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Abstract: Kachchh region is the most seismically active areas in India.

In this region, the Bhuj earthquake that happened in 2001 has been a catastrophe. To carry out a detailed analysis of the seismicity and to map the electrical conductive structure in this region, the Magnetotelluric (MT) technique is one of the most powerful techniques. This report describes the MT survey carried out close to the epicenter zone of the Bhuj 2001 event. For this, a profile AB with 13 stations of 72 km in length with average station spacing of 5.5 km in the frequency range 0.001-1000Hz has been chosen. This profile is located at the eastern end of Kachchh Mainland Fault (KMF) crossing South Wagad Fault (SWF) and extending up to South of Gedi Fault (SGF) in the Wagad region. A 2D inversion model has been derived from MT data of AB profile exposed that the high conductive faults dip in the south direction. In these faults, one of the reverse faults is believed to be responsible for Bhuj 2001 disaster. The inversion model delimits the high conductivity-resistivity transition zone at a depth of about 18-20 km. This denotes the hypocenter location of the Bhuj 2001 event. This model also reveals that the slope of high conductive zone is near the northern end of AA . Also a high resistive intrusion extending from deep crustal depth up to upper crust shows a sharp contrast in the electrical resistivity along the hypocenter axis of Bhuj 2001 event. 1. Introduction 1.1. Overview MT technique has been successfully applied for deep crustal studies to delineate anomalous conductive/resistive features due to wide range of depth levels of investigation capability. Fluctuations in the MT signal may be able to predict the onset of seismic events. Resistive structure provides a means of correctly identifying the causative factors of earthquake. 1.2. Motivation behind the project The motivation behind this thesis stems from the fact that from the previous studies the causative factors of bhuj 2000 earthquake is different from different individuals. 1.3. Magnetotelluric Technique for seismotectonics Due to wide range of depth levels of investigation capability, the method has attracted interest to solve many geological problems. The results obtained using wide band MT technique in earthquake epicentral regions is analyzed for possible relation of the subsurface electrical conductivity structure with seismic activity. These studies have delineated anomalous electrical conductivity and offered better understanding of the tectonics of the region. One of the important results from the analysis of the MT data in these regions is the spatial correlation between aftershock clusters and boundary of anomalous conductivity in epicenter zones.


MT Technique theory and practice

1.4.1 Introduction The MT technique is a passive technique that involves measuring fluctuations in the natural electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields in orthogonal directions at the surface of the Earth. The orthogonal components of the horizontal electric and magnetic fields are related via a complex impedance tensor, Z. Z is the ratio of electrical and magnetic fields measured at the surface From these measurements we can derive resistivity estimates of the subsurface, from the very near surface to tens of thousands of feet. 1.4.2. The MT field relations The theory of MT fields over a plan layered medium that is linear homogeneous and isotropic are excellent explained by Cagniard (1953) and Keller and Frischknecht (1966) From the theory of propagation of electromagnetic plan waves. In such a medium electromagnetic wave propagates so that the electric and magnetic vectors are orthogonal and so that the ratio of electric to magnetic intensities is a characteristic measure of the electromagnetic properties of the medium often called the impedance. For the coordinate system at the earth s surface, with the axes aligned having xnorth, y-east and z-down we have, for plane waves generated by sources in the ionosphere: Z= Ex/HY Where z is impedance in Ex is electric field intensity in mV/Km HY is magnetic field intensity in A/m If indeed the earth is homogeneous and isotropic, then the true resistivity of the earth is related to impedance through the relation = 0.2T|Z|2 = 0.2T| Ex/HY|2 Where is resistivity in -m T is period in sec In the case of a horizontally layered earth above eq becomes an apparent resistivity
a =0.2T|


And this relation formulated by cagniard (1953) and is called cagniard relation.

is apparent resistivity which is frequency dependent.

