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, and current Japanese that leave Japan. Also develop new concepts of Japan as well. Many scholars have taken up concept (B. Anderson: longdistance nationalism + “imagined” part of imagined communities) Reasons for leaving japan: disillusionment, escape, curiosity. Changes in not necessarily originally positive feelings toward Japan. Concepts that are similar to nationalism but are not necessarily nationalism. Examples: Suzy: Methodology issues: can't actually talk to subjects. Questions: how can understand thoughts re: nation of people who left few or misleading records. Relationship of Japan and national goals: Some stated clearly that travel was for benefit of Japan and emperor. Also, importance (for nation) of young people encountering other cultures. Cause and effect relationship between nationalism and distance. Nationalistic feelings caused them to distance themselves. Other end of the spectrum: emigration out of necessity/for better living circumstances. Travel because had been rejected/ignored by Japan. Few records, especially regarding feelings about Japan, likely did not feel sense of belonging. No records of complete abandonment either though. Maeyama Takashi writing about Japanese in Brazil identity even became more important. Juxtaposition of Japanese and non-Japanese. Likely most fell in between the two poles. Combining the two extremes: procurer in SE Asia – left memoir of pep talk: although born in Japan, have lost national character, pitiful. In order to return have to break law again for good of country. Terms used: Kokumin kokka kokuminsei tennou. How can tell what people saw as their relationship with Japan? Autobiography as published, public work: attempt to win sympathy? Shopkeepers and using hinomaru: a declaration of nationalism or sales oriented. Nihonjinkai and purpose thereof. Silke: Work on young people overseas. Especially interested in those with no fixed position in Japanese society. In transition but without destination. ] Going abroad as form of resistance. Does experience help with integration/understanding of place in the nation? Transformation of resistance. Dangers of loaded vocabulary and how to address these issues. Stephen Vertovec, Aihwa Ong, Yuiko Fujita (nationalism increases with distance). Nationalism of migrants is seen as dangerous (Appadurai), extreme (often seen as dangerously loyal to country of origin and ambivalently loyal to nation of resistance). Issue of Japaneseness as more important: but what is it? Harumi Befu: feelings increase with distance. In research, Japaneseness felt inside, not displayed outside. Attitude toward flag/anthem as critical (response to ubiquity to US flag/anthem). Don't feel need to display flag/rituals: kokusuishugi. 2 points: nationalism vs. patriotism (language issue?); kokusuishugi vs. all the other shugi's (vs. English term). Getting to root of kokusuishugi via Kawanishi: cultural vs. political. Concerned with distinctiveness of national community. National identity as not fixed. Drifters in search of individuality/self might lead back to nation. Frequency + length of stay (Fujita Yuiko: only former kikoku shijo can develop transnational identity) Summing up: to what extent feeling of Japaneseness is a form of nationalism. Tensions in feelings of Japaneseness. Extendable to other migrants? What triggers young people to leave? What happens when they go back? What role do notions of race/ethnicity play in notions of Japaneseness? Discussion: Ewa Manek (EM): question re: religion and maintenance of national identity. (Religion as often cited as component of maintaining national identity but not in Japanese case. Silke's subjects?) Silke Werth (SW): question of religion came up. How americans are different from Japanese culture: sense of religiosity. We Japanese don't have a religion. Life-cycle religion, birth, marriage etc. However: extent of actual belief vs. response to what they've been asked many times. Emi Foulk (EF): Shinnyoen in White Plains: Japanese housewives who moved to New York with American husbands. Not religious before. But this is where Japanese people are. Became anchor
Lack of communication between researchers? Kevin Doak (KD): Hidden factor is in fact religious? Looking at early diplomats. Japan has bad nationalism and America has good nationalism: direct response to WWII. Japanese talk about violence of the state interfering with seishinteki and other issues. Culturally specific explanation.may lose their job if don't – Tokyo has similar regulation. SW: Access to internet and nature of distance. Matsumoto Ken'ichi as particularly disturbed by this. if something is being recorded. Discredited in aftermath of WWII. Nature of reason for leaving Japan? Not actually uprooted. Suzy Cincone (SC): Understand that are using this to advantage. Distance changes terms of the debate over what nationalism is. EM: Scholarship on Japanese new religions abroad: expats do not spread. marketing. Distinction between real and utilitarian isn't a good mode of analysis. Japanese? Using patriotism and kokusuishugi to express these national differences. Don't want state telling them what to do. No use for hinomaru/kimi ga yo since associated with fascist state. Kokusuishugi: other aspect: Tokunami Takejiro: kokusuikai: might be backdrop to kokusuishugi. Expression of relationship as opposed to actual feelings. SW: But teachers can regulate students ael: Teachers serving as model for students so need to be careful of behavior LR: Meiji state very similar in regulating teacher behavior. Intrigued by guy who didn't like kokusuishugi: spiritual component. anne-elise lewallen (ael): Osaka-fu ordinance requires teachers to stand . Connected to other things with nasty consequences. If people feel that kokusuishugi is seishinteki could feel oppressed by it: religiously inclined tend to not look to Japanese religions . Doak as pointing to 2nd level problem of relationship between various fascist groups discussing national polity. Dr. But shut down in 1942. But if just stick to relationships and how they work within world and the influence of nationalism on those it's more satisfying. People who described goals as furthering nationalist/emperor's goals. ael: