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Atoms and Molecules

Q 1 144 grams of pure water is decomposed by passing electricity. 16 grams of hydrogen and 128 grams of oxygen are obtained. Which chemical law is illustrated by this statement? Mark (1) Law of conservation of mass. Q 2 What do you mean by Molar Mass ? Mark (1) The mass (in grams) of one mole ofany moleculeis called its molar mass. Q 3 What is atomic mass unit ? Mark (1) It is the mass which is exactly equal to one-twelfth the mass of one carbon-12 atom. Q 4 What are molecules? Mark (1) The molecules are formed when two or more atoms of same or different elements combine chemically to form a stable substance which can exist independently. Q 5 What name is given to the number 6.023 x 10 23? Mark (1) Avogadros number Q 6 Name the building blocks of matter. Mark (1) Atoms are the buliding blocks of matter Q 7 How many metres are there in 1 nanometer (nm)? Mark (1) 1nm = 10 -9m. Q 8 Define atomicity. Mark (1) Atomicity is the number of atoms present in one molecule of an element. Q 9 Write the chemical formula of glucose. Mark (1) C 12H22O11 Q 10 Which subatomic particle was not present in Thomsons model of the atom? Mark (1) Neutrons were not present in Thomson's model of the atom Q 11 Write the symbol of element lead and iron. Mark (1) Element Symbol Lead Pb Iron Fe Q 12 Write down the formulae of aluminium sulphate and ethanol. Marks (2)

Aluminium sulphate - Al2(SO 4)3 Ethanol - C 2H5OH Q 13 What is the atomicity of (a) Ozone (b) Nitrogen (c) Neon (d) Sulphur (a) Ozone = 3(triatomic) (b) Nitrogen =2(diatomic) (c) Neon =1 (Monoatomic)(d) Sulphur = 8 (Octa-atomic) Marks (2) Q 14 Write the symbols of the following elements : a. Sodium b. Calcium c. Gold d. Iron Marks (2) a. Sodium - Na b. Calcium- Ca c. Gold - Au d. Iron - Fe Q 15 What weight (in grams) is represented by (a) 2 moles of CO2 (b) 5 moles of NH3. Marks (2) a)Molecular mass of CO2 = 12 + (16 1 mole of CO2 = 44 g 2 moles of CO2 = 44 2 = 88 g 3)gm = 17 g 2)gm = 44 g

(b) Molecular mass of NH3 = 14+ (1 1 mole of NH3 = 17 g 5 moles of NH3 = 17

5 gram = 85 g

Q 16 Define law of conservation of mass. Marks (2) According to this law, mass can neither be created nor be destroyed when any chemical reaction takes place.That is, in any chemical reaction, the total mass of reactants is equal to total mass of products. Q 17 What is an atom ? Marks (2) Atom is the smallest particle which takes part in chemical reaction. They are building block for all types of matter around us. Q 18 How many moles are there in 1 litre of water? Marks (2) 1L water = 1000 g 18 g of water = 1 mole of water ( molecular mass of water = 18) 1000 g of water contain = (1000/18) moles of water = 55.56 moles of water

Q 19 Write the chemical symbols of (a) Silver (b) Potassium (c) Tin (d) Mercury Marks (2) a) Silver- Ag (b) Potassium- K (c) Tin- Sn (d)Mercury- Hg Q 20 Write two differences between an atom and its ion. Marks (2) Atom Ion 1. An atom is neutral. It has no charge. An ion has either a positive or anegative charge. 2.Number of electrons in an atom is equal An anion has more electrons and a cation has to its atomic number. less electrons as compared to neutral atom. Q 21 What precentage of nitrogen is present in aluminium nitride? (Al = 27, N = 14). Marks (2) Molar mass of aluminium nitride (AlN) = 27+14 = 41gm Percentage of nitrogen in AlN =(14/41) = 34.14% 100

Q 22 Calculate the number of moles for the following: (a) 12.046 x10 23 number of He atoms (b) 56g of He Marks (2) a) 12.046 X10 number of He atoms 1 mole of He atoms= 6.023X 10 23 He atoms number of moles(n)= given number of particles/Avogadro number n=12.046X 10 23/6.023 X 10 23 = 2 moles (b)Mass of Heis 56g Atomic mass of He= 4u Molar mass of He(M) = 4g Number of moles = Given mass/Molar mass n = m/M = 56/4 = 14 moles Q 23 Write the formula of the following compound and name the elements present in them. (a) Ammonia (b) Sulphur dioxide (c) Ethanol (d) Methane Marks (2)
23

