You are on page 1of 34

ETE-424/CSE-492: Mobile & Wireless Communications System

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science


North South University
Summer 2011
Instructor: Miftahur Rahman, Ph.D.

Brief History of Mobile Phones:
The first commercial cellular network (the 1G) was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979.
In 1981, Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system was lunched in Denmark, Finland,
Norway and Sweden. The first international roaming was introduced by NMT. The first
1G network launched in the USA was Chicago-based Ameritech in 1983 using the
Motorola DynaTAC mobile phone.
The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular
technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on
the GSM standard, which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms
when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who
ran a 1G NMT network.
In 2001, the first commercial launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by
NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.
One of the newest 3G technologies to be implemented is High-Speed Downlink Packet
Access (HSDPA). It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony
communications protocol in the high-speed packet access (HSPA) family, also coined
3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.
Common Features:
The common components found on all phones are:
- A rechargeable battery such as nickel metal-hydride, Lithium ion, lithium
polymer batteries. There are a variety of ways used to charge cell phones,
including USB, portable batteries, mains power (using an AC adapter), cigarette
lighters (using an adapter), or a dynamo, wireless etc.
- The most commonly used input devices are keypads, but touch screens are also
found in some high-end smartphones.
- All GSM phones use a SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module) and CDMA
devices also have a similar card called a R-UIM (Removable User Identity
Module). A hybrid mobile phone can take more than one SIM card, even of
different types. The SIM and RUIM cards can be mixed together, and some
phones also support three or four SIMs. Those cell phones that do not use a SIM
Card have the data programmed into their memory. This data is accessed by using
a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name" or number
programming menu.
- Individual GSM, WCDMA, iDEN and some satellite phone devices are uniquely
identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number.

Table-1: Mobile Generations and Related Standards
Generation Family type Standard
AMPS Family (TIA/EIA/IS-3, ANSI/TIA/EIA-553), N-
AMPS (TIA/EIA/IS-91), TACS, ETACS
1G
Other Hicap, Mobitex, DataTAC
GSM/3GPP Family GSM, CSD
GSM/3GPP2 Family cdmaOne (TIA/EIA/IS-95 and ANSI-J-
STD 008)
AMPS Family D-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136)
2G
Other D-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136)
GSM/3GPP Family HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE/EGPRS (UWC-
136)
GSM/3GPP2 Family CDMA2000 1X (TIA/EIA/IS-2000), 1X
Advanced
2G
Transitional
(2.5G,
2.75G)
Other WDEN
GSM/3GPP Family UMTS (UTRAN), WCDMA-FDD,
WCDMA-TDD, UTRA-TDD LCR (TD-
SCDMA)
3G (IMT-
2000)
GSM/3GPP2 Family CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Release 0
(TIA/IS-856)
GSM/3GPP Family HSPA, HSPA+, LTE (E-UTRA)
GSM/3GPP2 Family CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision A
(TIA/EIA/IS-856-A), EV-DO Revision B
(TIA/EIA/IS-856-B), DO Advanced
3G
transitional
(3.5G,
3.75G,
3.9G)
IEEE Family Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005),
Flash-OFDM, IEEE 802.20
3GPP Family LTE Advanced (E-UTRA) 4G (IMT-
Advanced) IEEE Family WiMAX-Advanced (IEEE 802.16m)
5G Research concept, not
under formal development

