Nationalism and Distance (Silke Werth and Suzy Cincone) Range of attitudes toward Japan among early explorers

, and current Japanese that leave Japan. Also develop new concepts of Japan as well. Many scholars have taken up concept (B. Anderson: longdistance nationalism + “imagined” part of imagined communities) Reasons for leaving japan: disillusionment, escape, curiosity. Changes in not necessarily originally positive feelings toward Japan. Concepts that are similar to nationalism but are not necessarily nationalism. Examples: Suzy: Methodology issues: can't actually talk to subjects. Questions: how can understand thoughts re: nation of people who left few or misleading records. Relationship of Japan and national goals: Some stated clearly that travel was for benefit of Japan and emperor. Also, importance (for nation) of young people encountering other cultures. Cause and effect relationship between nationalism and distance. Nationalistic feelings caused them to distance themselves. Other end of the spectrum: emigration out of necessity/for better living circumstances. Travel because had been rejected/ignored by Japan. Few records, especially regarding feelings about Japan, likely did not feel sense of belonging. No records of complete abandonment either though. Maeyama Takashi writing about Japanese in Brazil identity even became more important. Juxtaposition of Japanese and non-Japanese. Likely most fell in between the two poles. Combining the two extremes: procurer in SE Asia – left memoir of pep talk: although born in Japan, have lost national character, pitiful. In order to return have to break law again for good of country. Terms used: Kokumin kokka kokuminsei tennou. How can tell what people saw as their relationship with Japan? Autobiography as published, public work: attempt to win sympathy? Shopkeepers and using hinomaru: a declaration of nationalism or sales oriented. Nihonjinkai and purpose thereof. Silke: Work on young people overseas. Especially interested in those with no fixed position in Japanese society. In transition but without destination. ] Going abroad as form of resistance. Does experience help with integration/understanding of place in the nation? Transformation of resistance. Dangers of loaded vocabulary and how to address these issues. Stephen Vertovec, Aihwa Ong, Yuiko Fujita (nationalism increases with distance). Nationalism of migrants is seen as dangerous (Appadurai), extreme (often seen as dangerously loyal to country of origin and ambivalently loyal to nation of resistance). Issue of Japaneseness as more important: but what is it? Harumi Befu: feelings increase with distance. In research, Japaneseness felt inside, not displayed outside. Attitude toward flag/anthem as critical (response to ubiquity to US flag/anthem). Don't feel need to display flag/rituals: kokusuishugi. 2 points: nationalism vs. patriotism (language issue?); kokusuishugi vs. all the other shugi's (vs. English term). Getting to root of kokusuishugi via Kawanishi: cultural vs. political. Concerned with distinctiveness of national community. National identity as not fixed. Drifters in search of individuality/self might lead back to nation. Frequency + length of stay (Fujita Yuiko: only former kikoku shijo can develop transnational identity) Summing up: to what extent feeling of Japaneseness is a form of nationalism. Tensions in feelings of Japaneseness. Extendable to other migrants? What triggers young people to leave? What happens when they go back? What role do notions of race/ethnicity play in notions of Japaneseness? Discussion: Ewa Manek (EM): question re: religion and maintenance of national identity. (Religion as often cited as component of maintaining national identity but not in Japanese case. Silke's subjects?) Silke Werth (SW): question of religion came up. How americans are different from Japanese culture: sense of religiosity. We Japanese don't have a religion. Life-cycle religion, birth, marriage etc. However: extent of actual belief vs. response to what they've been asked many times. Emi Foulk (EF): Shinnyoen in White Plains: Japanese housewives who moved to New York with American husbands. Not religious before. But this is where Japanese people are. Became anchor

