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Apparently, Rabindranath wrote his first poem when he was merely 7.

During his early life, Rabindranath grew up in a very cultured atmosphere with exposure to religion and arts, with special emphasis on literature, music and painting. Due to the wealthy family background, his early education was through private tutors. Subsequently, he studied at several institutions and even went to England to study law, but did not complete any degree program. Apparently, he "was recalled by his father in 1880, possibly because his letters home all indicated his attraction (which was mutual) to English girls." [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/centurions/tagore/tagbiog.shtml] Sanskrit classics, the Vaisnava literary heritage of Bengal as well as the English romantics and post-romantics had critical influence on Rabindranath, which is understandable as his education and exposure were primarily based on three languages - Sanskrit, Bengali and English. Amartya Sen, another Indian/Bengali Nobel Laureate mentions about Tagore familys and that of Rabindranaths exposure to Persian literature as well. [8] His words and expression have the enduring power that lights up a melancholy heart, humbles the arrogance of ones soul, broadens a narrow mind immensely, strengthens the spirit of the weak, sharpens the conscience of the society, and soothes the restless. Then, there was the romantic dimension that permeated through his prolific works. In all these regards, much of his works are transcending and universal. It is because of his transcending sage-like personality, even the Rebel one sat at his feet revering him as his "Gurudev". Indeed, Nazrul was so devoted to his "master poet" that people had to watch out for Nazrul when saying something negative about his "master poet". Read what happened one time in the hand of Nazrul to a person who said something bad about Rabindranath. [See Love of the great is like sand-bank] Tagore is unquestionably the most towering figure of modern Indian and Bangla literature, where his contribution included novels, plays, poems, short stories, essays as well as educational books and articles. His world-class literary contribution was recognized before the world through the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. During his stay in England he translated Gitanjali into English, with forewords by W.B. Yeats, an Irish poet, dramatist and prose writer, and one of the greatest English-language poets of the 20th century. Just one year after its publication (1912), he became the first Asiatic recipient of Nobel prize in literature. After achieving worldwide fame, Rabindranath traveled and lectured extensively in Asia, Europe and America. Among the countries he traveled were: Bulgaria, Canada, Czechslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway, Romania, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Thailand. In the field of music, Tagores background was classical Indian. However, rebelling against the classical orthodoxy, as a composer he introduced a rich variety of form and content, enriched by Bangla folk-music, such as the Baul and Bhatiyali type. He is credited for both the words and music for over 2000 songs, popularly known as Rabindra Sangeet. This also includes the national anthems of both India and Bangladesh, a unique accomplishment, indeed. I am not aware of any one else who has authored national anthems of two different countries. Thus, in the ethos of Rabindranath the two neighbors, India and Bangladesh, should have found harmony, but ironically, that was not to be. At least, not as of yet. Rabindranath was not a stranger to the political arena either. He actively supported Mahatma Gandhi, and his agenda of social reforms through civil disobedience. They had their differences too. The influence was not mono-directional. Gandhi and the other founding leaders of modern India were deeply influenced by Rabindranath. His patriotism and position against the colonial rule must not be misunderstood as narrow nationalism. As Amartya Sen argues, "Rabindranath rebelled against the strongly nationalist form that the independence movement often took, and this made him refrain from taking a particularly active part in contemporary politics. He would have strongly resisted defining India in specifically Hindu terms (note: for example, as Hindustan), rather than as a confluence of many cultures". Among his other notable contributions was a school he founded in 1901 near Calcutta. It was known as Shantiniketon. Later it evolved into an international university in 1921, which was to be known as Viswabharati. The British royalty honored him as a knight in 1915. However, quite conscientiously he relinquished his knighthood in 1919 as a protest against the massacre of Amritsar, where 400 Indians demonstrating against colonial laws were slaughtered by the English soldiers. It might be worthwhile

to remember his words: "Onnay je kore ar onnay je shohe, tobo ghrina jeno tare trinoshomo dohe" [Nay-Dondho in Shonchoita, Cabco, Tangai, 1998, pp. 232-233] My own crude translation is as following: "He who wrongs others, and he who does so tolerate, like weeds may he burn in His condemnation and hate." Rabindranath had two sons and three daughters. Quite interestingly, even during the early 1900s, his sons pursued their education in the United States. Much of Tagores works has been filmed by Satyajit Ray - who studied at Shantiniketon and also directed a film about the author, Rabindranath Tagore (1961). [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/centurions/tagore/taginfo.shtml] Some Special Aspects a. Rabindranath, the painter: Rabindranath is known more or primarily for his poetry and music, but he also distinguished himself in another area: modern painting. "In 1930, through a series of exhibition in Paris, London, Berlin, Moscow and New York, the world discovered the poet Rabindranath as an important modern painter. Rabindranath transformed his lack of formal training of art into an advantage and opened new horizons in the use of line and colour. He was prolific in his paintings and sketches as he was in his writing, producing over 2500 of these within a decade. Over 1500 of them are preserved in ViswaBharati, Santiniketan. It is evident that in his search of newer form of expression in line and colour Rabindranath was trying to express something different from what he did in his poetry and songs. If he is seeking peace and enlightenment in his songs, he seems to explore darkness and mystery in his drawings. With the passage of time, critics and art lovers are discovering in these verses in lines a more modern and disquieting Tagore than they see elsewhere. [Courtesy: http://userpages.umbc.edu/~achatt1/Bio/rabi1.html] See some of his paintings at http://www.calcuttaweb.com/tagore/tagore.htm . a. A social reformer and a universal voice of conscience Many of Rabindranaths works represent a protest against maladies and wrongs of the society, including oppression of women, caste system, and communal prejudices. The lives of the oppressed and powerless, poor and landless, deprived and hopeless that are exploited by the others, especially the upper caste of the society, constitute important themes of his works. While managing the family estate, he became acutely aware of the plights of the poor of rural Bengal, which is prominently reflected in his entire Galpo-Guchcho (collection of short stories). One of the interesting aspects of his life, however, is that even though he was presumably against child marriage, he married Mrinalini Devi, while she was merely ten and he married off two of his daughters while they were thirteen and ten-and-a-half respectively. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/centurions/tagore/tagbiog.shtml] Nevertheless, womens theme, in particular their repressed life, permeated through his vast range of works. He was also against the taboo of social prohibition against marrying widows. He married one of his sons to a young widow. A bold social statement. Not only he represented the ushering of a renaissance in the literature and arts of Bengal as well as India, but also his ideas and perspectives continued to serve as powerful commentary in the sociopolitical arena of India. According to the Nobel official site, "For the world he became the voice of India's spiritual heritage; and for India, especially for Bengal, he became a great living institution." [http://www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/1913/tagore-bio.html] a. Muslim themes in Tagore literature Tagore is a "world poet", yet his heart and soul were rooted in India. For non-Indians, reading him is altogether different. For the Indians, it is easy to relate to the characters and imageries, contexts and themes that are almost exclusively drawn from the Indian/Hindu context. A Muslim, who is conscious about his own identity, can relate to Rabindranath at the human as well as Indian context, but is generally disappointed at the fact that Rabindranaths wide world did not really have anything

