Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

Epic Study Guide

Cold War Unit


[Test Description: Short Answer, Fill-Ins, Dates, Chronology, Short Essay, and Quotes]

Test Part 1 The Cold War: When did it begin/end?

The Three Causes of the Cold War: (Mistrust, Fear, Suspicion) 1. Hitler was defeated in WWII, therefore we suddenly lacked a common enemy. Now we had no reason to be allies, and our economic and political differences became obvious. 2. We didnt let the Soviets in on our secret of the Atomic Bomb. They saw this and the bomb as a threat. We had it, they didnt. If we were their ally, we wouldve given them the plans, right? 3. Stalin broke his pledge at Yalta. He didnt allow free elections. We did not like this. We did not like communism. We feared further expansion of the Soviet Empire. This made us upset.

The Iron Curtain speech:


1.

Who gave it? a. Winston Churchill, Great Britains Prime Minister. When? a. March 1946.

2.

The First Test of Containment: The Berlin Airlift: When the USSR wanted to test us (and wanted us to give Berlin exclusively to them), they put up the Berlin wall. With thousands escaping to the West, it seemed like a good idea to put up the wall. By cutting power, supplies, and everything else to the West side of Berlin, the Soviets hoped they would starve to the point of giving in to their demands. But the US started the Berlin Airlift to prevent this. They also boosted morale by dropping packets of candy from the planes. At its high point, one plane landed every minute in the day in Berlin.

Charioteer: Charioteer was the US bombing strategy against the USSR should there ever be a nuclear attack. With 133 bombs aimed at their 7 main cities (8 aimed at Moscow, 7 aimed at Leningrad alone), and a predicted 7 million instant casualties, it was a deterrent to the USSR. The Doomsday Clock:
1.

What is it? a. An actual clock (based at the University of Chicago). The closer it is to midnight, the closer the world is estimated to global disaster. When and Why was it closest to Doomsday? a. In 1953, the clock was 2 minutes to midnight. This was due to the US and the USSR testing thermonuclear devices within 9 months of one another. When and Why was it furthest from Doomsday? a. In 1991, the clock was 17 minutes from midnight. This was due to the US and the USSR signing the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, a treaty which reduced the amount of nuclear weapons between the two superpowers.

2.

3.

The MAD Theory: The MAD Theory (Mutual Assured Destruction) is the idea that we will have enough nuclear bombs that even if a first strike is imposed on us by the USSR, and even if the USSR manages to hit us before we even launch our missiles, enough of our missiles would survive that they would be annihilated as well. This theory acted as a deterrent even if you do manage to sneak up on us, somehow, someway, you will still be destroyed. It was certainly a mad way to establish peace.

ICBMs:
1.

What are they? a. ICBMs (InterContinental Ballistic Missiles) are missiles with a long range (greater than 3,500 miles) designed for nuclear weapons delivery. These were often MIRVd (one missile with many warheads), allowing a single missile to strike many different targets. Name a few types of ICBMs: a. Titan, Atlas, Minuteman I,II, and III. (The Minutemen were the missiles that we MIRVd)

2.

The Victims of Nuclear Testing During the Cold War:


1.

Atomic Vets: Soldiers who were told to sit in bunkers and run in after a nuclear explosion to simulate a real life attack. Many of these soldiers wore stickers that told them if they had been exposed to lethal amounts of radiation. (Yeah, thatll save ya). Nuclear Nomads: Specifically, the Bikini Islanders, who allowed the US to use their land for a few days. They still havent been able to return to their homes due to the radiation fallout. Downwinders: People who lived downwind from test sites often received enormous bouts of radiation, sometimes having to evacuate their homes for many weeks before receiving clearance to go home.

2.

3.

Stanaslas Petrov: This was the guy that was on duty the night of the World Series when the computers told him that the US was launching their missiles at them. Despite all the things said by the US, how we would destroy them and such, he didnt believe it. He decided not to launch the Russian missiles back. He avoided Armageddon. He saved 100 million Americans, including ourselves.

The Bravo Shot vs. The Czar Bomb: The Czar bomb is fucking insane. Designed by Andri Sakharov, it was equivalent to 57 megatons of TNT. It weighed 20 tons, resulted in a 40 mile-high cloud, a flash seen from 620 miles away. You would receive 3rd degree burns if you stood 70 miles away from this thing. SEVENTY MILES. If you were standing on State Street in Madison, and this bomb went off in Milwaukee, you would get third degree burns. The Bravo Shot was no joke either. Though not even close to the Czar bomb, at only 1/3 its power (at only 15 megatons), the Bravo Shot was the largest bomb the US ever detonated. This was the bomb that made the Bikini Islanders nomads.