S.No. (a) (b) (c) (d)

Compound Ammonia Sulphur dioxide Ethanol Methane

Formula NH3 SO2 C2H5OH CH4

Elements present Nitrogen and ammonia Sulphur and oxygen Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Carbon and hydrogen

Q 24 What do we call those species which have(a) less electrons than the normal atoms. (b) more electrons than the normal atoms. Marks (2) a) Cations e.g. Na+, Mg2+ (b) Anions e.g. Cl -, S 2Q 25 What is the mass of 5 moles of aluminium atoms? (Atomic mass of Al = 27 u) Marks (2) Atomic mass of Al = 27 u Mass of 1 mole of Al atoms = 27g Mass of 5 moles of Al atoms = 27 x 5g = 135g Q 26 How many times is a proton heavier than an electron? Write the absolute mass of a proton. Marks (2) The mass of a proton is 1840 times that of an electron. The absolute mass of a proton is 1.6 x 10-24 gram. Q 27 Which of the following are isotopes and which are isobars? Calcium, Protium, Argon, Deuterium Marks (2) Isotopes - Protium and Deuterium. (They are atoms of same element having different atomic masses.) Isobars - Calcium-40 and Argon-40.(They are atoms ofdifferent elements havingsame atomic masses.) Q 28 Calculate the mass of 0.8 mole of NaCl. (Atomic masses : Na = 23u; Cl = 35.5 u) Marks (2) 1 mole of NaCl = Molecular mass of NaCl in g = Atomic mass of Na atom + Atomic mass of Cl atom = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5 g Mass of 1 mole NaCl = 58.5 g Hence, Mass of 0.8 mole of NaCl = 0.8 mole = 46.8 g 58.5 g mol-1

Q 29 Calculate the molecular mass of nitric acid. Marks (2) Molecular mass of nitric acid (HNO3) = Aromic mass of hydrogen atom + Atomic mass of nitrogen atom + Atomic mass of 3 oxygen atoms =1 + 14 + (3 = 63 16 )

Q 30 If one mole of oxygen atom weighs 16 grams, then what will be the mass (in grams) of 1 atom of oxygen? Marks (2)

Q 31 Write the chemical formula of: (i) Nitogen oxide (ii) Barium nitride Marks (2) i) Nitrogen oxide (ii) Barium nitride

Formula: N2O3 Formula: Ba3N2 Q 32 (a) Calculate the molecular masses of (i) H3PO4 (ii) H2O2 (Atomic masses: H=1, O=16, P=31) Marks (2) (a) Molecular mass of H3PO4 = 3(At. mass of H) +(At. mass of P) + 4(At. mass of O) = (3 x 1) + 31 + (4 x 16) = 3 + 31 + 64 = 98 u (b)Molecular mass of H2O2 = 2(Atomic mass of H) + 2(Atomic mass of O) = (2 x 1) + (2 x 16) = 2 + 32 = 34 u Q 33 Write the name of four elements which show variable valencies. Also write their valencies.

Marks (2) Certain elements show more than one valency. Element Copper (Cu) Mercury (Hg) Iron (Fe) Tin (Sn) Valency in ous form Cuprous 1 Mercurous 1 Ferrous 2 Stannous 2 Valency in ic form Cupric 2 Mercuric 2 Ferric 3 Stannic 4

Q 34 Calculate the mass of 6.022 x 1024 atoms of carbon. Marks (2) Atomic mass of carbon is 12. It means 12g (1 mole) of carbon atoms has 6.022 x 10 23 atoms of carbon.

Q 35 Calculate the mass of 1 molecule of Nitrogen. (Atomic mass of Nitrogen = 14) Marks (2) The formula of Nitrogen molecule is N2. The molar mass of Nitrogen = 2 x Atomic mass of Nitrogen = 2 x 14 = 28u We know, 1 mole = 6.022 x 10 23 molecules

Q 36 Calculate the number of molecules present in a drop of water weighing 0.75 g. (H = 1, O = 16). Marks (3) Gram molecular mass of H2O = 18.0 grams 18.0 g H2O contains = 6.02 x 10 23 molecules 0.75 g H2O contains = 6.02 x 1023 x 0.75/18 = 25.083 x 10 21 molecules Q 37 Write the formula of :