significant for Muslims to relate to, even though Muslims and their history are interwoven with India and its heritage. The void in this regard is accentuated by the contrast with Nazrul who comfortably, consciously and generously drew on both Muslim and Hindu themes. The comparison (or referring to the contrast) is not always fair, but it is also sometimes unavoidable. Last year, I was enriched through an extended discussion on Rabindranath and Nazrul in Shetubondhon, a distinctive Bangladeshi forum dedicated to seeking common grounds and building bridges. A dear Indian e-friend, Dr. Kaushik Sen, sent me one of Rabindranaths novels, Gora, which helped me, at least partially, to begin my effort to better understand the world-poets perspective. After reading Gora, I wrote a 3-part series "Reflections on Tagore's Gora: Layers of ignorance and voices against prejudice" in which I have highlighted how Muslim/Islamic themes have been so respectfully dealt with by Rabindranath. This respectfully approach can be better understood in the context that "Tagore was predictably hostile to communal sectarianism (such as a Hindu orthodoxy that was antagonistic to Islamic, Christian, or Sikh perspectives)." [Amartya Sen] Subsequently, I came across a powerful short story of Rabindranath, "Musalmanir Golpo", which was written by him just a few months before his death. I have attempted a crude translation of that story (see link). Now I can relate to Rabindranath not only at human and Indian level, but also as a Muslim. As Amartya Sen noted that Rabindranath himself described of his Bengali family as the product of "a confluence of three cultures, Hindu, Mohammedan and British. Rabindranath's grandfather, Dwarkanath, was well known for his command of Arabic and Persian, and Rabindranath grew up in a family atmosphere in which a deep knowledge of Sanskrit and ancient Hindu texts was combined with an understanding of Islamic traditions as well as Persian literature." Of course, much of his devotional literary output is so generic or universalistic in reference to faith that one has to be extremely narrow minded not to appreciate the delightful, joyous and uplifting "offerings" of the heart and soul of this mystical sage, whose expressions often have transcended most narrow boundaries. It is interesting to note that the Wests enthusiasm about Rabindranath has significantly waned to the extent, as Amartya Sen has pointed out "in the rest of the world, especially in Europe and America, the excitement that Tagore's writings created in the early years of this century has largely vanished." Conclusion This is by no means an attempt to write a comprehensive article about such a great personality. Even though Rabindranath was a literary figure and philosopher of world stature, his anchor was Bangla and Bengal. As a great human being, the whole world ought to know him better. Bangladeshis should too. Unfortunately, so many Bangladeshis know about him and his life and works so little and so superficially. All those who have a nostalgic feeling about the Golden Bengal (Sonar Bangla) actually have so much to be enriched and enlightened beyond just singing "Amar Sonar Bangla Ami Tomay Bhalobashi". Some Recommended Readings

1. [Book] Bhabatosh Chatterjee, Rabindranath Tagore and Modern Sensibility


(Oxford University Press, India, 1996)

2. Subhamoy Chatterjee, Of Tagore, the Politician, The Hindustan Times, April


8, 1999. http://www.hindustantimes.com/nonfram/090499/detSTA05.htm

3. A Chronology of Rabindranath Tagores life. 4. [Book] Manindranath Jana, Education for Life: Tagore and Modern Thinkers
(South Asia Books, 1984)

5. [Online article] Beverly McClure, Rabindranath Tagore. 6. [Online bibliography and resources] BBC, Online resources on Tagore. 7. [Book] William Radice (translator), The One and the Many : Readings from
the Work of Rabindranath Tagore (Bayeux Arts, 1997)

8. [Online article] Amartya Sen, Tagore and His India


[http://finance.commerce.ubc.ca/~bhatta/ArticlesByAmartyaSen/sen's_essay _on_tagore.html]

9. [Book] Rabindranath Tagore, The English Writings of Rabindranath Tagore :


Poems (South Asia Books, 1994)

10. [Book] E. Thompson, Rabindranath Tagore: Life and Work (Haskel House,
1974)

Tagore, Rabindranath - Introduction


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Rabindranath Tagore 1861-1941


(Name also transliterated as Ravindranatha Thakura) Indian short story writer, poet, playwright, essayist, novelist, painter, and songwriter.

INTRODUCTION Tagore is widely regarded as the inventor of the modern Bengali short story and is credited with introducing colloquial speech into Bengali literature. He has been compared to such masters of the short story form as Edgar Allan Poe, Anton Chekhov, and Guy de Maupassant. Tagore's short fiction is often set in rural Bengali villages and is peopled by characters from the underprivileged sectors of society, reflecting Tagore's commitment to social realism in prose and his ten years among such individuals. Many of Tagore's short stories also include