The Role of Sport in the Cold War:

Events in 1979 that made the Miracle on Ice more than just a hockey game: In 1979, the U.S. wasnt doing so hot. This made our victory in Lake Placid so much more than a hockey game; it made us happy to be Americans again. Here are some of the events that caused our malaise, and made our win in the 1980 Olympics to be so much more than just a hockey game:

1.

The Shah of Iran (basically, the King of Iran), was our ally for many years. In fact, he was our largest ally in the Middle East due to his fight against communism and large export of oil. He is a crucial ally of the U.S., and despite his downfalls, (His secret police the SAVAK, and oppressive rule), we figured his positives, such as modernizing the Middle East, would compensate. But the people were not happy. A religious radical named Ayatollah Khomeini and his group ousted the Shah from power. The Shah fled to many countries, finally selecting the U.S. for cancer treatment. The new radical state of Iran isnt happy that hes hiding, and wants him back to punish him for his crimes. The U.S. refuses, so Iran takes action. A group of Islamist students and militants took over the American Embassy in Tehran, taking 52 Americans hostage. As a country, we were powerless to help them. Furthermore, due to the loss of a powerful oil ally, gas prices shot through the roof, and for the first time in U.S. history, gasoline was unavailable.

2.

As one of the most advanced countries in the world, the United States prided itself on their nuclear technology. We were the best at it, we were awesome, and no one could keep up. We couldnt make any mistakes. But on March 28th, 1979, a near nuclear meltdown occurred at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, and was the worst accident in U.S. nuclear history. It resulted in the release of moderate amounts of radioactive gases into the environment. Many people had to evacuate for fear of radiation poisoning. Not what youd call a success for the U.S. On December 24th, 1979, the USSR invaded Afghanistan, which sounded our Commie Alarm. (To those of you with a brain the size of a peanut, that was a figure of speech). We couldnt exactly invade them, nor did we want to start a war. All we could do is threaten to boycott the Olympics. We were powerless once again. ---------------------------------------------TO SUM THAT UP:
1.

3.

Iranian Hostage Crisis a. Cant save hostages. b. Shortage in gas. Near Nuclear Meltdown a. Were supposed to be the top in Nuclear stuff. b. Causes uncertainty of the power of the U.S. Soviets Invade Afghanistan. a. Oh no! More communism! b. We cant stop them! -----------------------------------------------

2.

3.

The importance of the USA victory over the Soviets in the 1980 Olympics: If you read what I said above, its pretty obvious we needed a confidence booster. To quote Team America: World Police, we needed something to make us say America, Fuck Yeah! When the U.S. beat the Soviets, who hadnt lost the Olympics in 16 years, thats what we all thought. Whenever the Soviets beat us at something, all we have to say is *cough* 1980 *cough*. To make it more Mr. D like, it was also a point for us in our USA vs. USSR title match we were having (aka. The Cold War).

The events (in 1980/1981) following Lake Placid: After the Miracle on Ice, the yellow ribbon campaign (supporting the hostages in the Iranian Hostage Crisis) continues. April 1980 - About 2 months after the gold medal win, the rescue attempt for the hostages fails when a U.S. helicopter and plane collide during takeoff. 8 Americans die. Well done, America. July 1980 The Shah of Iran dies of melanoma in Cairo, Egypt. November 1980 The Iranians said that they wouldnt release the hostages until Carter was no longer the President of the United States. Well now its election time, and the two candidates are the current President, Carter, and some guy named Ronald Reagan. Seriously? Who the hell would choose Carter and NOT free the hostages? Reagan wins in a landslide. January 20th, 1981 - True to their word, one minute after Reagan is inaugurated, the hostages are released. The Americans rejoice. 1984 - Because the US boycotts the Summer Olympics in 1980, the USSR boycotts the Summer Olympics in 1984, getting even with the U.S. 1988 - The USSR leaves Afghanistan. ----------------------------------------------

The End of the Cold War:

The Role of President Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev In Ending The Cold War: Reagan and Gorbachev were the first leaders (of the US and USSR) to ever personally meet. They discussed arms reducing treaties as well as other ways to put an end to the Cold War. Gorbachev, a new type of bear, embraced freedom as a right to all, rather than crushing it like the former Soviet leaders. Reagan was a stone-hard anticommunist leader his first term, but slowly softened to the leadership of Gorbachev, eventually bringing an end to the Soviet Union and the Cold War.