Relatively recent law LR: Thought regarding Suzy's research. Is that really real or not? Makes it impossible to analyze anything. But still curious about reality of feelings even though difficult to get at. Don't question person's real identity. External display is problematic. SW: First instinctive translation was nationalism BM: Rhetoric of clarifying national polity: subspecies of nationalism KD: Mussolini's notion of state as center of fascism. just look at what you have which is people's acts: can best analysis scope/ways in which nationalism is part of people's lives. But not national distinction. prime ministers: invoke kokusuishugi all the time. not internal feelings. Kate McDonald (KM): Issue of whether nationalism can objectively increase with distance. Information is very easy to get. Community built around Shinnyoen. Got extra pay for every child. not just WWII but xenophobic and violent state. Kokusuishugi is naming a certain practice of patriotism: fascism. Reaction when legislated into official national flag/song: outcry against it. depending on who expressing to. Luke Roberts (LR): Distinction between patriotism and kokusuishugi. Nationalism and patriotism: American vs. Bill Marotti (BM): Kokusuishugi has specificity in this context. Push factor to get out of Japan (wanted to get out of Japan). Critique is not external either – lots of people critiqued within Japan afterwards. but less strong. etc. State intervening in everyday life of schoolteachers. feelings of unrootedness. If spend time defining the terms within their own context can arrive at picture of multiple nationalisms. Podcast: state has ability to regulate teachers because civil servants. LR: Feelings even if you got them would be through expression to someone else which would be affected by the transmission as well. but doing so with students would be thought control. but more easy to overlook information that don't want to know and create positive issue of Japan that would be . Rethink distinction between real feeling vs. Power of national identity is that it makes people perform in a certain way to their advantage. Catholic with twelve kids couldn't support himself.for Japanese identity.
SC: First Japanese in these areas were prostitutes. Shakai mondai gave rise to portable form of nation. SW: Combining with argument re: resistance. BM: Thoughts re: Mark Driscoll's work. KD: “Social problems” in Japan happening around the same time. Idea of minzoku was much more portable. Significance of free-floating people. DE: Clarification regarding nihonjinkai SC: All over SE Asia DE: Had kenjinkai – more locally based? SC: No evidence of it DE: People's identities/ties to place changing when moving somewhere. Part of Driscoll's analysis is to look at labor flows. Some books posit that pan-Asianism and . ael: Interesting comparative question: mobility vs. Huge influence on identity and forming life abroad because know that if things don't work out can go back. Also not seen negatively like other forms of resistance might be. Finiteness in SC's case that is not the case for SW. etc. In particular: many Ainu/Taiwanese who went to world's fairs often felt that when left home would not return (like a death wish). so red-light areas sprang up and then Japanese businesses sprang up around those. getting married and knowing they won't come back. SC: Early residents were more marginal. Not just media/communication but also speed of travel. If the debate is going to be about binary of national devotion or rejection from nation. Dylan Ellefson (DE): Suzy's subjects as having left with no intention of return? Can discern? SC : Difficult to discern. How people who moved to cities developed consciousness of native place – wondering if anything similar was happening w/ Suzy's places. Getting at point from first day about not letting nationalism take over everything and looking at pan-Asianism instead. KM: Worth unpacking that difference and the historical specificity of the conundrum that these people find themselves in and how this affects their ideas of how to be Japanese. Leaving Japan no longer involves sense of permanent leaving as it would have 200 years ago. But once communities became more official when there were more employees of banks. Leave and come back vs. is also important. but ways in which people are shifting around (particularly in 80s/90s) many are starving. Mostly displaced legitimate merchant network in many places. SW: Issue of frequency and duration (of travel) definitely connects to this. Narita Ryuichi Kokkyo to toshikukan. Kita Ikki + relationship b/w kokumin and tenno. DE: Temporal distance. Danger of being social problem turned into a national problem. Became business centers. but SC's people are talking about kokumin. So it's a lot easier to make the decision. might have been more kenjinkai. Relationship between people and emperor. Physical vs. SW's people's urge can be less strong and have less clear plans because it is easier to come back. Some didn't have return ticket so no constraints other than visa. His notion of Japan and a kind of pan-Asianism might have mobilized SC's people. imagined space. Could say that SC's people must have had a stronger urge to leave because of finiteness. circulation. SW: Some do come with actual plans.impossible to ignore if were in Japan. Most do not seem to have planned on return. BM: Driscoll writes about prostitutes becoming centers of Japanese marketing. but also possibilities of mobility and how that influences way that imagine their own identities and how imagine their connection and distance from nation when they leave. Question regarding network of procurers. Japanese goods – mostly through Chinese distributors and those were replaced. Initially network was Chinese. DE: Period that SC is looking at was a time in which there was less institutional support for Japanese abroad. how does that effect coding of Japanese nation and interactions? SC: Not seen any evidence of Japanese procurer displacing Chinese. etc. Qualitative difference in infrastructure of destination. Understanding utility within fullness of possible signification is really important. Difference in physical distance logistically speaking and how that translates to mental distance.