elements of the supernatural and bizarre. The celebrated Indian film director Satyajit Ray has adapted several of Tagore's tales into movies. Biographical Information Tagore was born May 7, 1861, in Calcutta, Bengal, India, which was then under British rule. His father was a famous religious reformer, mystic, and scholar who was popularly referred to as Maharshi, Great Sage. From 1879 to 1880, Tagore attended University College in London, but returned to India before completing his studies. At twenty-two, Tagore married his ten-year-old child bride. He published several volumes of poetry during the 1880s, and throughout the 1890s Tagore managed his family estates in rural Bengal. There he encountered the villagers upon whom many of his characters are based, and many of his most renown short stories were written during this period. In 1901, Tagore founded an experimental school, combining Indian and Western thought and culture; this school became Visva-Bharati University in 1921. During the first decade of the new century, Tagore suffered extensive personal tragedy as he endured the deaths of his wife, his father, and three of his children. In 1913, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature for his poetry collection Gitanjali (1910; Song Offerings); he spent the following years travelling throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas to lecture and read from his works. Tagore was a supporter of the cause for Indian national independence from Britain, although he publicly criticized some of Gandhi's ideas. However, like Gandhi, Tagore was also active in combatting the Indian caste system. Throughout his life, Tagore was a prolific writer of novels, plays, popular songs, and numerous works of nonfiction. While in his seventies, Tagore began painting and made a significant contribution to modern Indian art. Tagore died on August 7, 1941. Major Works of Short Fiction Tagore's short stories are available to English-language readers in several major volumes, including The Hungry Stones (1916), Mashi (1918), and Broken Ties (1925). More recent translations include Collected Stories from Rabindranath Tagore (1970) and Collected Stories (1974). As a short fiction writer, Tagore was a practitioner of psychological and social realism. His stories depict poignant human relationships within a simple, relatively uneventful plots. In Postmaster, a young orphaned girl employed by the postmaster in a remote village regards him as a surrogate father; when he returns to his home and family in Calcutta she is devastated at being left behind. Failing to appreciate the depth of her longing for family, the postmaster laughs at her request to be taken home with him. The story Kabuliwalla concerns a man who appears brusque, crude, and violentto the extent that he is in prisonbut is so sentimental about his faraway daughter that he cherishes a crumpled piece of paper because it is smudged with her fingerprints. The Return of Khokababu is about a servant who while caring for the infant of a wealthy couple briefly looks away from the child during which time it drowns and is never found. The servant moves away, marries, and has a son of his own. When the son is grown, the servant brings him to the wealthy couple claiming that he had in fact kidnapped their infant son years ago and is now returning him. Tagore's short stories often focus on the struggles of women and girls in traditional Indian society. Many of these tales are concerned with marital relationships and the various forms of estrangement and conflict between husband and wife. A Wife's Letter is narrated by a woman writing to her husband describing the many injustices imposed upon married women. In the tale Vision a woman goes blind after which her husband begins to neglect her and falls in love with a young girl. Number One depicts a woman who commits suicide

in order to escape the conflict she feels between her sense of duty to her husband and her love for another man. In Punishment, a man kills his wife in a fit of rage; his brother, wishing to save him from punishment, convinces his own wife to testify that she is the murderer. Several short stories by Tagore involve elements of the supernatural and contain qualities of the eerie or weird tale, thus inviting comparison to the fantastic tales of Edgar Allan Poe. The Hungry Stones is about a man staying in an old palace who becomes enchanted by invisible ghosts; in Living or Dead, a woman, thought to be dead, regains consciousness during her funeral only to be regarded by her family as a phantasm, and to prove that she is truly alive, she drowns herself; and The Skeleton portrays a man who engages in dialogue with the ghost of a skeleton used in classroom demonstrations. Critical Reception The modern short story is Rabindranath Tagore's gift to Indian culture, observed Vishwanath S. Naravane in 1977. Of Tagore's two hundred short stories, Naravane asserted, about twenty are pearls of the purist variety. Many of Tagore's short stories became available in English after he had gained international acclaim as the Nobel Prize-winning poet of Gitanjali. Early reviewers in English received Tagore's stories with mixed appraisal; while some applauded his short fiction, others found them of negligible quality. Later critics have commented that these early reviewers were ignorant of the context of Indian culture in which the stories are set. Commentators have praised Tagore for his blending of poetic lyricism with social realism, as well as the way in which his unearthly tales maintain psychological realism within an atmosphere of supernatural occurrences. Scholars frequently praise Tagore's short stories for the deeply human quality of the characters and relationships. Mohinder Kaur commented of Tagore, With an infinite sympathy and rare psychological insight, he works out the emotional possibilities of different human relations. For example, B. C. Chakravorty says of The Postmaster, counted among Tagore's finest short stories, The story by itself is hopelessly uninteresting. But it acquires immense interest on account of the passages of lyrical grandeur which give a poetic expression to the feelings of the orphan girl and those of the postmaster.

Gandhian Influence on Indian Writing in English


- Koyel Chakraborty*
An assessment of the effects of developmental Communication, as used in the Political Campaigns by Gandhiji, portrayed by the contemporary Indian English Novelists.

One of the most popularly discussed and yet many-a-time controversial figure of Indian politics is Mahatma Gandhi. There is hardly any area in the pre or postindependence era that he had left untramplled for the sake of Indian development and independence. He is such a socio-political figure who is barely impossible for someone to forget or ignore. He has influenced every aspect of human consciousness and there is hardly any discipline that he has left uncommented. He

is an immense source of writing himself and has influenced different disciplines and very many writers from different fields like history, politics, philosophy, literature, sociology and so on, have him as their central themes. While musing on different books on Gandhiji, especially the then Gandhian Indian English Literature, one can easily sense that the then time was grossly occupied by a Gandhian consciousness socially, culturally and politically, at least in the period from 1918-1922 in the anticolonial against the British. There are vicarious studies and research works that Mr. Gandhi has found and is still finding himself into; but reading some of the basic books and going through certain phenomenon, I personally feel that the relationship between Indian English Literature and Gandhiji is still left untold at certain historical, social and cultural ends and so I would like to make a modest attempt in re-inventing the Mahatma in the light of the then Indian English Literature. The first half of the topic as mentioned above: Gandhian Influence on Indian Writing in English, finds an ample exposure in any of the books on History of Indian English Literature, but its second half: An assessment of the effects of Developmental Communication, as used in the Political Campaigns by Gandhiji, portrayed by the contemporary Indian English Novelists somehow sounds new to us. In conformity with the first part, Mr. M. K. Naik1 comments, Indian Writing in English literature of the Gandhian age was inevitably influenced by these (the then political and social) epoch-making developments in Indian life. He explains that Indian Writing in English (Fiction) in fact discovered some of its most compelling themes during the Gandhian era. This is a veritable truth and there rises no controversy about the countless eminent references to it. But the second half of the topic that deals with the Development Communication is, I feel, not much discussed on to that extent in literature that the first part has been. The word communication comes from the Latin word communis meaning commonness. That is, successful and effective communication is only possible when all the needed parameters for communication, like interest, motive, physical and psychological conditions of both listener and speaker, language are common. It is also a successful communication when either the speaker and listener through a dialectical process and argumentative technique, reaches a point where the other motivates one or both the views are synthesized. Trickling down the ages, it has been an ever-convinced fact that effective communication can bring about development. Browsing over the Western models and theories of communication, from the time of Aristotle to Nora Quedral, from a simple Shannon-Weavers