An Overview Of The 5 Meetings Between Reagan and Gorbachev: November 1985: Geneva, Switzerland: The first true meeting between the two leaders. This was when they took a walk to ease their anger at points, but overall had a good time. This was also when Reagan took off his big coat for a publicity stunt to make him look even younger than Gorbachev. This meeting also demolished a huge misconception: that a nuclear war can be won. It cant. Reagan admitted this. Quotes: A nuclear war cannot be won and should never be fought Reagan This summit was a beginning, not an end Reagan To dialogue and conversation Gorbachev October 1986: Reykjavik, Iceland: Gorbachev comes with a huge proposition: to completely eliminate both nuclear arsenals (US and USSR). He has only one stipulation; Star Wars must be abandoned. Gorbachev said that research could be continued in the laboratory, but cannot be used in actuality. Being as stubborn as he was, Reagan declined, citing his promise to protect the US citizens freedom and future. Quotes: Its the laboratory -- or goodbye!-Gorbachev December 1987: Washington, D.C: Gorbachev comes to the US, and is treated by the American people like a rock star. Its here that the INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty), is signed, eliminating nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges (300-3,400 miles). This eliminated an entire class of weapons, improving relations between the countries and reducing the amount of missiles in their arsenal. This is the biggest event to occur in any of the 5 meetings between Reagan and Gorbachev. May 1988: Moscow, Soviet Union: Paying a visit to Gorbachev, Reagan brings on some of his steel right off the bat. Threatening to visit some Jewish dissidents with the media (infuriating many people and causing bad press for the USSR), as well as visiting a monastery and a college to speak, Reagan hammers away at the USSR. As Mr. D said however, he wasnt angry at Gorbachev, its leader. He was upset with the system itself. This meeting is where the Red Square Walk occurred, where the two leaders walked through the square where Lenin was buried, at the heart of the USSR. Quotes: Do you still consider Moscow to be the seat of evil? No. You are talking about another time, another era. Reagan and Reporters

December 1988: New York City: Their final meeting, this visit was intended to be a farewell visit before Reagan leaves office. They took some photos with the Statue of Liberty behind them. The reason New York was selected was that the UN meeting was there (United Nations), and Gorbachev was going to speak. This meeting at the UN is considered to be as important to ending the war as Churchills speech was to beginning it. Quotes: Freedom of choice is a universal principal there are no exceptions Gorbachev, at the UN Meeting.

A Different Kind of Bear: Alright, Ill just write what I think is important from this little grey sheet here I have in front of me. Its from that DVD or whatever: Around the time of Reagans second term in 1984, the combined strength of the US/USSRs nuclear arsenal amounted to 50,000+ warheads, with a combined 1,500,000x the power of Hiroshima. Gorbachev was different than all the other Soviet leaders. He was quicker, better educated (the first leader to go to college since Lenin). Others saw him as a breath of fresh air, as he began to talk of political reform. He saw the state of his country he saw the starving people and struggles of everyday life. Gorbachev and Reagan began exchanging letters in April 1985. They were very positive in these letters. Reagan offered to meet Gorbachev somewhere to help their countries together. Despite some of Reagans advisors opposing Gorbachev (Theyre commies! Theyll trick you! Etc.), they still met 5 times. He was indeed a different type of bear. Why do you think Reagan and Gorbachev were able to get along so well? I dont think theres just a once-off answer for this. This is a pretty easy answer to pull out of your ass, to be honest. They both wanted to change; they saw the ridiculousness of the nuclear buildup. Gorbachev saw the starving in the streets he knew the USSR would bleed to death to keep up with Reagan. And Reagan sat in his office one day and said this is a crazy way to initiate peace. There has to be a better way. Or something like that.

Quotes In Your Notes:


[Read these, and all other quotes in this paper. There are no repeats. There may be some I have missed.] It worked! Oppenheimer, after Trinity

The war is over! Groves, the military head of the Manhattan project, after Trinity. I am become death, the destroyer of worlds Oppenheimer, quoting the Hindu Scripture, after Trinity. My God, what have we done? The pilot of the Enola Gay I made one great mistake in my life, when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending that atom bombs be made.. but there was some justification the danger that the Germans would make them first Albert Einstein I would go to the fires of Hell and join forces with the Devil if it meant the defeat of Adolf Hitler Winston Churchill Whoever occupies a territory also imposes on it his own social, political, and economic systems Joseph Stalin Whoever sheds the most blood has the most rights to occupy countries Joseph Stalin I have a single demand of you Comrades, give us the bomb! Joseph Stalin (Insert Malaise Speech Here) President Carter We are going to stay, period President Truman Duck, and Cover Bert The Turtle We will bury you! Nikita Khruschev Do you believe in miracles? Yes! Announcer Al Michaels when the USA Olympic hockey team beat the USSR at the 1980 games You think you can win on talent alone? Gentlemen, you dont have enough talent to win on talent alone Herb Brooks.