The attenuation of the down going wave is frequency dependent, the higher frequency the faster it attenuates; higher frequencies are associated with shallow currents and therefore yield shallow geologic information. If the amplitude of Ex

is A at the surface, it becomes 0.37A at a depth , in meters, which is called skin depth. = 503( /f)1/2 However, for long periods and a large skin depth the body will act as a local near surface in homogeneity, which gives a non-inductive (galvanic) response. This produces a frequency independent distortion called static shift (Simpson and Bahr, 2005). Estimates the characteristic impedance for either a homogeneous or a layered earth do not depend on rotation of the measuring axes in the horizontal plane, so that the north and east electric components related to orthogonal magnetic components through the linear equations: EX = ZHY and EY = -ZHX Each of these above equations is a statement of the condition that at a particular period an electric field component is linearly related to its orthogonal magnetic component through a single valued complex scalar transfer function. Phase differences between the electric and magnetic components at different frequencies, (f) are also measured. 1.5. Methodology

There are 3 main steps involved for an entire MT survey a. Data acquisition b. Data processing i. Robust processing ii. Static shift correction iii. Strike angle estimation c. 2D Modeling of MT data For particular type of the survey selection of equipment depends on the target depth. Generally fluxgate magnetometers and inductive coils are used for deeper depths and shallow depths respectively. 1.5.1. Data acquisition: Each MT station will typically consist of the following: a. One datalogger b. One fluxgate magnetometer or three magnetic induction coils c. Four electrodes d. Four telluric cables e. One magnetometer cable or three magnetic induction coil cables f. One metal stake to earth

g. One Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver (optional) h. One power source (e.g., batteries) Sensors and equipment: Magnetic field sensors: Induction coils usually consist of a coil of copper wire wound onto a high-permeability core, sealed within a shock-resistant casing. A set of three induction coils plus a spirit level and a compass for aligning their axes are required in order to measure all three components of the timevarying magnetic field. The output voltage of an induction coil is directly proportional to the number of loops in the coil and their cross-sectional area (as explained in any textbook on general or electromagnetic physics, e.g., Tipler, 1991). Therefore, the design of coils suitable for MT fieldwork is essentially a compromise between transportability (i.e., weight and length), and sensitivity. Because the response of an induction coil is governed by the rate of change of magnetic flux within the coil, which is directly proportional to dB=dt, the sensitivity of induction coils is highest for the case of rapidly varying (i.e., short-period) fields. Electric field sensors: Electric field fluctuations are determined by measuring the potential difference, U, between pairs of electrodes, which are connected via a shielded cable to form a dipole and buried in the ground at known distances, d, 10 100m apart: E = U/d Two dipoles are required in order to ascertain the two horizontal components of the electric field. These dipoles are typically configured orthogonal to each other, with one dipole oriented in the magnetic north south (N S) direction, and the other in the magnetic east west (E W) direction. During data recording, it is very important that electrodes are not exposed to temperature variations spanning the period range of interest and should be buried at least 50 cm below the surface. Site spacing should be not too close and not spare depends on the survey type. In many cases, a trade-off has to be found between the desire to have many sites and hence a good spatial resolution and the wish to achieve high-quality data by occupying sites for a long time. Data-acquisition systems: When deploying a broad-band induction coil magnetometer that provides data in the period band 1000 s 1/1000 s, the factor 106 between the smallest and largest amplitudes occurring in this period band might suggest the need for a high-resolution A/D converter. Data processing:

A typical MT field survey involves measurement of the time varying electric and magnetic fields, which are recorded days or several months. So the first step in data processing involves a Fourier transformation from the time domain to the frequency domain. One time series can simultaneously contain information about many periods and, therefore, about many penetration depths. For particular spectral bands in the frequency domain : both neighboured frequencies from the same segment (window) of a time series, and similar frequencies from sequential time series windows can be stacked for data reduction.

Processing The electric and magnetic data are fourier transformed into frequency domain. Modern robust time series analysis codes are capable of producing unbiased impedance estimates (chave et al., 1987; chave and Thomson, 1989; Egbert, 1997, smirnov, 2003). It is crucial to have a understanding of the degree distortion and dimensionality of the data sets.