sender-receiver model to Raymond Williams, it proves that communication serves as the bottom-line for development and progress. Development is perhaps one of the most fiercely debated concepts in the contemporary social sciences that have evolved since the World War II. From a narrow economist term, it has outgrown into a comprehensive dynamic one, taking within its ambit natural environment, community, social relations, education, production, culture and welfare, though the approach of development depends upon local culture and National situation and not on outside models. Communication is an important input in development, is unanimously accepted by the sociologists, psychologists and economists, who say that proper use of communication can foster the pace and development of a country. Developmental Communication is thus a process of developing the society through not only affecting or influencing behaviours of individuals or groups towards certain desired goals and objectives, necessary for the betterment and benefits of the entire society, but also reaching to the entire mass population of the country through proper channelised means. Developmental Communication is mainly concerned with the role of communication and information in social and economic development of an individual society or nation. In India, Bhattanayaka stressed that the essence of communication lay in achieving commonness and oneness. The Indian Concept of Communication is deep-rooted into the Primitive Age of the very Indian civilization itself, when Bharatmuni expressed his views on aestheticism discussing communication and literature, in his book Natya Shastra, also taken as the fifth Veda. Bharata insists that a Sahridaya, i.e. one who has one heart can understand the bhabas and rasas in a dhavani, i.e. in a text or form of speech. He asserts a need for Sadharanikaran, meaning simplification or identification of meaning, which will appeal to all kinds of people, irrespective of the literary barrier, and senses. This kind of communication is a support system to the Government or the developing authority, as the message can reach to every corner of the nation only because of its effective work-methods of channelizing and motivating the public in a simplest form. India has witnessed remarkable communicators who motivated the common people for betterment by classic communicative means in various fields. Musing back through the ages, we can bring into focus how the great men like the Buddha, Ramkrishna Paramangsha, and many others tried to enforce changes both in human and social aspects of life only by persuasion and communication. It is very surprising that I speak communication so much in presenting a literary paper and

that also one which portrays Gandhijis influence on Indian English writing. But it is a very interesting fact that even Gandhiji was one of the supreme communicators who could bring ignorants out of doors; make illiterates sing one song, gather all women at a venue and make children chant his name as God, at his single call. That Gandhiji was a classic media-man, is proved by his journalistic activities and his use of journalistic writings throughout his life. He very aptly exploited the nationalist press, and his own journals, Young India, Navijivan, Indian Opinion and Harijan, though were restricted to the literary urbans of India, yet he well knew the secret of reaching out to the hearts of the millions in the rural areas by means of Padayatra or mass procession and motivating speech. He was much an advanced social worker and was well aware of the power of communication. He weighed and measured the Indian colonial situation and the existing psychological and physical state of Indians and thus concluded that the accurate means to reach them was by the folk media and group communication. He achieved identification with the masses through Sadharanikaran or simplification of his message, through common religious symbols, Vedas, myths, and of course making his life very simple to establish an easy identification. Whatever Gandhijis influence may have been on political and economic spheres of the country, there is hardly any doubt that he has left a deep impression on our literatures. He is a mine of themes for writers and commentators though he himself never worked on any literary topic or genre. Dramatic reconstructions of Gandhijis life in film and fiction range from Richard Attenboroughs academy award winning film, GANDHI, in 1982 to Indian English novels like Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao and R.K Narayan. Gandhiji gave new strength and new confidence to Indian languages that suffered contempt, neglect, indifference, and disgrace for a long time. Gandhiji insisted on high thinking and simple living which was reflected and highlighted by the literary English authors of the time, who in their novels and short stories, portrayed the real picture of the the-then society from various sides, thereby presenting the influence of Gandhi on Indian villages and towns, letting us a scope to probe how Gandhijis ways of developmental communication created effects on human lives bringing a sea change in their thoughts, views and living. Almost all of their novels represent events, which distinctly correspond to the examples of actual incidents, and teachings that Gandhiji in real life encoded during his visits at various places. The writers working in different languages in those days either were mostly persons who had come directly under Gandhijis influence, many had even taken part in the

freedom movements, or they were highly influenced by his ideals. Their writings were immensely burdened with Gandhian idealism, lifestyle, his teachings, and anti-colonial stands. Gandhiji was so much part and form of any literary genre of that period that he made appearance in many dramas, novels, stories and in poems. In most of the cases, the Gandhian writers, especially the novelists and short story writers, made Bapu an important, guest character or they made a local Gandhi replica and presented him in the light of Mahatma. Not only did the Indians turn Gandhiji into a veritable cult but also a flesh & blood Rama or Krishna who could change the society by his single finger touch. P. Rama Moorthy in Gandhis letters to the West quotes: For me there were only twoGod & Bapu, and now they have become one. Gandhiji had a multi-faceted personality. He has been the only Indian after the Buddha to attain worldwide fame. It would not be an exaggeration to say that he had performed many miracles during his lifetime and his message was a source of inspiration and strength to the people for all times .Gandhiji was a psychologist in one sense and an idealist on the other as he could feel the pulse of India and its people on whom he could exert a tremendous influence and preach his Gandhian ideology. He realized that India being a religion-oriented country with a majority of half-literate and non literate population can only be motivated and mobilized through a traditional mode of communication and in addition, Gandhian philosophy was mainly based on traditional and labour oriented technologies. The folk or traditional arts of India have from the ancient times been used for moral, religious socio-political purposes. It is a classic communicative medium which appeals to the personal and emotional level of the people, avoiding any cross-cultural hurdles, expensive entertainment programmes and above all, the message is dispersed in a familiar format and content in local and colloquial dialects to a homogeneous group, surpassing all literacy and socio-economic barriers. Gandhiji though not in-person but in ideologies, teaching, views, had reached the stage and in hearts of people through various forms of Tamasha, Jatra, Keertan, Nautanki, Pala, Yakshagana, Ramlila, Raslila, Puppetry, and Street Theatre, to name a few folk forms, at all corners of rural and urban India and of course the literary artists and art directors were behind to provide a firm support in popularizing Gandhiji. He was the one who could clearly mention that our India is our Sita maiya (mother) and we are the Ramas who would drive the red-faced Ravanas (British) away and bring back our mother. This very use of the Ramayana concept deep-rooted in the religious

tradition of India ignited the dormant national consciousness and deeply founded the concept of freedom movement in the illiterates and by dint of this religious proforma, he could bring about a united upheaval in the country for its development. Moreover, his mission was backed by the messages that could remove social evils and vices from the country. Shahid Amin in his essay Gandhi as Mahatma: Gorakhpur District, Eastern UP, says, The 1910s movements and organizations of Hindi, Hindu Culture and social reformnagri sabhas, pathshalas (vernacular schools), gaushalas (asylums for cattle), sewa samithis (social service leagues) and sudrak sabhas (reform associations) of various sorts provided the support and cover for nationalist activity all backed by popular Gandhi belief even in the rural villages and undeveloped regions. Each type of these sociopolitical movements served nationalism in its own way, but there was a considerable amount of overlapping in their functions and interestsYagya (sacrifice) was performed; a Sanskrit Pathshala and a gaushala endowed with financial support from traders, arrangements made for the orderly running of Ramlilas and melas, and panchayats set up for the arbitration of disputes.2