SW: Can divide into 2 basic groups: 1 does not really seek interaction with people abroad and tries to stick together with people from Japan or even the rest of Asia and many of those brought up the fact that after coming to US understood that Japan is a part of Asia. Needed new space to allow for creation of own nationalism. BM: Classic travelogue – earlier Japanese travelers and writings they left while going around US: Jeffery Engel's article. BM: Separate out small towns that are attached to universities? Or to Japanese business concerns? For examples communities with Mazda plants: suddenly bunch of Japanese/Japanese Americans walking around. SF. Difference between those with better grasp of language and those with worse in terms of the way they related to ethnic Japanese identity. Realized that Chinese have similar concepts of filial piety/respect of elderly. This greater interaction is in fact responsible for stronger classically nationalistic feelings. EF: Only looking at people in SB? Different reasons in different places. especially in smaller towns will stick out. SW: More to do research of expatriotism. small town (wanted to avoid falling into pre-existing Japanese diasporic communities – but often choose a place that is still close enough to reach the community if decide they want to). walk down State Street to see if get treated differently. etc. so still thinking about how to look at that. SW: Young people tend to choose uni towns because want to meet other young people. KM: Pan-Asian dream? KD: Urge to implement nationalism that could no longer implement within Japan due to rigidity of imperial system. but there is no way of being sure KD: Uchida Ryohei. Italy: university town but maybe a smaller university or combining university with somewhere with tourist prospects. Wants to look at small towns in US and ideally Italy and Germany because these are all completely different and haven't been looked at before. have a bunch of tourist businesses that could be potential places of employment. Interesting since these are people in 20s but still have this feeling. Still thinking about it. Fired up a lot of Japanese to go to Asia and follow the pan-Asian dream. because Europe has completely different conception of race. Had imagined Japan as more westernized than rest of Asia. Interesting notion . NY. can blend in more/better in US. So definitely affects perceptions of self. But doesn't mean that have to buy into it. Did people go to asia thinking that had leadership role to play? What is best way to think about this? SC: People who went to Asia who had connections to Toyama/Utsuru who might have been connected to that way of thinking. They are much more able to bring what learned back (to Japan) more than others. SW: Major differences between those in big towns and those in small towns. In interviews: v. Language as key marker. BM: Do have to think about it in historical context and how it's used and what it means. Ethnicity tends to come up more in US. Explicitly engaged in comparative dialogue/framework. Against Western nationalism as modeled by Prussian state. Germany: Heidelberg. Reasons for choosing SB: ocean. LR: Role of race/ethnicity in all this. So goal in coming to US is to help Japan succeed in world. Question of race especially comes in here.nationalism connected. BM: Wanted to know if taking it into consideration. EF: Stand out more if you're in Europe due to race issue? SW: Yes. levels of English. reality then must be explained/papered over. Other group tries to engage foreigners. BM: Important to think about how people are articulating nationalism. KD: If there is language. minzoku nationalism and rejection of western nationalism. In Europe. Take conceptual step and think is this performing in the way that these people are claiming it is performing. 1 person: whole reason for going abroad is because Japanese need to improve English and be more open in order to succeed. Research on Japanese migrants to date has been on large towns: LA.
Survey showing that attachment to home increases when gone (attachment to parents. Process of identity formation: when go back realize that time has changed them as well despite stronger feelings for Japan. BM: People who have never left Japan but nevertheless had transnational identity: example of anarchist against the policies of government. SW: Trying to get away from Appadurai's spacialized notions. BM: People performing exaggerated Japaneseness in 1890s based on grasp of English. SW: Works with cultural migrants.). Had argument that going abroad does not create transnational identity but initially fosters national identity. KD: Example of writer surrounded by other writers who were Catholic and pressuring him to be Catholic as well because that is way to be transnational. When someone is in Japan have freedom to say that are from Tohoku. especially those that went to become artists/succeed as artists. etc. Non-spacial forms of identity even group identity but ones that aren't structured around nationalisms. Example: way in which nationalism functions out of a sense of loss.of perfect assimilatability. Because it is a dialogue and the way that people can relate to is reduced to Japanese also shapes identity. Hayashi Masao identifying with novelists around the world (cosmopolitanism). Range of recognizable identities is much broader. etc. so when leave again can avoid the strengthening of feelings towards Japan this time. Response: 3 ways for Japanese to be transnational: 1. against imperialism. Wondering about Fujita comment re: going abroad to be transnational. be Marxist 3. but go abroad and people no longer recognize regional identity. But! 3 respondents who definitely did not identify themselves as Japanese but as Okinawan. Only had 12 respondents. Many ways to be transnational. . 2. be Catholic. SW: Relates to identification as Asian as well. But she says that once you do it once will be more likely to do it again and thereby form transnational identity. support imperial navy. LR: Identities created in conversation in your context.
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