(i) Ammonium sulphate (ii) Magnesium nitrate (iii) Aluminium bromide Marks (3) )

(ii)

(iii)

Q 38 What do you understand by Formula Unit Mass? Calculate the formula unit masses of K 2CO3 and ZnO. (Atomic masses of Zn = 65u, K=39u, C=12u)

Marks (3) Formula Unit Mass- The total sum of atomic masses of all atoms in formula of a compound is known as formula unit mass. Formula unit mass of K2CO3 = (2x39u)+(1x12u)+(3x16u) = 78+12+48u = 138 u. Formula unit mass of ZnO = 65u +16u = 81 u. Q 39 An element X has a valency of 4 (a) What will be the formula of its chloride ? (b) What will be the formula of its sulphide ? (c) What will be the formula of its bromide? Marks (3) Valency of Cl = -1 Valency of S = -2 Valency of Br = -1 (a) Formula of chloride of element X Symbols X Cl Valencies 4 1 The formula of chloride of element X = XCl 4 (b) Formula of sulphide of element X Symbols X S Valencies 4 2 The formula of sulphide of element X = XS2 (c) Formula of sulphide of element X Symbols XBr Valencies 41 The formula of chloride of element X = XBr4 Q 40 Calculate the mass of 3.011 X 1024 molecules of nitrogen gas. (Atomic mass of N=14 u) Marks (3) Mass of 1 mole of N2 = Molecular mass of N2 in gm = Mass of 2atoms of nitrogen in g =2 14 g = 28 g 1 mole of Nitrogen molecules = 6.022 Mass of 6.022 Mass of 3.011 = 140 g 10 23 molecules 3.011 10 24 / 6.022 1023 1023 molecules of N2 =28 g 1024 molecules of N2 = 28

Q 41 Distinguish between the molecule of an element and the molecule of a compound with the help of suitable example. Marks (3) The molecule of an element consists of two or more similar atoms chemically combined together.

e.g. a molecule of oxygen element has 2 oxygen atoms combined together and is represented as O2. Oxygen gas contains O2 molecules and not ofindependent O-atoms. Whereas the molecule of the compound consists of two or more different types of atoms chemically combined together e.g.carbon dioxide is a compound. The molecule of carbon dioxide has two different types of atoms-carbon (C) and oxygen atom (O). Q 42 How many grams of hydrogen gas contain the same number of molecules as 22 grams of carbon dioxide gas? Marks (3) 1mole of CO2 = 12 + (16 44 g CO2 = 1 mole 22 g CO2 = 0.5 mole It means 0.5 mole of CO2will have same number of molecules as in 0.5 mole of H2. 1 mole of H2 = 2 g 0.5 mole of H2 = 1 g 1 gram of hydrogen will have the same number of molecules as present in 22 grams of carbon dioxide. Q 43 Write any four significances of symbol. Give one example also. Marks (3) A symbol has qualitative as well as quantitative significance. (i) It tells us the name of the element. (ii) It represents one atom of the element. (iii) It represents the atomic mass of the element. (iv) It represents 6.022 x 1023 atoms of the element. For example, H stands for one atom of hydrogen and 1.008 parts by mass of it. Atomic mass of H is 1.008. Q 44 Give the significance of the formula CO2. Marks (3) (i) It represents the compound carbon dioxide. (ii) It represents one molecule of carbon dioxide. (iii) It tells that carbon dioxide contains two elements: carbon and oxygen. (iv) It tells that one molecule of carbon dioxide contains one atom of carbon and 2 atoms of oxygen. (v) It indicates that its molecular mass is 44g. (vi) It represents 1 mole of molecules of carbon dioxide. Q 45 Write the atomicity of the following: (a) Ozone (b) Chlorine (c) Helium (d) Sulphur (e) Oxygen (f) Phosphorous Marks (3) a) O3 : Atomicity 3 (b) Cl 2 : Atomicity 2 (c) He : Atomicity 1 (d) S8 : Atomicity 8 2)= 44 g

(e) O2 : Atomicity 2 (f) P4 : Atomicity 4 Q 46 What the following abbreviations stands for. (a) C (b) 2H (c) N2 (d) 3N 2 (e) O3 (f) O2-