TIA: Telecommunications Industry Association
EIA: Electronic Industry Alliance

Future evolution: Broadband Fourth generation (4G):
The 4th generation, also known as Beyond 3G, aims to provide broadband wireless access
with nominal data rates of 100 Mbit/s to fast moving devices, and 1 Gbit/s to stationary
devices defined by the ITU-R 4G systems may be based on the 3GPP LTE (Long Term
Evolution) cellular standard, offering peak bit rates of 326.4 Mbit/s. It may perhaps also
be based on WiMax or Flash-OFDM wireless metropolitan area network technologies
that promise broadband wireless access with speeds that reaches 233 Mbit/s for mobile
users. The radio interface in these systems is based on all-IP packet switching, MIMO
diversity, multi-carrier modulation schemes, Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) and
channel-dependent scheduling. A 4G system should be a complete replacement for
current network infrastructure and is expected to be able to provide a comprehensive and
secure IP solution where voice, data, and streamed multimedia can be given to users on a
"Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at much higher data rates than previous generations.
Sprint in the US has claimed its WiMax network to be "4G network" which most cellular
telecoms standardization experts dispute repeatedly around the world. Sprint's 4G is seen
as a marketing gimmick as WiMax itself is part of the 3G air interface. The officially
accepted, ITU ratified standards-based 4G networks are not expected to be commercially
launched until 2011. In March 2011, KT (telecommunication company) from South
Korea announced that they has expanded its high-speed wireless broadband network by
4G WiBro cover 85 percent of the population. It is the largest broadband network
covered in the world, followed by Japan and US with 70 percent and 36 percent
respectively. At the beginning of 2011, some major mobile phone companies have
released their 4G mobile phones such as from Motorola, HTC and Samsung.

Latest Mobile Phone Devices: i-phone, Android Smartphone, Nokia X6 and Nokia
N79 (Both of these are Symbian Series 60 devices and have accelerometers. Python for
Series 60 can be used to quickly build prototypes of mobile applications for the Symbian
platform.)
Market Share: Gartner (New Sales)
Brand Percent
Nokia 2009 36.4%
Nokia 2010 28.9%
Samsung 2009 19.5%
Samsung 2010 17.6%
LG Electronics 2009 10.1%
LG Electronics 2010 7.1%
Research In Motion 2009 2.8%
Research In Motion 2010 3.0%
Apple 2009 2.1%
Apple 2010 2.9%
Others-1 2009 12.6%
Others-1 2010 9.8%
Others-2 2009 16.5%
Others-2 2010 30.6%
Note: Others-1 consist of Sony Ericsson, Motorola, ZTE, HTC and Huawei.


During 1950s and 1960s AT&T Bell Labs and other
telecom companies throughout the world developed
the theory and techniques of cellular radiotelephony
the concept of breaking a coverage zone (market)
into small cells.

In 1983, the Federal Communications Commission,
Inc., allocated 666 duplex channels (40 MHz of
spectrum in the 800 MHz band, each channel having
a one-way bandwidth of 30 kHz for a total spectrum
occupancy of 60 kHz for each duplex channel for the
US AMPS.

Channel Allocation in US AMPS:
Reverse Channel
9
9
1

9
9
2

.

1
0
2
3

1

2


7
9
9


824-849 MHz


1 N 799, 0.030N + 825.0
991 N 1023, 0.030(N-1023) + 825.0

N = 991, 0.030(991 -1023) + 825 = 824.04 MHz
N = 992, 0.030(992 -1023) + 825 = 824.07 MHz
N = 993, 0.030(993 -1023) + 825 = 824.10 MHz
.
.
.
N = 1023, 0.030(1023 -1023) + 825 = 825 MHz

N = 1, 0.030(1) + 825 = 825.03 MHz
N = 2, 0.030(2) + 825 = 825.06 MHz
.
.
.
N = 799, 0.030(799) + 825 = 848.97 MHz




Forward Channel
9
9
1

9
9
2

.

1
0
2
3

1

2


7
9
9


869-894 MHz


1 N 799, 0.030N + 870.0
991 N 1023, 0.030(N-1023) + 870.0

N = 991, 0.030(991 -1023) + 870 = 869.04 MHz
N = 992, 0.030(992 -1023) + 870 = 869.07 MHz
N = 993, 0.030(993 -1023) + 870 = 869.10 MHz
.
.
.
N = 1023, 0.030(1023 -1023) + 870 = 870.0 MHz

N = 1, 0.030(1) + 870 = 870.03 MHz
N = 2, 0.030(2) + 870 = 870.06 MHz
.
.
.
N = 799, 0.030(799) + 870 = 893.97 MHz

(Please make a note that channels 800-990 are
unused.)

Reverse Channel

9
9
1

9
9
2

.

1
0
2
3

1

2


7
9
9

8
2
4
.
0
4

M
H
z

8
2
4
.
0
7

M
H
z

.
.