Chronology Timelines:
Im sorry, Im not doing this. Its too much. But dont worry. It wont be too hard. Hell give you 5 events, you put them in order. If you remember the above, you should be fine

Test Part 2

World War II Introduction Material

The Formation of the Grand Alliance (The Big Three): 1. Who are they? a. The United States (Franklin Roosevelt), Great Britain (Winston Churchill), and the Soviet Union (Joseph Stalin).
2.

a.

Why did they join? It was an alliance of necessity, as all three needed to join together in order to defeat the threat of Nazi Germany.

3.

When did they join? a. The USA joined in December of 1941 after Pearl Harbor was bombed, and the USSR joins in June 1941 as well after Germany breaks the non-aggression pact.

The Trinity Test: 1. When was it? th a. July 16 , 1945 at 5:29.45AM


2.

Where was it? a. In the Alamogordo Desert, New Mexico. Why was it significant? a. It began the nuclear age, where people now had a new fear; the threat of the mushroom cloud. The US was also now the most powerful country in the world, with the ace in the hole. Stalins Response: a. Publicly, Stalin seemed happy about the test. However, in private, Stalin was furious. And I quote: I have a single demand of you comrades, give us the bomb!

3.

4.

The Role of Leo Szilard: Leo Szilard was a hungarian scientist who predicted what would happen if the US kept the atomic bomb to themselves. He was the one who predicted exactly what would come in the future: there would be an arms race, which would eventually cause our total destruction and doom (cue eerie music). Despite his pleas to the President, he was ignored. The Events on the A-Bomb Timeline: 1938 German scientists discover fission (splitting a uranium atom). Hitler and the Germans begin work on building an atomic bomb. 1939 Albert Einstein learns of their A-Bomb project and warns FDR. FDR is unconcerned as of yet. He didnt want to enter the war, but he kept the letter. Sept. 1939 WWII begins with the German invasion of Poland. As Polands ally, Great Britain declares war on Germany.

December 1941 The US enters WWII after declaring war on Japan after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. They then create the Grand Alliance, (US, GB, USSR). June 1941 The USSR joins the Grand Alliance after getting sick of Germany breaking the Treaty of Versailles. January 1942 FDR finds Einsteins letter, and orders US scientists to start building the ABomb. It becomes a race to beat the Germans. 1942-1945 Manhattan project in Los Alamos, New Mexico. July 1945 A-Bomb tested in Alamogordo Desert - Los Alamos, NM. Aug. 6th 1945 First A-Bomb dropped in Hiroshima. Japan debates surrender. Aug. 9th 1945 The second A-Bomb is dropped in Nagasaki. It was possibly unnecessary. Aug 14th 1945 Japan surrenders. WWII ends. The US/USSR emerge as the top superpowers after WWII. The US has the ace in their pocket, however. (The A-Bomb). 1949 The Soviets build the A-Bomb. Both nations fear an atomic bomb attack. The Yalta Conference:
1.

Where was it? a. Yalta, Ukraine on the Crimean Peninsula. When was it? February 1945.

2.

a. 3.

Who participated? a. The Grand Alliance. Agreements made (Promises made by Stalin): a. To allow free elections in Poland and other Soviet occupied territories in Europe. b. To help defeat Japan three months after the Germans surrender. c. Temporary division of Germany and Berlin into four occupation zones one for the US, GB, USSR, and France. d. A promise to join the newly formed United Nations. (However, Stalin wanted a seat on the permanent security and two seats in the general assembly three seats total). Promises Broken by Stalin: a. Stalin never allowed occupied countries to have free elections. Instead, he imposed communism on them. He pretended it was ok by saying, Whoever occupies a territory also imposes on it his own social, political, and economic systems. Whoever sheds the most blood has the most rights to occupy countries.

4.

5.

The Elbe River:


1.

Where was it? a. Really? Youre asking me Where was it?. It was on the fricken Elbe River. To be more specific, the specific portion near Torgau in Germany. When was it?

2.

a. 3.

It was on April 25th, 1945.

