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# A tube, or tubing, is a long hollow cylinder used to convey fluids (liquids or gases).

The terms "pipe" and "tube" are almost interchangeable, although minor distinctions exist generally, a tube has tighter engineering requirements than a pipe. Both pipe and tube imply a level of rigidity and permanence, whereas a hose is usually portable and flexible. A tube and pipe may be specified by standard pipe size designations, e.g., nominal pipe size, or by nominal outside or inside diameter and/or wall thickness. The actual dimensions of pipe are usually not the nominal dimensions: A 1-inch pipe will not actually measure 1 inch in either outside or inside diameter, whereas many types of tubing are specified by actual inside diameter, outside diameter, or wall thickness. Ducts are used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) to deliver and remove air. These needed airflows include, for example, supply air, return air, and exhaust air. Ducts also deliver, most commonly as part of the supply air, ventilation air. As such, air ducts are one method of ensuring acceptable indoor air quality as well as thermal comfort. A duct system is often called ductwork. Planning ('laying out'), sizing, optimizing, detailing, and finding the pressure losses through a duct system is called duct design. The flow velocity of a fluid effectively describes everything about the motion of a fluid. Many physical properties of a fluid can be expressed mathematically in terms of the flow velocity. Some common examples follow: In fluid dynamics the flow velocity, or velocity field, of a fluid is a vector field which is used to mathematically describe the motion of a fluid. The length of the flow velocity vector is the flow speed. Mass flow, also known as mass transfer and bulk flow, is the movement of material matter. In physics, mass flow occurs in open systems and is often measured as occurring when moving across a certain boundary characterized by its cross-sectional area and a flow rate. In engineering and biology it may also be a flow of fluids in a tube or vessel of a certain diameter. A bulk transfer of particles of matter in a characterised type of flow is also known as bulk flow In hydrology, discharge is the volume rate of water flow, including any suspended solids (i.e. sediment), dissolved chemical species (i.e. CaCO3(aq)) and/or biologic material (i.e. diatoms), which is transported through a given cross-sectional area. Frequently, other terms synonymous with discharge are used to describe the volumetric flow rate of water and are typically discipline dependent. For example, a fluvial hydrologist studying natural river systems may define discharge as streamflow, whereas an engineer operating a reservoir system might define discharge as outflow, which is contrasted with inflow. The hydraulic radius is a measure of a channel flow efficiency. Flow speed along the channel depends on its cross-sectional shape (among other factors), and the hydraulic radius is a characterisation of the channel that intends to capture such efficiency. Based on the 'constant shear stress at the boundary' assumption, hydraulic radius is defined as the ratio of the channel's cross-sectional area of the flow to its wetted perimeter (the portion of the cross-section's perimeter that is "wet"):

The orifice may be designed to produce proportional flow (as in the jet in a carburetor), or choked flow (as in a filtering bypass in a closed industrial cooling system, which might be designed to pass a particular flow rate through a filter assembly to maintain cleanliness of a closed-loop fluid system). Many pressure gauges also use an orifice (also called a restrictor) to limit the flow into a gauge. Since the pressure is even throughout the system, allowing only a small portion of the flow into the actual gauge allows it to be in parallel with the pressure circuit and still measure accurately. It also prevents or minimizes damage to the gauge during pressure surges at start-up, or due to any spikes in the system pressure. A weir (play / w r/) is a small overflow dam used to alter the flow characteristics of a river or stream. In most cases weirs take the form of a barrier across the river that causes water to pool behind the structure (not unlike a dam), but allows water to flow over the top. Weirs are commonly used to alter the flow regime of the river, prevent flooding, measure discharge and to help render a river navigable. Classification Based on Variation with Time

The classification of the fluid flow based on the variation of the fluid flow parameters with time characterizes the flow in two categories, steady and unsteady flow. If the flow parameters, such as velocity, pressure, density and discharge do not vary with time or are independent of time then the flow is steady. If the flow parameters vary with time then the flow is categorized as unsteady. Classification Based on Variation with Space

The other classification criterion for the fluid flow is based on the variation of the flow parameters with distance or space. It characterizes the flow as uniform or non-uniform. The fluid flow is a uniform flow if the flow parameters remain constant with distance along the flow path. And the fluid flow is non-uniform if the flow parameters vary and are different at different points on the flow path. For a uniform flow, by its definition, the area of the cross section of the flow should remain constant. So a fitting example of the uniform flow is the flow of a liquid thorough a pipeline of constant diameter. And contrary to this the flow through a pipeline of variable diameter would be necessarily non-uniform.