8
2
5

M
H
z

8
2
5
.
0
3

M
H
z

8
2
5
.
0
6

M
H
z

.

8
4
8
.
9
7

M
H
z


Forward Channel

9
9
1

9
9
2

.

1
0
2
3

1

2


7
9
9

8
6
9
.
0
4

M
H
z

8
6
9
.
0
7

M
H
z

.
.

8
7
0

M
H
z

8
7
0
.
0
3

M
H
z

8
7
0
.
0
6

M
H
z

.

8
9
3
.
9
7

M
H
z
















P-3.27: The US AMPS system is allowed 50
MHz of spectrum in the 800 MHz range and
provides 832 channels. Forty-two of those
channels are control channels. The forward
channel frequency is exactly 45 MHz greater
than the reverse channel frequency.
(a) Is the AMPS system simplex, half-duplex, or
duplex? What is the bandwidth for each channel
and how is it distributed between the base
station and the subscriber?
(b) Assume a base station transmits control
information on channel 352, operating at
880.560 MHz. What is the transmission
frequency of a subscriber unit transmitting on
channel 352?
(c) The A-side and B-side cellular carriers evenly
split the AMPS channels. Find the number of
voice channels and number of control channels
for each carrier.

Answer:
(a) AMPS is a full-duplex system.
Reverse Channel
9
9
1

9
9
2

.

1
0
2
3

1

2


7
9
9


824-849 MHz
25 MHz

1 N 799 = 799
991 N 1023 = 33

Forward Channel
9
9
1

9
9
2

.

1
0
2
3

1

2


7
9
9


869-894 MHz
25 MHz

1 N 799 = 799
991 N 1023 = 33
Duplex bandwidth of each channel
= kHz
832
Hz
096 . 60
10 x 50
6
=
30 kHz for forward channel (from BS to mobile)
30 kHz for reverse channel (from mobile to BS)
(b) Control information on channel 352,
operating at the forward channel at F
f
= 880.560
MHz. The corresponding reverse channel is:

F
r
= 0.030 N + 825.0 = 0.03 (352) + 852.0 =
835.56 MHz

Alternatively, it can be calculated directly as
follows:
F
r
= F
f
-45 = 880.560 45 = 835.560 MHz
(c) Total voice channels = 832 42 = 790
channels
395 voice channels in each A and B
21 control channels in each A and B

In late 1991, the first US Digital Cellular (USDC)
system hardware was installed.

Capacity of USDC is three times that of AMPS.
USDC employs digital modulation, speech
coding, and time division multiple access
(TDMA).

CDMA by Qualcomm, Inc., standardized by
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
as an Interim Standard (IS-95).

CDMA supports a variable number of users in
1.25 MHz wide channel using direct sequence
spread spectrum.

AMPS requires signal by at least 18 dB above
co-channel interference.

CDMA can operate at much higher interference
level or much lower SNR.

Nextel and Motorola formed an extended
specialized Mobile Radio Service (E-SMR)
network in the 800 MHz band.

1995, Motorola replaced Motorolas Integrated
Radio System (MIRS) with the Integrated Digital
Enhanced Network (iDen).

Table 1.1 Major Mobile Radio Standards in North America
Standard
Type Year Multiple
Access
Frequency
Band
Modulation Channel
Bandwidth
AMPS Cellular 1983 FDMA 824-894
MHz
FM 30 kHz
NAMPS Cellular 1992 FDMA 824-894
MHz
FM 10 kHz
USDC Cellular 1991 TDMA 824-894
MHz
/4-DQPSK 30 kHz
CDPD Cellular 1993 FH/Packet 824-894
MHz
GMSK 30 kHz
IS-95 Cellular/PCS 1993 CDMA 824-894
MHz
1.8-2.0
GHz
QPSK/BPSK 1.25 MHz
Table 1.2 Major Mobile Radio Standards in Europe
Standard
Type Year Multiple
Access
Frequency
Band
Modulation Channel
Bandwidth
ETACS Cellular 1985 FDMA 900 MHz FM 25 kHz
NMT-450 Cellular 1981 FDMA 450-470
MHz
FM 25 kHz
NMT-900 Cellular 1986 FDMA 890-960
MHz
FM 12.5 kHz
GSM Cellular/PCS 1990 TDMA 890-960
MHz
GMSK 200 kHz
C-450 Cellular 1985 FDMA 450-465
MHz
FM 20 kHz/10
kHz

