP address and subnet mask by using a selected address from the Microsoft-reserved Class B network,, with the subnet mask The DHCP client tests for an address conflict to ensure that the IP address is not in use on the network. If a conflict is found, the client selects another IP address. The client retries autoconfiguration up to 10 times. If User Configured is selected, the DHCP client configures a static IP address configuration. The DHCP client tests for an address conflict to ensure that the IP address is not already in use on the network. If a conflict is found, the DHCP client indicates the error condition to the user. 3. When the DHCP client succeeds in self-selecting an address, it configures its network interface with the IP address. The client then continues to check for a DHCP server in the background every five minutes. If a DHCP server responds, the DHCP client abandons its self-selected IP address and uses the address offered by the DHCP server (and any other DHCP option information that the server provides) to update its IP configuration settings. If the DHCP client obtained a lease from a DHCP server on a previous occasion, and the lease is still valid (not expired) at system startup, the client tries to renew its lease. If, during the renewal attempt, the client fails to locate any DHCP server, it attempts to ping the default gateway listed in the lease, and proceeds in one of the following ways:

If the ping is successful, the DHCP client assumes that it is still located on the same network where it obtained its current lease, and continues to use the lease as long as the lease is still valid. By default the client then attempts, in the background, to renew its lease when 50 percent of its assigned lease time has expired.

If the ping fails, the DHCP client assumes that it has been moved to a network where a DHCP server is not available. The client then auto-configures its IP address by using the settings on the Alternate Configuration tab. When the client is autoconfigured, it attempts to locate a DHCP server and obtain a lease every five minutes.

Local Storage Windows Server 2003 DHCP supports local storage, which allows clients to store DHCP information on their own hard disks. Local storage is useful because it enables the client to store its last leased IP address, so that when the client starts it first attempts to renew the lease of its previous IP address. Local storage also enables a client to be shut down and restarted and it will use its previously leased address and configuration, even if the DHCP server is unreachable or offline at the time that the client computer is restarted. Work To Be Done: In addition to the above points we are going to discuss in complete the following topics: y y y y y y y y y Interactions between Client and Server using DHCP messages DHCP Options DHCP Lease Process Preventing Address Conflicts MADCAP and Multicast DHCP DHCP Protocols DHCP Processes and Interactions DHCP and DNS Future Scope of DHCP