The name Gandhi and his prescribed guidelines were means enough to resolve the village disputes. Gandhiji gave new strength and new confidence to Indian languages which suffered contempt, neglect, indifference and disgrace for a long time. In his relation to art Gandhiji describes, I can make no literary pretensions. My acquaintance with Gujarati, and, for that matter, any literature, is, for no fault of mine, next to nothing.3

The inspiration and influence which our literatures of all languages have imbibed from him is well noted in the theater, folk activities and literary writings based on his life, preachings, and ideologies and of course his welfare activities nationwide. Such a medium produced an immediate feedback from the audience from all parts of the country, as things got well assimilated into their hearts and minds, and the whole of India could respond unitedly at his call. The anti-Gandhians might feel the above view as biased and unreal but it is a veritable truth that Gandhiji was represented as a sage by the Indian Congress in its political campaigns, policy wise and his accessories esp. the loin cloth, his stick and very nominal life style were

modes that themselves spoke for the Mahatma and helped in establishing him as a saintly preacher and a sincere freedom worker. This worked havoc in the Indian minds especially in the village folk, who were basically religion bound and not at all conscious about the then political and economic domination of the country. The literary writers of the period were also no exceptions to the above phenomenon. The writers working in different languages in those days were mostly persons who had come either directly under Gandhijis influence and many had taken part in the freedom movements, or they were highly influenced by his ideals. Their writings were immensely burdened with Gandhian idealism, lifestyle, his teachings and anti-colonial stands. Bhabani Bhattacharya specifically sums up the elements that the then writers incorporated from Gandhiji: In every Indian literature a new thinking emerged. There was to be shift of emphasis from the rich to the poor, from the intellectual to the man of character and inner culture, from the educated to the illiterate and the voiceless, and deep rooted in these revaluations was social reform.4

Krishna Kripalani puts, apart from its political repercussions, it was both moral and intellectual and at once inhibitive and liberating.Gandhi stripped urban life and elegance of their pretension and emphasized that religion without compassion and culture without conscience were worthless. He transfigured the image of India as she was poor, starving and helpless, but with an untapped potential of unlimited possibilities.5

Gandhiji was so much part and form of any literary genre of that period that he made appearance in many dramas, novels, stories and in poems. Gandhijis social activities were development oriented and his idealism was democratic, rural and homogeneous in nature. It was not only the literary writers who played an active role in reflecting the then Gandhi-mania of the entire country but also the nationalist Press and local newspapers and journals which portrayed the bhakti cult of the Mahatma through different anecdotes, feature articles, soft news and of course, snippets, thereby proving the immense popularity of the political figure who was slowly turned into a divine entity, a messiah who was sure to bring a revolution in human history as Buddha or Christ could. Newspapers like the Swadesh, Aaj, Abhyudaya, Gyan Shakti and local dailies, pamphlets etc all

contributed accordingly and respectively in portraying the local reactions in favour of Gandhiji and thereby popularizing him. The myth of the Mahatma was a result of the projections of the existing patterns of popular beliefs about the worship of the holy miraculous sages in rural India. Gandhi-teachings became so popular that they were pronounced as everyday bread and butter facts and the more they got discussed the mode did they gain in importance, magnitude, and matter. As a result of this many new things got assimilated in the name of the Mahatma and rumors made room in accordingly, thereby increasing his popularity by leaps and bounds, that neither the Mahatma nor the Congress circulated. Stories like Mahatma walking through the fire unhurt, the Mahatma bringing independence in 1921, Mahatma insisting vegetarianism and condemning fish and meat in people etc. were some common subversions made in Gandhis name. Gandhiji insisted on high thinking and simple living which was also reflected and highlighted by the literary English authors of the time, mainly Raja Rao, Mulk Raj Anand, R. K. Narayanan, who in their novels and stories portrayed the real picture of the the-then society from various perspectives, thereby presenting the influence of Gandhi on Indian villages and towns, letting us a scope to probe how Gandhijis ways of developmental communication created effects on human lives bringing a sea change in their thoughts, views and living. Almost all of their novels represent events which distinctly correspond to the examples of actual incidents and teachings that Gandhiji in real life encoded during his visits at various places. The crux of the morale or bottom spread of Gandhism, which the novels often portray by vicarious means and events are: 1. Unity among all religions especially Hindu-Muslim Unity. 2. People should not adhere to extremist means of protest, i.e. they should be non-violent and not use domestic arms like lathis, sharp weapons, and stop picketing and looting places. 3. Stop the evil practices of untouchability, castism, enmity among classes, hatred, lying, swearing but spreading of brotherhood, love and unity among all races instead. 4. Stop consumption of tobacco, ganja-smoking, gambling, stop swearing, using slang, whoring, and beating the womenfolk at home, sex-crimes and the like.

5. Boycotting foreign goods, educational, economic and legal institution. 6. Take up the initiative to spin, weave, cultivate, study, learn and teach, control sex, family planning, lead a simple living, self-sacrifice and selfpurification. 7. People will not betray their help-seeker; they should be honest, progressive and self-confident about their country, resources and abilities. 8. Believe in the truth, face the truth and apply it in life, realization of Swaraj, grace of God, strength of the united people when motivated towards one goal peacefully. Citing some examples from the Kanahapura, by Raja Rao, often called a Gandhian novel, my paper which is meant to act as a resource for the post graduate students reading Kanthapura, would strive to show how the novelist portrays the process of community development through Gandhian means and social teachings, in rural India, which above all was backed by the need to be independent from the British colonization and the development of the nation consequently ,through effective communicative means and a will to make India a Gandhian country or Ramraj, garneted with everything very Indian in nature. The most important and common fact that we find in the Gandhi novels is that they talk of a distinct village, a representative of all villages in rural India and the rural folk same as others, immersed in their Gandhi- their savior, their God. Mahatmas image takes form within pre-existing patterns of popular belief and ritual action corresponding to their demographic customs. There are few who oppose him and are swept away in importance and deeds by the Gandhi followers and the whole lot take Gandhian as their life irrespective of any troublesome consequence. The procedure of development as said before was through group communication, through the political meetings held by the Mahatma or occasional visits by him at various places to perform a righteous deed for a great cause i.e. freedom. The other way was automatic trans-creation of religious slokas to Gandhi slokas or Gandhi Puranas, which found way to stages, temples through songs, Keertans and Jatras. Such was his popularity that things associated with him got his name attached to it as a suffix or a prefix like Swaraj was called as GandhiSwarajorMahatma Swaraj only because of his tremendous influence. Gandhi is now transformed into Mahatma, great souls, whose words are like that of the Lord and must be adhered to, and the authenticity or the purpose, the deep rooted