Table 1.3 Major Mobile Radio Standards in Japan
Standard
Type Year Multiple
Access
Frequency
Band
Modulation Channel
Bandwidth
JTACS Cellular 1988 FDMA 860-925
MHz
FM 25 kHz
PDC Cellular 1993 TDMA 810-1501
MHz
/4-DQPSK 25 kHz
NTT Cellular 1979 FDMA 400/800
MHz
FM 25 kHz
NTACS Cellular 1993 FDMA 843-925
MHz
FM 12.5 kHz
PHS Cordless 1993 TDMA 1895-1907
MHz
/4-DQPSK 300 kHz

First Generation (1G) Cellular Networks:

NMT-450: Nordic Mobile Telephone
AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System
NTACS, TACS: Narrowband Total Access
Communication System

1G networks (NMT, AMPS, TACS) are
considered to be the first analog cellular
systems, which started early 1980s.

The worlds first cellular system was
implemented by the Nippon Telephone and
Telegraph company (NTT) in Japan.

The system, deployed in 1979, uses 600 FM
duplex channels (25 kHz for each one-way link)
in the 800 MHz band.

In Europe, the Nordic Mobile Telephone System
(NMT-450) was developed in 1981 for the 450
MHz band and uses 25 kHz channels.

In 1985 European Total Access Cellular System
(ETACS) was developed which is identical to US
AMPS system.

In Germany, a Cellular standard GSM (Global
System for Mobile) was introduced in 1990 in a
new 900 MHz band to bring uniformity across
the world.

In Japan, the Pacific Digital Cellular (PDC)
standard provides digital cellular coverage
similar to USDC. 1G analog technologies are:

Second Generation (2G) Cellular Networks:

The most popular second generation standards
include three TDMA standards and one CDMA
standard:

1. Global System Mobile (GSM): supports
eight time slotted users for each 200 kHz
radio channel and has been deployed by
service providers in Europe, Asia, Australia,
South America, and some parts of the US
(in the PCS spectrum band only).

2. Interim Standard 136 (IS-136): also known
as North American Digital Cellular (NADC)
which supports three time slotted users for
each 30 kHz radio channel and is popular
and is popular in North America, South
America, and Australia (in both the cellular
and PCS bands).

3. Pacific Digital Cellular (PDC): A Japanese
TDMA standard that is similar to IS-136 with
more than 50 million users.

4. 2G CDMA standard Interim Standard 95
Code Division Multiple Access (IS-95), also
known as cdmaOne, which supports up to
64 users that are orthogonally coded and
simultaneously transmitted on each 1.25
MHz channel. CDMA is widely deployed by
carriers in North America (in both cellular
and PCS bands), as well as Korea, Japan,
China, South America, and Australia.



Key Specifications of 2G Technologies

CDMAOne, IS-
95, ANSI J-STD-
008
GSM, DCS-1900,
ANSI J-STD-007
NADC, IS-54/IS-
136, ANSI J-
STD-011, PDC
Uplink
Frequencies
824-849 MHz (US
Cellular)
1850-1910 MHz
(US PCS)
890-915 MHz
(Europe)
1850-1910 MHz
(US PCS)
800 MHz, 1500
MHz (Japan)
1850-1910 MHs
(US PCS)
Downlink
Frequencies
869-894 MHz (US
Cellular)
1930-1990 MHz
(US PCS)
935-960 MHz
(Europe)
1930-1990 MHz
(US PCS)
869-894 MHz
(US Cellular)
1930-1990 MHz
(US PCS)
800 MHz, 1500
MHz (Japan)
Duplexing FDD FDD FDD
Multiple Access
Technology
CDMA TDMA TDMA
Modulation BPSK with
quadrature
spreading
GMSK with BT =
0.3
/4 DQPSK
Carrier separation 1.25 MHz 200 kHz 30 kHz (IS-136)
(25 kHz for PDC)
Channel Data
Rate
1.2288
Mchips/sec
270.833 kbps 48.6 kbps (IS-
136) (42 kbps for
PDC)
Voice channels
per carrier
64 8 3