Marks (3) (a) One atom of carbon (b) Two atoms of hydrogen (c) One molecule of nitrogen (d) Three molecule of nitrogen (e) One molecule of ozone (f) Oxide ion with valency -2 Q 47 Write the name of the following compounds: (a) Ca3(PO4)2 (b) NaHCO3 (c) (NH4)2SO4 (d) MgCO3 (e)FeSO4 (f) AlCl3 Marks (3) a) Ca3(PO4)2 - Calcium phosphate (b) NaHCO3 - Sodium hydrogen carbonate (c) (NH4)2SO4 - Ammonium sulphate (d) MgCO3 - Magnesium carbonate (e) FeSO4 - Ferrous sulphate (f) AlCl3 - Aluminium chloride Q 48 The mass of an atom of element (Y) is 5.30 x 10 -23g. (i) Calculate its atomic mass. (ii) Name this element. Marks (3) We know that, 1 mole of atoms = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms = Atomic mass (g)

Hence, the atomic mass of the element (Y) is 32u. The element with atomic mass 32 is sulphur.

Q 49 Calculate the number of particles in each of the following: (i) 92g of Na atoms (ii) 7g of N 2 molecules (iii) 0.1 mole of oxygen atoms Marks (3) (i) 92g of Na atoms 1 mole of Na atoms = 23g = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms

23g of Na atoms = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms

(ii) 7g of N2 molecules 1 mole of N2 molecules = 28g = 6.022 x 10 23 molecules 28g of N2 molecules = 6.022 x 10 23 molecules

(iii) 0.1mole of oxygen atoms 1 mole of oxygen atom = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms 0.1 mole of oxygen atom = 6.022 x 1023 x 0.1 atoms = 6.022 x 10 22 atoms Q 50 Which of the following weighs the most? (i) 32g of oxygen (ii) 10g atoms of hydrogen (iii) 0.5 of iron (iv) 6.022 x 10 22 atoms of C (Atomic mass: O=16, N=14, Fe=56, C=12) Marks (3) (i) Mass of oxygen = 32g (ii) 1g atom of hydrogen = 1g 10g atom of hydrogen = 10 x 1 = 10g

(iii) 1 mole of iron = 56g 0.5 mole of iron = 56 x 0.5 = 28g (iv) 6.022 x 10 23 atoms of Carbon = 12g

6.022 x 1022 atoms of Carbon = = 1.2g Hence, 32g of oxygen weighs the most.

Q 51 Calculate the number of atoms of each type in 2.65 g of Na 2CO3. Marks (5)

Q 52 If 2 g of water contains z molecules, what will be number of molecules in 4 g of carbon dioxide?

Marks (5)

Q 53 Calculate the number of chromium atom in 1.47 g of potassium dichromate (K2Cr 2O7) [Atomic mass: K=39, Cr=52, O=16]. Marks (5)

Most Important Questions Q 1 State main points of Dalton atomic theory. The main points of Dalton atomic theory are: All matter is made of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible. That is atoms can not be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties Atoms of different elements have different masses and different chemical properties. Compounds are formed by combination of two or more different kinds of atoms. The number and kind of atoms are constant in a particular compound. A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms. Q 2 State the law of constant proportion. In a chemical substance the elements are always present in definite proportions by mass. for e.g. water always contain hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 1:8 by mass. Q 3 state the law of conservation of mass mass can neither be created nor destroyed . in a chemical reaction total mass of reactant is equal to the total mass of products. Q 4 If 90g of pure water is obtained through 80g of oxygen and Xg of hydrogen. a. Find the value of X. b. Which chemical law is illustrated by this statement? In water hydrogen and oxygen are present in the ratio of 1:8 by massx/80=1/8x=10gThe law of constant proportion. Q 5 Calculate the molecular mass of the following: a. H2O b. HCl c. H2S a. H(1g) and O(16g) = (1 x 2) + (16) = 18 g b. H(1g) and Cl(35.5g) = 1 + 35.5 = 36.5g c. H(1g) and S(32g) = (1 x 2) + 32 = 34g Q 6 If 6g of hydrogen combine with 48g of oxygen, how many grams of water is obtained? 2g of H2 combines with 16g of O2 and gives 18g of water1g of H2 combines with 8g of O2 to give 9g of waterTherefore, 6g of H2 combines with 48g of O2 to give 54g of water Water = 54 g Q 7 If carbon and oxygen combine in a definite ratio of 3:8 to form carbon dioxide. What mass of oxygen gas is required in carbon dioxide with 10 g of carbon? C:O = 3:8 C:O = 1: 8/3 = 2.666 If Carbon = 10

