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Unit 09 Computer Networks Name: Name:

BTEC Level 3

Task 1

Network Systems & Protocols

In pairs, investigate different types of network topologies. In each case import an image and identify with clear reasons the likely environments where each network may be installed. Include in the above reasons any advantages and disadvantages for each network system and how they relate to particular network standards and protocols.

Expand boxes below

Bus topology uses a common backbone to connect all the network devices in a network. A single cable functions as the shared communication medium for all the devices attached with this cable with an interface connector. The device, which wants to communicate, sends the broadcast message to all the devices attached with the shared cable but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes that message. Ethernet bus topologies are easy to install and dont require much cabling and only a main shared cable is used for network communication. Ethernet cables used in the Bus topology. Also, Bus network works with very limited devices. Performance issues are likely to occur in the Bus topology if more than 12-15 computers are added in a Bus Network. Additionally, if the Backbone cable fails then all network becomes useless and no communication fails among all the computers. Advantages Easy to implement and extend. Easy to install. Well-suited for temporary or small networks not requiring high speeds (quick setup), resulting in faster networks. Cheaper than other topologies Cost effective; only a single cable is used. Easy identification of cable faults.

Bus Topology

Disadvantages Limited cable length and number of stations. If there is a problem with the cable, the entire network breaks down. Performance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traffic (shared bandwidth).


Significant Capacitive Load (each bus transaction must be able to stretch to most distant link). It works best with limited number of nodes. Commonly has a slower data transfer rate than other topologies.
Ring Topology

In ring Network, every computer or device has two adjacent neighbours for communication. In a ring network, all the communication messages travel in the same directory whether clockwise or anti clockwise. Any damage of the cable of any cable or device can result in the breakdown of the whole network. Ring topology now has become almost obsolete. FDDI, SONET or Token Ring Technology can be used to implement Ring Technology. Ring topologies can be found in offices, schools or small buildings. Advantages Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit Performs better than a bus topology under heavy network load Does not require network server to manage the connectivity between the computers

Disadvantages One malfunctioning workstation or bad port in the MAU can create problems for the entire network Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the network Network adapter cards and MAU's are much more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load
Mesh Topology

Mesh topology work on the concept of routes. In Mesh topology, message sent to the destination can take any possible shortest, easiest route to reach its destination. In the previous topologies star and bus, messages are usually broadcasted to every computer, especially in bus topology. Similarly in the Ring topology message can travel in only one direction i.e. clockwise or anticlockwise. Internet employs the Mesh topology and the message finds its route for its destination. Router works in find the routes for the messages and in reaching them to their destinations. The topology in which every device connects to every other device is called a full Mesh topology unlike in the partial mesh in which every device is indirectly connected to the other devices. Advantages There are dedicated links used in the topology, which guarantees, that each connection is able to carry its data load, thereby eliminating traffic problems, which are common, when links are



shared by multiple devices. It is a robust topology. When one link in the topology becomes unstable, it does not cause the entire system to halt. If the network is to be expanded, it can be done without causing any disruption to current users of the network. It is possible to transmit data, from one node to a number of other nodes simultaneously Troubleshooting, in case of a problem, is easy as compared to other network topologies. This topology ensures data privacy and security, as every message travels along a dedicated link. Disadvantages

It requires a lot more hardware (cables, etc.) as compared to other Local Area Network (LAN) topologies. The installation and configuration of this topology is very complicated and can get very messy. A large number of Input / Output (I/O) ports are required. It is an impractical solution, when large numbers of devices are to be connected to each other in a network. The cost of installation and maintenance is high, which is a major disadvantage.
Tree Topology

Tree topologies are comprised of the multiple star topologies on a bus. Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. Only the hub devices can connect directly with the tree bus and each Hub functions as a root of a tree of the network devices. This bus/star/hybrid combination supports future expandability of the computer networks, much better than a bus or star. Advantages It is the best topology for a large computer network for which a star topology or ring topology is unsuitable due to the sheer scale of the entire network. Tree topology divides the whole network into parts that are more easily manageable. Tree topology makes it possible to have a point to point network. All computers have access to their immediate neighbours in the network and also the central hub. This kind of network makes it possible for multiple network devices to be connected with the central hub. It overcomes the limitation of star network topology, which has a limitation of hub connection points and the broadcast traffic induced limitation of a bus network topology. A tree network provides enough room for future expansion of a network.




Dependence of the entire network on one central hub is a point of vulnerability for this topology. A failure of the central hub or failure of the main data trunk cable can cripple the whole network. With increase in size beyond a point, the management becomes difficult.
Star Topology

The most commonly used topology in LAN is the star topology. Star topologies can be implemented in home, offices or even in a building. All the computers in the star topologies are connected to central devices like hub, switch or router. The functionality of all these devices is different. Computers in a network are usually connected with the hub, switch or router with the Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) or Shielded Twisted Pair Cables. As compared to the bus topology, a star network requires more devices & cables to complete a network. The failure of each node or cable in a star network, wont take down the entire network as compared to the Bus topology. Advantages

Better performance: star topology prevents the passing of data packets through an excessive number of nodes. At most, 3 devices and 2 links are involved in any communication between any two devices Isolation of devices: Each device is inherently isolated by the link that connects it to the hub. This makes the isolation of individual devices straightforward and amounts to disconnecting each device from the others. This isolation also prevents any non-centralized failure from affecting the network. Simplicity: This topology is easy to understand, establish, and navigate. Its simplicity obviates the need for complex routing or message passing protocols. Also, as noted earlier, the isolation and centralization it allows simplify fault detection, as each link or device can be probed individually. Easy to install and wire. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.