GMSK: Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
BT: 3-dB bandwidth-bit duration product for GMSK
DQPSK: Differential Quadrature PSK

2.5G Mobile Radio Networks
2.5G standards with increased capability to support
increased data rates that are required to support
Internet applications, new data-centric standards. The
three TDMA upgrade options include:

1. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)
for 2.5 GSM: HSCSD is a circuit switched
technique that allows a single mobile subscriber
to use consecutive user time slots in the GSM
standard.

2. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for 2.5
GSM and IS-136: GPRS is a packet-based data
network, which is well suited for non-real time
Internet usage, including the retrieval or email,
faxes, and asymmetric web browsing, where the
user downloads much more data than it uploads
on the Internet.

3. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
(EDGE) for 2.5 GSM and IS-136: EDGE is a
more advanced upgrade to the GSM standard,
and requires the addition of new hardware and
software at existing base stations. EDGE uses 8-
PSK (octal phase shift keying), which is used
additional to GSMs standard GMSK modulation.

3G Wireless Networks
3G standard support multi-megabit Internet access,
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), voice activated
calls, unparalleled network capacity.

1. 3G W-CDMA (UMTS): Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS): UMTS air
interface standard that has evolved since late
1996 under the European Telecommunications
Standards Institute (ETSI). UMTS was submitted
by ETSI to ITUs IMT-2000 body in 1998 for
consideration as a world standard.

2. 3G CDMA2000: Based on the original IS-95 and
IS-95A (CDMAOne) CDMA standards, as well as
the 2.5G IS-95B air interface, the CDMA2000 3G
standard allows wireless carriers to introduce a
family of new high new data rate Internet access.

3. 3G TD-SCDMA: Time Division Synchronous
CDMA: The China Academy of
Telecommunications Technology (CATT) and
Siemens Corporation jointly submitted an IMT-
2000 3G standard proposal in 1998, based on
Time Division Synchronous Code Division
Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA). This proposal was
adopted by ITU as one of the 3G options in late
1999.

4G Wireless Networks: is mainly a marketing
buzzword at the moment. Some basic 4G research is
being done, but no frequencies have been allocated.
The Forth Generation could be ready for
implementation around 2012.
Multiple Access Techniques
In cellular systems a geographic region is divided into
many small areas called cells. A mobile set in a given cell
communicate with another mobile set in the same cell or in
a different cell through the use of a base station. The
cellular systems are able to accommodate as many calls as
possible and termed as capacity. The following are several
techniques of accessing the channels.
Frequency division multiple-access (FDMA)
Time division multiple access (TDMA)
Wavelength division multiple access (WDMA)
Code division multiple access (CDMA)
o Frequency-hop CDMA
o Direct-sequence CDMA
o Multi-carrier CDMA (FH or DH)
Time/frequency multiple-access
Random access

5.15 Cellular Telephone Systems




5.16 Frequency Reuse
As the Fig. 5-15-1 shows, the same sets of frequencies are
used in all three clusters, which essentially increases the
number of usable cellular channels available threefold. The
letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G denote the seven sets of
frequencies. Thus, the total number of cellular channels
available in a cluster can be expressed mathematically as
F = GN

where F = number of full-duplex cellular channels available
in a cluster
G = number of channels in a cell
N = number of cells in a cluster

When the cluster is duplicated m times within a given
service area, the total number of full-duplex channels can
be expressed mathematically as

C = mGN = mF

where C = total channel capacity in a given area
m = number of clusters in a given area
G = number of channels in a cell
N = number of cells in a cluster

Example-5-15-1: Determine the number of channels
per cluster and the total channel capacity for a cellular
telephone area comprised of 10 clusters with seven
cells in each cluster and 10 channels in each cell.