Then Oxygen = 10 x 2.666 g = 26.66 g Q 8 Give symbol of the followinga. oxygen b. hydrogen c. carbon a. O b. H c. C Q 9 If atomic mass of carbon is 1u then what is the atomic mass of nitrogen (N=14, C=12)? 12 g of C = 1 u 14 g of N = (1 x 12) / 14 u Atomic mass of N = 1.1666 u Q 10 Identify the anions, cations and charge present on them in following molecules: HCl , NaCl , H2O , Al2O3 Cation Anion a. HCl H+ Clb. NaCl Na+ Clc. H2O H+ O2d. Al 2O3 Al3+ O2Q 11 Write the chemical formula of the following: a. Oxygen b. Carbon dioxide c. Ammonia d. Calcium carbonate a. O2 b. CO2 c. NH3 d. CaCO3 Q 12 Give the names of the following compounds: a. H2SO4 b. He c. CO a. Sulphuric acid Helium c. Carbon monoxide

b.

Q 13 Write the formula unit mass of the following: a. NH3 b. CO2 c. K 2Cr2O7 d. SO2 e. C12H22O11 a. 14 + (3x1) = 17

b. c. d. e.

12 + (2 x 16) = 44 ( 2 x 39 ) + (2 x 52) + (7 x 16) = 294 32 + (2 x 16) = 64 (12 x 12 )+ (22 x 1) + (11 x 16) = 342

Q 14 Calculate the mass in grams of 0.8 mole of CO2. No. of moles = Mass in grams/Molecular mass Or,Mass in grams = No. of moles = 0.8 x 44 = 35.2 g Molecular mass

Q 15 In which of the following cases the number of hydrogen atoms is more? a. One mole of CH4 b. Two mole of NH3 a. One mole of CH4 contains 4 mole of hydrogen atoms b. One mole of NH3 contains 3 moles of hydrogen atoms Therefore,two moles of NH3 will have 6 moles of hydrogen atoms Therefore, two moles of NH3 contains more hydrogen atoms Q 16 Calculate the number of molecules in 20g of water. 18 g of water = 6.022 x 10 23 molecules 20 g of water = 6.022 x 1023 x 20 molecules 18 = 6.691 1023 molecules

Q 17 How many moles are present in 6g of sulphuric acid? Molecular mass of sulphuric acid = 98g Number of moles = Mass/ Molecular mass = 6g/ 98g = 0.612 moles Q 18 What is the number of molecules in a drop of water weighing 0.2g? Molecular mass of H2O= 2+16 = 18g. 18 g of water contains molecule = 6.022 x 10 23 0.2 g of water contains molecule = 6.022 x 10 23 x 0.2/18 = 6.691 x 1021 Therefore, a drop of water of 0.2 g contains 6.691 x 1021 molecules of water in it. Q 19 Calculate the number of S atoms in 2 mole of S8 1 mole of S8 contains = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms 2 mole of S8 contains =2 x 8 x 6.022 x 1023 atoms 2 mole of S8 contains = 9.6352 x 10 24 atoms Q 20 How many moles are there in 70g of potassium dichromate,( K2Cr2O7)?

Molecular mass of K2Cr2O7 = 294 g Number of moles = Mass/ Molecular mass Number of moles = 70g / 294g = 0.238 Q 21 How many moles of calcium carbonate are present in its 5g ? Molecular mass of CaCO3 = 40 + 12 + 16x3 = 100g No. of moles = Mass/ Molecular mass =5g/100g = 0.05 moles Q 22 What mass of hydrogen chloride, (HCl), will contain the same number of molecules as in a. 6.022 x 10 23 molecules of water b. 2.0 g of methane, CH4 a. 6.022 x 10 23 molecules of water = 1 mole of water 1 mole of water contains molecules = molecules present in 1 mole of HCl 1 mole of HCl = 36.5g Therefore, 36.5g of HCl contains same number of molecules as 6.022 x 10 23 molecules of water. b. 16 g of methane = 1 mole 2 g of methane = 2g / 16g = 0.125 mole Mass of 1 mole of HCl = 36.5 g Mass of 0.125 mole of HCl = 4.5625 g Therefore, 4.5625 g of HCl will contain same number of molecules as 2 g of methane. About Us | Contact Us | User Policy | FAQs | Careers | Site Map