Disadvantages High dependence of the system on the functioning of the central hub Failure of the central hub renders the network inoperable The performance and scalability of the network depends on the capabilities of the hub Network size is limited by the number of connections that can be made to the hub Other nodes may see a performance drop if traffic to another node occupies a significant portion of the central node's processing capability or


throughput. Wiring up of the system can be very expensive.



Collision Issues

To overcome data collision issue, Ethernet has a solution called CSMA/CD and is commonly referred to as the backoff algorithm. Create a diagram in Microsoft Visio and import into the box provided. Refer to this diagram to help you explain how to overcome data collisions on a computer network system. Image: CSMA/CD (Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection)



Task 3 Peer-to-Peer & Client Server Networks

How to overcome data collisions


Collision is very normal in Ethernet networks where only one networking device can send data at one time. When two computers send the information out at the same time same, the information collides and creates the collision. The collision Create a PowerPoint comparing the benefits and the will cause the information to be lost and fail client-server networks. For disadvantages of peer-to-peer and the transmission. CSMA-CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) control import evidence, you will need to demonstrate your presentation, mechanism is applied for enabling packet re-transmission after detecting also your slides and presentations notes in the table below and the collision. It is a set of rules which determines how network devices respond when record it as a short video. two devices attempt to use a data channel at the same time. This is the data collision!
Expand boxes to suit your presentation

CSMA/CD is used to monitor the traffic on the line at all of the different workstations. If there is no data being transmitted (information being sent) at that time, the station PowerPoint Slide can transmit the data across. Presentation Notes However, if two stations try to send the data at simultaneous times, this causes Title Page the collision. This is detected by all of the workstations which are linked and after a random time interval, the stations which collided attempt to send the information again. CSMA is most commonly used in half-duplex Ethernet connections. The protocol is half-duplex, which implies that a station may either receive or transmit data, but not at the same time. Example: Machine A and machine C both check to see if there is any traffic on the lines and that they are clear to send data. When checking they both see that the lines are clear and send the data at simultaneous times, causing a data collision. A

Peer to peer networks have no server controlling the network. All of the systems on the network are joined together meaning that they can share all of their information. The security on peer-to-peer networks is not the best, as you can only put passwords on folders but peer-to-peer networking is the best way to either share a home internet connection or play networking games together other the network. 6





There are many advantages and disadvantages of peer-to-peer network compared to client-server, depending on where you are using your network and what it is being used for. Peer-to-peer networking works better with 2-8 systems linked to the network. If there are too many then it doesnt always work as fast and efficiently. The security is also very poor (can only put passwords on files) and backup and data recovery on the systems is difficult. Therefore each computer should have its own back up. Although there are a few disadvantages there are also advantages, the main one being they are very easy and simple to set up. Also if one computer fails to work, all of the others will continue to run. (Opposite to client-server) The cost of building and maintaining the peer-to-peer network system is a lot less than the client server networks. And there is also no need for a system administrator as users personally administrate their machines.

Client-server networks allow clients to be able to log onto the network. This network allows a large amount of systems on the network, whereas the peer-to-peer only works with 2-8 systems on the network. These client-server networks are very wide-ranging, such as Facebook and Skype and other communication systems, 8


Group: online gaming systems and web servers being accessed by many clients. The client server networks need a better quality network as the network will be a lot busier due to the amount of systems on the network. It may also need a system with higher specification computer.



Client-server networks work in a different way to peer-to-peer networks. The security and back up on the client-server network is a lot more efficient. As all of the data is stored on the server it is easy to make a back up of it, and can be very easily recovered if data is lost. Security rights can be set up and adjusted to suit the needs of the user. Also changes to the network can be made very easily by upgrading the server. There is a centralised control in client-server networks, in which the servers help administering the whole set up. All of the access rights and resource allocation is done by the servers. Although there are a lot of advantages to the client-server networks the disadvantages also balance them out. The worst one being that when one of the servers goes down, all of the computers on the system cannot be used. Also if there are too many requests from the clients it may lead to congestion on the network. The client-server network also costs a considerable amount more than peer-to-peer network to set up and to run! They are also a lot more complicated to set up. Peer-to-peer networks should be installed in homes or in very small businesses where employees interact regularly. They are also inexpensive to set up compared to the client-server network. However, they offer almost no security. On the other hand, clientserver networks can become as 10


Group: big as you need them to be to support the company. Some support millions of users and offer the best and most updated security measures. An example of a client-server relationship is a file server. Computer systems connect to the server, which they then request a file from and the server will then deliver it. When this action is performed in a peer-to-peer network it is decentralized. The computers which are on the network all contact each other and agree between them to share files. Both the Client-Server network and Peer-to-Peer network are able to download files or upload files to the others.

Task 4

Network Protocols


Generate another presentation to answer the following questions listed below in order to decide why different networks standards are necessary. To meet the P2 criteria, you must address all five points.

Purpose of why TCP/IP model is used on all types network system

The benefit of a WAN standard

private packet-switching networks)

(public and

The benefit of a LAN standard

Wireless etc)

(IEEE Standards,




What protocols are used on a WAN


(layers 1 to

What protocols are used on a LAN


(layers 5 to

Note: You may consider the Internet to be an example of a WAN for this assignment task.