meaning is never to be questioned. Such feeling was common to most of the ignorant people and women folk of the village who went on chanting stories and songs about the Mahatma without even properly understanding them; such is the scene in R. K. Narayanans Waiting for the Mahatma, where we find the hero Sriram becoming a blind follower of Gandhiji and joining the freedom movement but not at all understanding what Gandhian is actually about. There are people who still remain a Gandhian even if their leader leaves them or the Mahatma is defeated, severely criticized or if the Sahibs put them behind bars. In Narayanans The Vendor of Sweets, Jagan considers himself a staunch Satyagrahi, spins the charka regularly, and equates himself with achieving Nirvana, like the Buddha, by following the principles of Gandhism. Bakha in Anands Untouchable, is introduced before Gandhism in the end, as redemption from the social evils of untouchability and casteism. After listening to the speech of Gandhiji as a counsel from God, Bakhas life becomes more tolerable from the next day. Kanthapura sketches the step by step social development of a south Indian village Kanthapura, and its people, who following Gandhiji became successful not only in forming a Swadeshi or anti-colonial group and performing anti-colonial protests but also redeeming their village from the social evils of untouchability, Castesism, women backwardness, dis-unity and toddy or wine drinking. Gandhijis popular effects are noticed when we hear him chanted in a Keertan or in a village-made swadeshi song, songs sung as preface to anti-colonial protests, as he is considered as the main Lord of inspiration behind all actions and all political activities. When the entire village carries out an anti-colonial protest against the Skeffington Estate, the coolies cry out, Mahatma Gandhi ki jai! and we (the villagers) say Mahatma, Mahatma, Gandhi Mahatma!, and they put their mouths to our ears and say Gandhi Mahatma ki jai!, as a source of inspiration, strength and will power. Kanthapura experiences a total reformation from a place with a common term, village to a village in the real sense of the term, in the end, where there is no caste distinction, backwardness and religious fanatism, but self-employment, women emancipation, love, social awareness and of course the pride of their Sthalapurana. The enthusiasm that Gandhiji generated, the expectations he aroused and the attack he launched on the British authority, had all combined to initiate the very first anti- colonial movements in the peasant India which could lead to the conceptualization of an over turning of the power structure not only in its international aspect between the British and India but also within the country

where a peasant could now dare to violate a landlord, a farmer the unjust priest or police, or a high class - a pariah. The development is gradually noticed in form of the incidents through out the novel, from the mouth of the narrator, Moorthy and the village folk, all in an interesting and story telling manner. So Moorthy goes from house to house, and from younger brother to elder brother, and from elder brother to the grandfather himself, and what do you think?he even goes to the Potters quarter and the Weavers quarter and the Sudra quarter, .We said to ourselves, he is one of these Gandhi-men, who say there is neither caste nor clan nor family, and yet they pray like us and they live like us. Only they say too, one should not marry early, one should allow widows to take husbands and a Brahmin might marry a pariah and pariah a Brahmin.(p.15). Again, when we come to matters like keeping an uncorrupted spirit by the grace of God we see Achakka narrating: Ah! says Range Gowda. And I shall not close my eyes till that dog has eaten filth, but Moorthy interrupts him and says such things are not to be said, and that hatred should be plucked out of our hearts and that the Mahatma says you must love even your enemies. (p.75). The development is prominent and is bound to take place as we find the villagers equating Gandhiji with Brahma, Shiva and Krishna who were all Saviours in our Hindu mythology and anything said by them is bound to be true. The most interesting matter that one must note is that the entire change or transformation, social and civic, as carried on by Moorthy , the representative of Gandhiji, is done only by different modes of communication through group discussions, religious chants, Ramlilas, gram sabhas, etc. based on Gandhi-talks and no non-violent measures are needed or introduced. The Harikatha man, Jayramachar while telling a story from Hindu mythology tells You remember how Krishna, when he was but a babe of four, had began to fight against demons and had killed the serpent Kali. So too our Mohandas began to fight against the enemies of the country. And as he grew up, and after he was duly shaven for the hair ceremony, he began to go out into the villages and assemble people and talk to them, and his voice was so pure, his forehead was so brilliant with wisdom, that men followed him, more and more men followed him as they did Krishna the fluteplayer, and so he goes from village to village to slay the serpent of the foreign rule. Fight, says he, but harms no soul. Love all, says he He is a saint, the Mahatma, a wise man and a soft man, and a saint. You know how he fasts and prays. And even his enemies fall at his feet.(p.18). All the village folk irrespective of their caste distinction now came up to the temple and swore the oath unanimously to

serve the county My Master, I shall spin a hundred yards of yarn per day, and shall practice ahimsa, and I shall seek Truth, and they fell prostrate and asked for the blessings of the Mahatma and the gods, and they rose and crawled back to their seats. (p.81). A certain village gossip reveals that girls, who are quite aged to bring up children, go to the universities and talk to this boy and that boy and one, too, I heard went and married a Mohammedan.(p.33). Moorthy, the miniature Mahatma, in the story, experiences an epiphany and it is Gandhijis loving touch and words that makes him a Gandhi-man, leading him to boycott foreign goods and quit foreign university. In a progressive meeting, Moorthy counsels a woman: To wear cloth spun and woven with your own God given hands is sacred, says the Mahatma. And it gives work to the workless and work to the lazy. And if you dont need the cloth sister, give it away to the poor...... Our country is being bled to death by foreigners. We have to protect our mother (p.23). Again, in the village Brahmins sit with the Pariahs in the meetings and eat and sing in the temple. Kanthapura now arranges for even adult Night Schools and Pariah Night Schools. Once in an anti-colonial protest, a Pariah saves a Brahmin and a Brahmin leaves way to a Pariah too. Thus, Kanthapura relates the story of a village, socially and morally uplifted, by the effective developmental communication processes of Gandhiji. But Moorty, the village Gandhi, in the end, leaves Gandhism, joins the Nehru group and writes in a letter Is there no Swaraj in our states and is there not misery and corruption and cruelty there? Oh no, Ratna, it is the way of the master that is wrong. And I have come to realize bit by bit. (p. 183). Though the magical effect of Gandhiji was found bulleted through, to a certain extent, by the introduction of other idealisms, for the common people it was like the God imprisoned for His wrong ways and the huge mass of disciples found no soil under their feet, but still they managed to keep faith on the Lord as He still was the source of strength and existence in their lives. Though Moorthy leaves Gandhi and Kanthapura, yet the other village members stay back firm rooted in Gandhi and the narrator says, They say Rangama is all for the Mahatma. We are all for the Mahatma. Pariah Rachannas wife, Rachi, and Seethamma and Timmamma are all for the Mahatma. They say there are men in Bombay and men in Punjab, and men and women in Bombay and Bengal and Punjab, who are all for the Mahatma. They say that the Mahatma will go to the Red-mans country and he will get us Swaraj . and Rama will come back from exile, and sita will be with him for Ravana will