Solution:

F = (10) (7) = 70 channels per cluster

C = (10) (7) (10) = 700 channels total

The number of users is called the frequency reuse
factor (FRF). The frequency reuse factor is defined
mathematically as

FRF = N/C

where FRF = frequency reuse factor (unitless)
N = total number of full-duplex channels in an area
C = total number of full-duplex channels in a cell



5.18 Interference
The two major kinds of interferences produced within a cellular telephone system
are co-channel interference and adjacent-channel interference.

5.19 Co-channel Interference




5.20 Adjacent Channel Interference



5.21 Handoffs
The transfer of a mobile unit from one base stations control to another base
stations control is called a handoff (or handover).

AMPS and ETACS Air Interface: Table 11.1
ETACS: European Total Access Cellular System was developed in 1985 and
is identical to the US AMPS system.

Parameter AMPS ETACS
Multiple Access FDMA FDMA
Duplexing FDD FDD
Channel Bandwidth 30 kHz 25 kHz
Traffic channel per RF
channel
1 1
Reverse channel
frequency
824-849 MHz 890-915 MHz
Forward channel
frequency
869-894 MHz 935-960 MHz
Voice modulation FM FM
Peak deviation: voice
channels control
12 kHz
8 kHz
10 kHz
6.4 kHz
Channel coding for data BCH (40,28) on FC BCH (40,36) on FC
Transmission BCH (48,36) on RC BCH (48,36) on RC
Data rate on control 10 kbps 8 kbps
Spectral efficiency 0.33 bps/Hz 0.33 bps/Hz
Number of channels 832 1000

Type Analog Digital TDMA CDMA FDMA
GSM x x
AMPS x x
ETACS x x
IS-95 x x
IS-136 x x
DECT x x
JTACS x x
PDC x x
NMT-450 x x
NAMPS x x

Block code is referred to an an (n,k) code

BCH: Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes
BCH (n,k), (n,k) = (2
m
-1, 2
m
-1-m)

In a block encoder k information bits are encoded into n code bits.

Examples of block codes: Hamming codes, Hadamard codes, Golay codes,
Cyclic codes, BCH codes, Reed-Solomon Codes etc.

Voice modulation and demodulation of AMPS

The Manchester code is applied to both control channel and voice channel
blank-and-burst transmission in AMPS and ETACS. The Manchester coded
wideband data stream is filtered and channel coded using BCH block codes.
The (40,28) BCH codes for forward voice channel blank-and-burst
transmissions and are able to correct 5 errors whereas (48,36) BCH codes
are used on the reverse voice channel blank-and-burst transmission. The
encoded data are used to modulate the transmitter carrier using direct
frequency-shift keying. Binary ones correspond to a frequency deviation of
+8 kHz and binary zeros correspond to a deviation of -8 kHz ( 6.4 kHz for
ETACS).




USDC (IS-54 and IS-136)
Table 11.2 USDC Radio Interface Specifications
Parameter USDC IS-54
Multiple Access TDMA/FDD
Modulation /4 DQPSK: Differential quadrature
PSK
Channel bandwidth 30 kHz
Reverse channel 824-849 MHz
Forward channel 869-894 MHz
Data rate 48.6 kbps
Spectrum efficiency 1.62 bps/Hz
Channel coding 7 bit CRC and rate convolutional
coding



TDMA Frame Structure for USDC
Slot-1 Slot-2 Slot-3 Slot-4 Slot-5 Slot-6
One frame = 1944 bits (972 symbols) = 40 ms; 25 frames/sec










G R data sync data SACCH CDVCC Data
6 6 16 28 122 12 12 122
Mobile to BS

sync SACCH data CDVCC data Reserved
28 12 130 12 130 12
BS to Mobile

CDVCC: Coded Digital Verification Color Code
SACCH: Slow Associated Control Channel
Speech Coding in USDC- The USDC speech coder is called the Vector Sum
Excited Linear Predictive Coder (VSELP). The VSELP algorithm uses a
code book that has a predefined structure.

Global System for Mobile (GSM)
GSM uses FDD and a combination of TDMA and FHMA schemes to
provide multiple access to mobile users.