SW: But teachers can regulate students ael: Teachers serving as model for students so need to be careful of behavior LR: Meiji state very similar in regulating teacher behavior. Push factor to get out of Japan (wanted to get out of Japan). Doak as pointing to 2nd level problem of relationship between various fascist groups discussing national polity. Got extra pay for every child. feelings of unrootedness. Expression of relationship as opposed to actual feelings. SW: Access to internet and nature of distance.for Japanese identity. Distance changes terms of the debate over what nationalism is. Rethink distinction between real feeling vs. Luke Roberts (LR): Distinction between patriotism and kokusuishugi. Discredited in aftermath of WWII. Lack of communication between researchers? Kevin Doak (KD): Hidden factor is in fact religious? Looking at early diplomats. anne-elise lewallen (ael): Osaka-fu ordinance requires teachers to stand . But if just stick to relationships and how they work within world and the influence of nationalism on those it's more satisfying. Critique is not external either – lots of people critiqued within Japan afterwards. Podcast: state has ability to regulate teachers because civil servants. But shut down in 1942. Nature of reason for leaving Japan? Not actually uprooted.may lose their job if don't – Tokyo has similar regulation. Matsumoto Ken'ichi as particularly disturbed by this. but more easy to overlook information that don't want to know and create positive issue of Japan that would be . Nationalism and patriotism: American vs. Bill Marotti (BM): Kokusuishugi has specificity in this context. If spend time defining the terms within their own context can arrive at picture of multiple nationalisms. depending on who expressing to. Power of national identity is that it makes people perform in a certain way to their advantage. marketing. but doing so with students would be thought control. Japanese talk about violence of the state interfering with seishinteki and other issues. LR: Feelings even if you got them would be through expression to someone else which would be affected by the transmission as well. just look at what you have which is people's acts: can best analysis scope/ways in which nationalism is part of people's lives. Catholic with twelve kids couldn't support himself. People who described goals as furthering nationalist/emperor's goals. State intervening in everyday life of schoolteachers. Dr. Japan has bad nationalism and America has good nationalism: direct response to WWII. Distinction between real and utilitarian isn't a good mode of analysis. External display is problematic. Japanese? Using patriotism and kokusuishugi to express these national differences. Kokusuishugi is naming a certain practice of patriotism: fascism. ael: Relatively recent law LR: Thought regarding Suzy's research. If people feel that kokusuishugi is seishinteki could feel oppressed by it: religiously inclined tend to not look to Japanese religions . Community built around Shinnyoen. But still curious about reality of feelings even though difficult to get at. But not national distinction. No use for hinomaru/kimi ga yo since associated with fascist state. Suzy Cincone (SC): Understand that are using this to advantage. Is that really real or not? Makes it impossible to analyze anything. Culturally specific explanation. Kokusuishugi: other aspect: Tokunami Takejiro: kokusuikai: might be backdrop to kokusuishugi. Information is very easy to get. Kate McDonald (KM): Issue of whether nationalism can objectively increase with distance. not internal feelings. Don't question person's real identity. Reaction when legislated into official national flag/song: outcry against it. EM: Scholarship on Japanese new religions abroad: expats do not spread. SW: First instinctive translation was nationalism BM: Rhetoric of clarifying national polity: subspecies of nationalism KD: Mussolini's notion of state as center of fascism. etc. not just WWII but xenophobic and violent state. prime ministers: invoke kokusuishugi all the time. Connected to other things with nasty consequences. but less strong. Don't want state telling them what to do. if something is being recorded. Intrigued by guy who didn't like kokusuishugi: spiritual component.

In particular: many Ainu/Taiwanese who went to world's fairs often felt that when left home would not return (like a death wish). If the debate is going to be about binary of national devotion or rejection from nation. Part of Driscoll's analysis is to look at labor flows. Understanding utility within fullness of possible signification is really important. might have been more kenjinkai. but also possibilities of mobility and how that influences way that imagine their own identities and how imagine their connection and distance from nation when they leave. etc. etc. Finiteness in SC's case that is not the case for SW. Getting at point from first day about not letting nationalism take over everything and looking at pan-Asianism instead. How people who moved to cities developed consciousness of native place – wondering if anything similar was happening w/ Suzy's places. Huge influence on identity and forming life abroad because know that if things don't work out can go back. Some books posit that pan-Asianism and . but ways in which people are shifting around (particularly in 80s/90s) many are starving. KM: Worth unpacking that difference and the historical specificity of the conundrum that these people find themselves in and how this affects their ideas of how to be Japanese. Question regarding network of procurers. Most do not seem to have planned on return. imagined space.impossible to ignore if were in Japan. Significance of free-floating people. is also important. Some didn't have return ticket so no constraints other than visa. BM: Driscoll writes about prostitutes becoming centers of Japanese marketing. getting married and knowing they won't come back. DE: Clarification regarding nihonjinkai SC: All over SE Asia DE: Had kenjinkai – more locally based? SC: No evidence of it DE: People's identities/ties to place changing when moving somewhere. so red-light areas sprang up and then Japanese businesses sprang up around those. Leaving Japan no longer involves sense of permanent leaving as it would have 200 years ago. how does that effect coding of Japanese nation and interactions? SC: Not seen any evidence of Japanese procurer displacing Chinese. Became business centers. Leave and come back vs. DE: Period that SC is looking at was a time in which there was less institutional support for Japanese abroad. SW: Combining with argument re: resistance. BM: Thoughts re: Mark Driscoll's work. Could say that SC's people must have had a stronger urge to leave because of finiteness. SC: Early residents were more marginal. So it's a lot easier to make the decision. Japanese goods – mostly through Chinese distributors and those were replaced. His notion of Japan and a kind of pan-Asianism might have mobilized SC's people. Physical vs. Narita Ryuichi Kokkyo to toshikukan. Mostly displaced legitimate merchant network in many places. Also not seen negatively like other forms of resistance might be. Difference in physical distance logistically speaking and how that translates to mental distance. Idea of minzoku was much more portable. SW's people's urge can be less strong and have less clear plans because it is easier to come back. Shakai mondai gave rise to portable form of nation. ael: Interesting comparative question: mobility vs. But once communities became more official when there were more employees of banks. Qualitative difference in infrastructure of destination. Danger of being social problem turned into a national problem. Not just media/communication but also speed of travel. SC: First Japanese in these areas were prostitutes. Dylan Ellefson (DE): Suzy's subjects as having left with no intention of return? Can discern? SC : Difficult to discern. Initially network was Chinese. SW: Issue of frequency and duration (of travel) definitely connects to this. DE: Temporal distance. Kita Ikki + relationship b/w kokumin and tenno. circulation. Relationship between people and emperor. but SC's people are talking about kokumin. KD: “Social problems” in Japan happening around the same time. SW: Some do come with actual plans.