be slain and Sita freed, and he will come back with Sita on his right in a chariot of the air, and brother Bharata will go to meet them with the worshipped sandal of the Master on his head. (p. 183). The faith and religious coating on the bitter political truth is prominent and Rama, i, e the Mahatma, will go to England in the Round Table Conference and bring back Sita i, e independent India from the Ravanas i, e the British and Pt. Neheru i,e Bharata will welcome the Mahatma as The Ramayana dictates. It was essentially a Gandhi-Purana that the ordinary village folk understood and because of such religious orientation, the majority of the people blindly followed Gandhi. Despite everything, it is an uncontested truth that it was Gandhiji who introduced the National consciousness among people irrespective of class, caste and religion, not only through religious coated speeches or political campaigns but also bringing the genuine realization of the need to be united against the British to fight back freedom by observing certain social, civic, psychological and behavioural changes in society. It was the body language, his way of life, the gestures, and philosophic chantings and of course, the motivating speech of the Mahatma that played havoc in the minds of the people and they took him as their God, their guide. Moreover, the persons who went near him were so ve ry much influenced by him that when they returned to their villages, being inspired, they told and reacted more than that they have seen and invited people to join in the freedom movement lead by Gandhiji. It was like listening to a story of a great, wise man where it was the duty of the ordinary listener to co-operate and join him to give success to a great mission for the country. R. K. Narayanans The Guide takes us back to the Natyashastras philosophy, where the communication for certain development a Guru-Chela relationship should be maintained and the ways of the Guru is to be taken as the ways of the Lord. Unquestionable faith and devotion leads to moksha or union with God and thus whatever Raju, a railway guide utters becomes a Vedanta and his life a doyen for all common people. His sacrifice takes form of a divine contribution for the people of the earth. So Velan like the others is unwilling to believe Rajus past, that he was a fraud and prisoner after all, and thus acts obediently according to his holy words. So in all aspects, it is the communication in different forms that creates miracles and tends people towards positive development, only that it must be mass oriented and it must affect the receivers psychology.

Indian history never saw such an upsurge of faith, unity in action, united will, community feeling and social development, without any expensive spending as in the Gandhian Age from the grass root level. He himself was a means of communication for the people between the British and the Indians, as he had a well formed conception about the motherland and her people, their needs and their mind set which helped him to attain millions of disciples and act as a positive social worker with the help of traditional ways of communication. Scopes for further research lies in the fact whether Gandhijis motives, ideals, teachings etc. and their consequences were right or not but it must be undoubtedly concluded that nothing but such tactful means of communication through the Folk media and myth was the only way to foster revolutionary feelings in the ignorant poor villagers thereby making them realize the need for change and self-development. It was my sincere effort to unveil the logic behind Gandhijis use of myths, puranas, harinaamkeertans and padayatras as primary tools behind his freedom campaigns and what effects they produced in the minds of the people together with how he could bring certain social and ideological betterment in the villages, their social life and attitude towards life, at least as portrayed by the the-then literary writers.

Works Cited 1. Agarwal Virbala and Gupta V. S. A Handbook of Journalism and Mass

Communication, Concept Publishing Company; New Delhi, 2001. 2. Amin Shahid, Gandhi as Mahatma: Gorakhpur District, Eastern UP,

Subaltern Studies III.Writings on South Asian History and Society, ed. by Ranagit Guha, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1984. 3. Bhatnagar M.K, The Insights into The Novels of R.K. Narayanan; Atlantic

Publishers and Distributors, Nice Printing Press, New Delhi, India, 2002. 4. Dalton Dennis Nonviolence in Action Gandhis Power; Oxford University Press,

New Delhi,1998. 5. Ghosh Avik, Communication, Technology and Human Development: Recent

eperience in Indian social Sector; Sage Publication, New Delhi, India, 2005.

6.

Gowda D. Javare, Inaugural Address National Seminar on Gandhiji in Indian

Literature, Mysore, 1970, University of Karnataka Press, Karnataka.1971. 7. Kumar J. Keval, Mass Communication in India; Jaico Publishing House,

Snehesh Printers, Mumbai, India, 2004. 8. Naik Dr. M. K, English National Seminar on Gandhiji in Indian Literature,

Mysore, 1970, University of Karnataka Press, Karnataka.1971. 9. Naik Dr. M. K, A History of Indian English Literature, Sahitya Academy, New

Delhi, 1982. 10. Nayak H. M, Welcome Speech National Seminar on Gandhiji in Indian

Literature, Mysore, 1970, University of Karnataka Press, Karnataka.1971. 11. All quotations of the novel Kanthapura are cited from Rao Raja, Kanthapura;

Orient Paperbacks, V. K Printers, New Delhi, India, 1970

References 1. Naik Dr. M. K, A History of Indian English Literature, Sahitya Academy, New Delhi, 1982. 2. See Ranagit Guha, Subaltern Studies III. Writings on South Asian History and Society (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1984) 3. Gujarat and Its Literature, by Munshi K. M. p. v (Nayak H. M., Welcome Speech National Seminar on Gandhiji in Indian Literature, Mysore, 1970) University of Karnataka Press, Karnataka,1971. 4. Bhabani Bhattacharya, Gandhi the Writer, p.226 (See Nayak H. M, Welcome Speech National Seminar on Gandhiji in Indian Literature, Mysore, 1971) 5. Krishna Kripalini, Modern Indian Literature, p.79 (See Nayak H. M, Welcome Speech National Seminar on Gandhiji in Indian Literature, Mysore, 1971)

* This article, by Ms. Koyel Chakrabarty, Lecturer in English, BRCM College of Engineering and Technology, Haryana. e-mail: write2koyel@yahoo.co.in. entitled: Gandhian Influence on Indian Writing in English: An assessment of the effects of developmental Communication, as used in the Political Campaigns by Gandhiji, portrayed by the Contemporary Indian English Novelists., was published in the Academic Journal of Hooghly Mohsin Govt. College, Chinsurah, West Bengal, Vol-3; ISSN: 0973-6212, in 2007.