A Venturi meter constricts the flow in some fashion, and pressure sensors measure the differential pressure before and within the constriction. This method is widely used to measure flow rate in the transmission of gas through pipelines, and has been used since Roman Empire times.The coefficient of discharge of Venturi meter ranges from 0.93 to 0.97. Magnetic flow meters The most common flow meter apart from mechanical flow meters is the magnetic flow meter, commonly referred to as a "mag meter" or an "electromag". A magnetic field is applied to the metering tube, which results in a potential difference proportional to the flow velocity perpendicular to the flux lines. The physical principle at work is Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. The magnetic flow meter requires a conducting fluid, e.g. water, and an electrical insulating pipe surface, e.g. a rubber lined nonmagnetic steel tube. Orifice plate An orifice plate is a plate with a hole through it, placed in the flow; it constricts the flow, and measuring the pressure differential across the constriction gives the flow rate. It is basically a crude form of Venturi meter, but with higher energy losses. There are three type of orifice: concentric, eccentric, and segmental. A pitot (play / pi to /) tube is a pressure measurement instrument used to measure fluid flow

velocity. The pitot tube was invented by the French engineer Henri Pitot in the early 18th century and was modified to its modern form in the mid-19th century by French scientist Henry Darcy. It is widely used to determine the airspeed of an aircraft and to measure air and gas velocities in industrial applications. The pitot tube is used to measure the local velocity at a given point in the flow stream and not the average velocity in the pipe or conduit A gas meter is used to measure the volume of fuel gases such as natural gas and propane. Gas meters are used at residential, commercial, and industrial buildings that consume fuel gas supplied by a gas utility. Gases are more difficult to measure than liquids, as measured volumes are highly affected by temperature and pressure. Gas meters measure a defined volume, regardless of the pressurized quantity or quality of the gas flowing through the meter. Temperature, pressure and heating value compensation must be made to measure actual amount and value of gas moving through a meter. Target flowmeters measure flow by measuring the amount of force exerted by the flowing fluid on a target suspended in the flow stream. The force exerted on the target by the flow is proportional to the pressure drop across the target. Target flowmeters inferentially measure the flow of liquids and gases, such as water, air, industrial gases, and chemicals. Be careful using target flowmeters on fluids that can coat the target, because the flowmeter accuracy can be degraded.

Broad-crested weir A broad-crested weir is a flat-crested structure, with a long crest compared to the flow thickness (Chanson 1999, 2004, Henderson 1966, Sturm 2001). When the crest is broad , the streamlines become parallel to the crest invert and the pressure distribution above the crest is hydrostatic. The hydraulic characteristics of broad-crested weirs were studied during the 19th and 20th centuries. Practical experience showed that the weir overflow is affected by the upstream flow conditions and the weir. A sharp-crested weir allows the water to fall cleanly away from the weir. Sharp crested weirs are typically 1/4" or thinner metal plates. Sharp crested weirs come in many different shapes such as rectangular, V-notch and Cipolletti weirs. The V-notch weir is a triangular channel section, used to measure small discharge values. The upper edge of the section is always above the water level, and so the channel is always triangular simplifying calculation of the cross-sectional area. V-notch weirs are preferred for low discharges as the head above the weir crest is more sensitive to changes in flow compared to rectangular weirs. Cipoletti weirs are considered fully contracted and have the installation requirements shown below. The discharge coefficient for Cipoletti weirs is 3.367 (in English units), and it does not depend on L or P like it does for a rectangular weir.
A Compound Weir is a combination rectangular weir with a V-notch cut in it. This permits good measurements for stream with a wide range of flows. The V-notch is sized for low flow conditions while larger flows are measured with the rectangular weir. The discharge over a compound weir is calculated by simply applying the standard discharge equation for each segment of the weir to the head on that segment of the weir. The total discharge is then the sum of the discharges of each to the two segments of the weir.

The side-weir discharge coefficient was determined at one section along the approach to the bend and at five stations along the bend for a number of different side-weir dimensions. The side-weir discharge coefficient along the bend was found to depend on the upstream Froude number, the dimensionless weir height, p/h1 and the dimensionless weir length, L/b. The variation of the discharge coefficient along the bend as a function of the Froude number and the dimensionless weir length was found to exhibit a parabolic relationship. Transverse or Sideflow Weirs When the water depth at the weir junction exceeds the surcharge level (RL 1) the weir functions as an orifice i.e. the exponent is 0.5. The discharge coefficient for the orifice flow conditions is computed internally in the Hydraulics layer. An equivalent pipe automatically replaces the weir for the duration of surcharge. Stability problems can be encountered at weir junctions. If this happens or is suspected of happening, the weir may be represented as an equivalent pipe. To do this, equate the pipe and weir discharge equations, e.g., (m/n)AR(2/3)S(l/2) = CwWH(3/2)

## Flow Rate Formula

Use the following equations to determine the flow rate of a fluid through a fully-open valve.