BM: Classic travelogue – earlier Japanese travelers and writings they left while going around US: Jeffery Engel's article. because Europe has completely different conception of race. Explicitly engaged in comparative dialogue/framework. EF: Stand out more if you're in Europe due to race issue? SW: Yes. Against Western nationalism as modeled by Prussian state. LR: Role of race/ethnicity in all this. KD: If there is language. So goal in coming to US is to help Japan succeed in world. Italy: university town but maybe a smaller university or combining university with somewhere with tourist prospects. BM: Important to think about how people are articulating nationalism. SW: More to do research of expatriotism. so still thinking about how to look at that.nationalism connected. Fired up a lot of Japanese to go to Asia and follow the pan-Asian dream. EF: Only looking at people in SB? Different reasons in different places. minzoku nationalism and rejection of western nationalism. SF. especially in smaller towns will stick out. This greater interaction is in fact responsible for stronger classically nationalistic feelings. Ethnicity tends to come up more in US. So definitely affects perceptions of self. etc. SW: Major differences between those in big towns and those in small towns. Wants to look at small towns in US and ideally Italy and Germany because these are all completely different and haven't been looked at before. levels of English. NY. Take conceptual step and think is this performing in the way that these people are claiming it is performing. Difference between those with better grasp of language and those with worse in terms of the way they related to ethnic Japanese identity. small town (wanted to avoid falling into pre-existing Japanese diasporic communities – but often choose a place that is still close enough to reach the community if decide they want to). 1 person: whole reason for going abroad is because Japanese need to improve English and be more open in order to succeed. But doesn't mean that have to buy into it. Language as key marker. BM: Separate out small towns that are attached to universities? Or to Japanese business concerns? For examples communities with Mazda plants: suddenly bunch of Japanese/Japanese Americans walking around. Did people go to asia thinking that had leadership role to play? What is best way to think about this? SC: People who went to Asia who had connections to Toyama/Utsuru who might have been connected to that way of thinking. Realized that Chinese have similar concepts of filial piety/respect of elderly. They are much more able to bring what learned back (to Japan) more than others. Interesting notion . Needed new space to allow for creation of own nationalism. Question of race especially comes in here. SW: Young people tend to choose uni towns because want to meet other young people. BM: Do have to think about it in historical context and how it's used and what it means. Still thinking about it. have a bunch of tourist businesses that could be potential places of employment. In Europe. BM: Wanted to know if taking it into consideration. Interesting since these are people in 20s but still have this feeling. reality then must be explained/papered over. Reasons for choosing SB: ocean. Germany: Heidelberg. Other group tries to engage foreigners. In interviews: v. KM: Pan-Asian dream? KD: Urge to implement nationalism that could no longer implement within Japan due to rigidity of imperial system. can blend in more/better in US. but there is no way of being sure KD: Uchida Ryohei. SW: Can divide into 2 basic groups: 1 does not really seek interaction with people abroad and tries to stick together with people from Japan or even the rest of Asia and many of those brought up the fact that after coming to US understood that Japan is a part of Asia. Had imagined Japan as more westernized than rest of Asia. Research on Japanese migrants to date has been on large towns: LA. walk down State Street to see if get treated differently.

Because it is a dialogue and the way that people can relate to is reduced to Japanese also shapes identity. Example: way in which nationalism functions out of a sense of loss. Wondering about Fujita comment re: going abroad to be transnational. against imperialism. Process of identity formation: when go back realize that time has changed them as well despite stronger feelings for Japan. support imperial navy. BM: People performing exaggerated Japaneseness in 1890s based on grasp of English.of perfect assimilatability. SW: Relates to identification as Asian as well. be Catholic. be Marxist 3. But she says that once you do it once will be more likely to do it again and thereby form transnational identity. especially those that went to become artists/succeed as artists. Non-spacial forms of identity even group identity but ones that aren't structured around nationalisms. Range of recognizable identities is much broader. But! 3 respondents who definitely did not identify themselves as Japanese but as Okinawan. BM: People who have never left Japan but nevertheless had transnational identity: example of anarchist against the policies of government. . SW: Works with cultural migrants. 2. Hayashi Masao identifying with novelists around the world (cosmopolitanism). Many ways to be transnational. LR: Identities created in conversation in your context. Had argument that going abroad does not create transnational identity but initially fosters national identity. SW: Trying to get away from Appadurai's spacialized notions.). Survey showing that attachment to home increases when gone (attachment to parents. so when leave again can avoid the strengthening of feelings towards Japan this time. but go abroad and people no longer recognize regional identity. KD: Example of writer surrounded by other writers who were Catholic and pressuring him to be Catholic as well because that is way to be transnational. etc. Response: 3 ways for Japanese to be transnational: 1. When someone is in Japan have freedom to say that are from Tohoku. etc. Only had 12 respondents.

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