Sys Scr Bec It Ord The Its

E m b r a ci n g C h a n g e q u o t a bl e q u o te s R o . n K c . h N a a r n a g y e a a n

tem um omi re will ers Futi gro ine Eve s ng is bea mu lity win vita ry req Unc agil ver imp st of g ble no uire erta e y orta cha Fig unp that Unc w inty me fan nt nge htin redi req erta and . Introduction From Gandhi, to Gandhiji, to Mahatma and Bapu, nts Prin ans cy to rapi g cta uire inty the Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi has traveled the distance from being can cipl acc tec org dly Ch bilit me is n I the national hero to a legend. Gandhi, in life, was much more. Gandhi not e epti hni ani in ang y of nts inh co was a thinker, a philosopher, and also a statesman. He believed he eve is: ng cal ze res e: the will ere could lead only if he was a worthy leader. To be a worthy leader he me r be Cus unc ter pon Re futu cha nt had to be morally strong. As he used to say, A liar could not teach acr stat tom erta m se quir re nge his pupils to speak the truth, a coward can not train young men to be and oss ed ers inty biol proj to em is brave. So to be morally strong, he believed one has to be strong in . ine a spirit. To be strong in spirit, one must live in accordance with one's fully don abo ogi ect cha ent one Bus vita goo beliefs, by a strict code of conduct. With such an all-encompassing in t ut sts s nge s, of ine ble d vision of life, every area of human life was of interest to Gandhi. adv kno use with in Its tec the ss in quo Very little escaped his attention. And a cursory glance would never anc w futu to eno circ not hno mo nee soft do for Gandhi. He would mull over a subject, think about it during te e, wh re des ugh um the logi st ds Oc Is war his periods of silence or incarceration, write about it, discuss it, abo not at as crib agili sta stro es, cha evo experiment with it in his own life-- whether it was the subject of to you e ut eve the a e ty nce nge tea llen lve, be fasting, giving up salt in his food, celibacy, abstinence or the use of r dev em n y way co to s. st ms, gin neIf r in non-violence as a political tool. II. Gandhis Early Life Mahatma fav elo bra Gandhi was born on Oct 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India. His parents prin wa of mpl be one wh prio g w 10 orit Re pm cin belonged to the Vaisya (merchant) caste of Hindu's. Gandhi was a , cipl nt dea etel abl stic o ritie asp use e quir ent g shy and serious boy and grew up in an atmosphere of religious Pa 19 e, unti ling y e ks sur s, ect rsto quo em pro the tolerance and acceptance of teachings of various Hindu sects. When d 06 bec l with sta ada to vive co s orof te ent ces he was 13 years old, he married Kasturibhai, a girl of the same age. fact m (1 aus ble pt , mp the mar abo s ses The wedding was arranged according to custom by his parents. The that a M 90 e y futu syst to ide nor ani ne ket Gandhi's had four children. At the age of 19, Gandhi traveled to ut cha and Wh cha Vi ay 6- England to study law. In London he began develop his philosophy of see re. em a the es, w s soft nge pro en nge bh 13 10 life. He also studied the great Indian religious classic the Bhagavaduse it, Any s. add that mo usa eco are war s duc the and us , - Gita and also turned to the New Testament of the Bible and to the r and proj Thi itio onc st ge, no ide e late ts. rate unc teachings of the Buddha. In 1891 Gandhi returned to India to practice ha 20 10 doe the ect s nal e inte use my: ntifi cha in -of erta n, 01 ) law but met with little success. III. Gandhi in Africa In 1893,Gandhi snt y is dev hig em set, llige rs, ed, nge the H. cha It Tur inty Sa (2 M went to South Africa to do some legal work. South Africa was then kno alw elo hly erg a nt, eve bus /un lifec Ziv nge not under British rule. Almost immediately, he was abused because he bul are hit 00 ad w ays pm sop enc pla but ryth ine was an Indian who claimed his rights as a British subject. He saw that cert ycle and out nec enc an ya 1ra res ent histi e n the ing ssof aint are D.J. sid ess all Indians suffered from discrimination. His law assignment was for Inf e ess Ak 05 s, m erv effo cat ne sho one will rule one year, but he stayed on in South Africa for 21 years to work for y co Ric e ary Do lu ad Bri Indian rights. Gandhi led many campaigns in South Africa and edited in enti in e rt ed w uld cha s mis mp har exc to ubt e 13 tis a newspaper, Indian Opinion. As a part of sahyagraha, he promoted bot al en adv the sho tec sou not mo nge and sin etiti dso eed cha is mi ) h civil disobedience campaigns and organized a strike among Indian h inh ce anc righ uld hni rce be st . gov g ve n, s nge not A (a In Miners. Gandhi also worked for the British when he thought justice bus ere d[ e-t of be cal s to cha ada The ern fro adv The the ; a was on their side. They decorated him for medical work in the Anglowa ge di ine nt not cha a ter unp nge pta re me sh Boer war. Gandhi fully developed his philosophy of life in South m ant Unc rate sur ple rd, d a ss real eve nge bal m redi d, ble are nt a Africa. He was greatly influenced by writings of Leo Tolstoy's and o the age erta of viva asa AC Fic 94 (n and ity n thei anc is cta bus to thin reg abo , IF inty cha l is ntin John Ruskin but his greatest influence on him was Bhagavad-Gita, w] Be tio ) ow tec of prin r e the ble ine cha gs ulat which became an unfailing source of inspiration. IV. Spiritual Reality ve? you Prin nge not con ns n, Ch hno soft in Africa Gandhi believed that all life was a part of one ultimate cipl min bet wor cha ss nge you ion Al Lea can cipl insi ma diti on My en spiritual reality. The supreme goal was self-realization; the log war e. d. we d nge . can s in ex ve act e de, nda on, M th na y e realization that one's true self was identical with ultimate reality. He en DE . not are -a on Soft the tory but an ed ol i, believed that all religions contain some element of truth and this cau dev To Jeff anti AD! -exis kno revi attri co the war end . cert accounted for his own religious tolerance. Gandhi experimented with al, N og Ta de ses elo ass Sut cip Bar t in wfor sed WRI but communal living at the Phoenix farm and the Tolstoy's farm in South mm m! e is -aint Pa ot y, mi r cha pm TTE ert herl atio Ch ry lon unti , is SAT ed ent -Eng sig W. y d ab an l N M nge ent. URD oth n ang Boe g. l and to and Mar ine ht. 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