The available forward and reverse frequency bands are divided into 200 kHz
wide channels called ARFCNs (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel
Numbers). The channel data rate of 270.833 kbps (1625.0/6.0 kbps) using
binary BT = 0.3 Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation.

The signaling bit = 1/270.833 = 3.692 s
Effective channel transmission rate per user = 270.833 kbps/(8 users) =
33.854 kbps

Taking the overhead into consideration, GSM data rate = 24.7 kbps

576.92
s
(156.256
bits)

TS
0
TS
1
TS
2
TS
3
TS
4
TS
5
TS
6
TS
7

4.615 ms

26 TDMA frames make one speech Multiframe

Table 11.3 GSM Air Interface
Parameter Specifications
Reverse Channel 890-915 MHz
Forward Channel 935-960 MHz
ARFCN Number 0 to 124 & 975 to 1023
Tx/Rx Frequency Spacing 45 MHz
Data Rates 270.833333 kbps
Frame Period 4.615 ms
User per frame 8
Time slot period 576.9 s
Bit period 3.692 s
Modulation 0.3 GMSK
ARFCN Channel Spacing 200 kHz
Interleaving (max. delay) 40 ms
Voice Coder Bit Rate 13.4 kbps

GSM Frame Structure
Superframe has 51 multiframes
6.12 s


Multiframe has 26 frames
120 ms


Frame has 8 time slots
4.615 ms
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
One time slot has 156.25 bits
576.92 s
3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25
Tail
bit
Coded
data
Stealing
flag
Midamble Stealing
flag
Coded
data
Tail bit Guard
period

Signal Processing in GSM
Speech Coding GSM Speech Coder is based on the Residually Excited
Linear Predictive Coder (RELP), which is enhanced by including a Long-
Term Predictor (LTP).

Channel Coding for Control Channels GSM control channel messages
are defined to be 184 bits long, and are coded using a shortened binary
cyclic fire code, followed by a half rate convolution codes.

The fire code uses the generator polynomial

G
5
(x) = (x
23
+ 1) (x
17
+ x
3
+ 1) = x
40
+ x
26
+ x
23
+ x
17
+ x
3
+ 1
which produces 184 message bits, followed by 40 parity bits. Four tail bits
are added to clear the convolutional coder which follows, yielding a 228 bit
data block. This block is applied to a half-rate K = 5 convolutional code
(CC(2,1,5)) using the generator polynomials G
0
(x) = 1 + x
3
+ x
4
and G
1
(x) =
1 + x + x
3
+ x
4
. The resulting 456 encoded bits are interleaved onto eight
consecutive frames in the same manner as TCH speech data.


Amplifier Noise and Its Effect on Detector
Performance:
D
IN OUT IN
IN
OUT IN exc


Noise figure:
OUT
IN
) N / S (
) N / S (
F =
where S and N represent the electrical signal and
noise powers with the source resistor R
D
(T) at a
temperature of 300 K. The gain G of the amplifier
takes into account any mismatch between the load R
D

and the amplifier input impedance.

B GkT
P
1
B kT
) P B GkT (
x
G
1
N
N
x
S
S
F
300
exc
300
exc 300
IN
OUT
OUT
IN
+ =
+
= =

where P
exc
is the excess noise added by the amplifier.
When the amplifier is operated with a real detector
load at temperature T
R
, the effective input noise
becomes

| |B kT ) 1 F ( kT
G
P B GkT
) N (
300 R
exc R
EFF IN
+ =
+
=
EFF IN D
IN
OUT
) N ( N
S
) N / S (
+
=
where N
D
is the noise power produced by the detector
noise current.

P. 1.9: Assume a 1 Amp-hour battery is used on a
cellular telephone (often called a cellular subscriber
unit). Also assume that the cellular telephone draws
35 mA in idle mode and 250 mA during a call. How
long would phone work (i.e., what is the battery life)
if the user leaves the phone on continually and has
one 3-minute call every day? Every 6 hours? Every
hour? What is the maximum talk time available on
the cellular phone in this example?