What happened here? a. Soviet and American soldiers met at the river, with the Soviets on one side and the Americans on the other. They began their invasion of Germany on different sides, and their meeting in the middle symbolized the defeat of Germany. It was the highest point between Soviet/American relations. The troops partied and drank for 72 hours. Some traded wedding rings. Many of the soldiers who had celebrated there chose to have their ashes spread their after their death.

Soviet Aggression / Buffer Zone: After the war, the Soviets kept the land they gained and called it a buffer zone, because everyone whose ever attacked them has always attacked from the west. They said they kept the land for their own safety. But we believed it was not for their safety, but was an attack. An act of soviet aggression. Thats the difference, folks. The Three Ways Stalin Justified His Occupation of Eastern Europe: 1. The more blood a country sheds in war, the more land they deserve after. 2. Whoever occupies a territory also imposes on it his own social, political, and economic systems. 3. The need for a Buffer Zone, to protect his country (see above).]

The Sovieticus Article:


The main message of the article: The Soviets lost way more than the US did in WWII. Weve mostly forgotten the long-past war, but the Soviets still suffer from it every day. They have an insane amount of memorials, as nearly 20 million Soviets died in the war (virtually every family lost one member). Only 3% of men between the ages of 17 and 20 survived the struggle. They also feel unappreciated for their loss they believe their struggle saved world civilization. Thus they responded to President Reagans anti-Soviet crusade in the early 1980s by equating him to Hitler. An example to support this message: The Soviets promote their remembrance, as reflected in more than 15,000 books on the subject and memorials in every town. Mothers everywhere display worn photographs of their lost sons.

Role Play:
The Four Options Presented To Truman in 1946 To Deal With The USSR:
1.

a.

In real life, which one of the four options did Truman pick? Truman picked option two, an option which states that the USSR is a threat to the United States. The US should provide aid to the countries in Europe to prevent a

communist takeover. Well leave the USSR alone unless they try any more military takeovers. Well win over the surrounding countries by forming military alliances to prevent the takeovers. We wont reduce our role in Europe and around the world. We will not cooperate or provide aid to the USSR.
2.

The Four Policies Truman created to enforce containment: a. Keep our pimp hand (our nuclear arsenal; our trump card as DG calls it) strong. b. Send military aid to nations threatened by the Soviets. (enacted with the Truman Doctrine) c. Send economic aid to nations in need after WWII to prevent Soviets from taking over with promises to aid them. (called the Marshall Plan) d. Create military alliances of Western Nations. (created NATO)

1949: The Year Of Shocks


What happened that year and why were they considered shocks?
1.

China turns red (communist) because Mao Zedong wins the election. We were pouring our money into the other candidate, desperately trying to prevent this from happening. It did. The Soviets get the Atomic Bomb on August 29th (First Lightning).

2.

Bert The Turtle:


Ways to survive according to the US Govt.?
1.

Try to get shielded. If you have time, get down in a basement or subway. Should you unexpectedly be caught out-of-doors, seek shelter alongside a building, or jump in a handy ditch or gutter. My God, these people were stupid. Just wait, it gets better.

2.

Drop flat on the ground or the floor. To keep from being tossed about and to lessen the chances of being struck by falling and flying objects, flatten out at the base of a wall, or at the bottom of a bank. Riiight.. Bury your face in your arms to prevent flash burns, temporary blindness, and keep flying objects out of your eyes. If youre caught outdoors in a sudden attack a hat will give you some protection from the heat flash. Women should wear stockings and long sleeved dresses. Bahahahahahaha!

3.

4.

Theres more, but I can only name a few, but there's a thousand motherfuckers in the pen bulletproof,

Whats better? False Hope or No Hope At All? (Your Opinion) (Insert your opinion here)

The Berlin Wall


When Was It Put Up? th 1. August 13 , 1961 Why Was It Put Up? 1. To prevent the people in the East side of Berlin (Soviet Territory) from escaping to the West side (US Territory). When Did It Come Down? th 1. November 9 , 1989 What Did It Symbolize? 1. The Iron Curtain over the Soviet states, and the Cold War separating the two countries, the US and the USSR.

Chronology Timelines:
As I said before, Im not doing this. Im getting bored of doing this. It wont be hard. Just do it yourself.

A Word From The Author: This is MY notes, typed into a large packet so that others can benefit from it. Im not God, and Im not Mr. Dallagrana either. I cant guarantee these notes are flawless. Granted, they SHOULD be. However, whether theyre right or wrong, use at your own risk. I spent hours typing this up, and heres the kicker; you didnt, and youll get the same grade I do. If you get a sucky grade, youre doing less work anyways, so quit your complaining.