Solution:
(a) 3-minute call everyday
3 3
10 x 250 x
60
3
10 x 35 x 24 (

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
60
3
- 24 amp) X - hr

amp 0354 . 0
24
0125 . 0 83825 . 0
X =
+
=
Battery life = hrs
amp
hr - amp hr - amp
21 . 28
0354 . 0
1
X
1
= =
(b) 3-minute call every 6 hours
3 3
10 x 250 x
60
4 x 3
10 x 35 x 24 (

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
60
3x4
- 24 amp) X - hr

amp 036791666 . 0
24
05 . 0 833 . 0
X =
+
=
Battery life = hrs
amp
hr - amp hr - amp
18 . 27
03679 . 0
1
X
1
= =
(c) 3-minute call every hour
3 3
10 x 250 x
60
24 x 3
10 x 35 x 24 (

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
60
3x24
- 24 amp) X - hr

amp 04575 . 0
24
3 . 0 798 . 0
X =
+
=
Battery life = hrs
amp
hr - amp hr - amp
858 . 21
04575 . 0
1
X
1
= =
(d) Maximum talk time available
Maximum talk time = hours

hour - amp
4
amp 25 . 0
1
=





Noise Figure Calculations for Link Budgets
Noise figure, denoted by F, is defined by:
noiseless were device if device of out Power
e temperatur room at device of out power noise Measured
F =
F = 1, noiseless device
Noise figure, F, is related to the effective noise
temperature, Te, of a device
( )
K) 300 to K (290 e temperatur
ambient the is T ; T 1 - F T
0 0 e
=
A simple passive load (such as a resistor) at room
temperature transfers a noise power of
B kT P
0 n
=
where k is Boltzmanns constant, and B is the
equivalent bandwidth of the measuring device.
The output of the receiver referred to the input
B kT
T
T
1 B FkT P
0
0
e
0 out
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =




Actual noise power out of the receiver is
stages. cascaded to
due gain receiver overall the is G
B kT
T
T
1 G B FkT G P
sys
0
0
e
sys 0 sys out
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
For a cascaded system, the noise figure of the
overall system is
......
G G
1 - F

G
1 - F
F F
2 1
3
1
2
1 sys
+ + + =
A Mobile Receiver System with Cable Loss
RECEIVER
CABLE
ANTENNA


P. 1.15: Assume that a GSM, an IS-95, and a US
Digital Cellular (USDC, IS-136) base station transmit
the same power over the same distance. What system
will provide the best SNR at a mobile receiver? What
is the SNR improvement over the other two systems?
Assume a perfect receiver with only thermal noise
present in each of the three systems.

Solution:
GSM BW = 200 kHz
IS-95 BW = 1.25 MHz
USDC (IS-136): 30 kHz

Thermal noise power: P
n
= kT
0
B
GSM Thermal noise power:

Example: Consider an AMPS cellular phone with a 30 kHz RF
equivalent bandwidth. The phone is connected to a mobile
antenna with noise figure of the phone, F = 6 dB, the coaxial
cable loss is 3 dB an equivalent loss factor of 2.0.
K 300 T
0
=
Solution:
( )
9dB 8
1 - 4
2.0
G
1 - F
F F
1
2
1 sys
= = + = + =
5 . 0
( )
( )
( )( )( )
m
15 -
23 -
n
sys ant total
e
dB 119.5 - W 10 x 1.1
Hz 30,000 K 300 10 x 1.38
300
2390
1 P
K 2100 290 T T T
K 2100 300 1 - 8 T
= =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ = + =
= =
P
n
= (1.38 x 10
-23
J/K)(300 K) (200,000 Hz)
= 8.28 x 10
-16
Watts

IS-95:
P
n
= (1.38 x 10
-23
J/K)(300 K) (1.25 x 10
6
Hz)
= 5.17 x 10
-15
Watts

USDC (IS-136):
P
n
= (1.38 x 10
-23
J/K)(300 K) (30,000 Hz)
= 1.24 x 10
-16
Watts

Since all transmitting powers are assumed to be
same, SNR is least for the highest noise power.

Therefore,
Best SNR is with USDC
2
nd
best is GSM
3
rd
is IS-95