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Andrew Yang Period 7 PERSIAN Chart AP World History

POLITICAL Leaders, Elites State Structure War Diplomacy, Treaties Courts, Laws

Chapter 21: Africa and the Slave Trade The Atlantic Slave Trade 1. Signs of the Slave trade start to appear with the arrival of the Portuguese expeditions along the coasts of Africa; with the establishment of forts and trading posts such as El Mina, the Portuguese tried to extend their control into the interior of the continent. With the help of the kingdoms of Kongo and Benin, the Portuguese were able to instate a small trade of slaves, although the ruler of Benin, Mvemba, tried to stop the trade. 2. Later, the Portuguese established the port of Luanda in Angola in the 1570s, also establishing territory along Mozambique and the East African trading ports of Kilwa, Mombasa, Sofala, and other ports. Over the 16th Century, raiding parties started to take small groups of slaves back to their colonies, and the trade did not fan out into a major trade until the late 1500s, as the plantation colonies started to develop. 3. About 12 million slaves total had been transported to the Americas by the 1850s, although there was a really high 20 percent mortality rate. In the 16 th and 17th centuries the number of slaves increased to 16,000 slaves per year being shipped and sold to the newly emerging plantation colonies of the southern British North American colonies and the Caribbean islands, as well as the sugar plantations in Brazil and the silver mines in Mexico. Initially the bulk of the trade came from the Senegambia region, but west central Africa had overtaken it by the 17 th century in terms of volume of trade. Kingdoms like Benin and Dahomey on the Gold and Slave Coasts alone were exporting more than 10000 slaves per year. 4. The trade naturally led to rivalries and war between kingdoms over the control of the trade. Sometimes these wars brought another source of potential slaves to sell off to the Europeans. Control of the trade by European nations competing for influence changed hands from the Portuguese in 1630 to the Dutch who seized El Mina in 1637 and Angola temporarily in the 1640s to the English in the 1660s who needed slaves on their plantations in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia; the Royal African Company was chartered as result, but the tropical diseases encountered in the interior of Africa forced the English to abandon their efforts. Deals with many local rulers were often made in the process, with an exchange of gold and other raw goods with gunpowder and other luxury European items. African Kingdoms Take Shape in Response to the Trade 1. The warrior emerges in the kingdoms of Kongo and Dahomey as well as in the Zambezi River; selling of captive slaves from constant warfare made the slave trade a political extension. 2. There were huge power shifts in Africa as the Europeans increased their presence on the continent. States located along the coastlines where slaves were traded competed to monopolize on the trade, causing an endless cycle of warfare, guns, and slaves being traded. 3. Kingdom of the Ashanti in the area called the Gold Coast by Europeans, the Akan people began trading for access to firearms and thus more powerful armies. Under Osei Tutu, the title of supreme ruler was given and the concept of a centralized state with a political and a religious ruler in charge. With a council of advisors, the Asante kingdom expanded to eventually impress the Dutch and other Europeans who were seeking to exploit the riches of Africa; the state became the dominant power of the Gold Coast until the 1820s, although the slave trade provided almost two thirds of profit for the economy. 4. In the area called the Slave Coast, the kingdom of Benin was established; the ruler tried for a while to keep Europeans out of trying to slave trade, but European pressures made it extremely hard to resist slave trade offers.

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The Kingdom of Dahomey emerged in the 17th century from its center at Abomey, but in the 1700s it was a brutal autocratic regime that was heavily involved in the slave trade (sending about 1.9 million slaves between 1640 and 1890). The Zulu state rose to have great power that was only crushed by British victories that were fought at a great cost in the 1870s; it was probably the most powerful state in Africa in the 1820s, having been established by Shaka in the area of South Africa and Lesotho and Swaziland in the early 1800s. The Zulu also clashed with the Boers, who were encroaching on their territory and were fighting the British for control of the area. Meanwhile, the Hausa kingdoms were going through the changes of Islamazation reforms.

ECONOMIC Type of System Technology, Industry Trade, Commerce Capital/Money Types of Businesses

End of the Trade 1. With the rise of the enlightenment movement and dissatisfaction with absolute monarchs in Europe in the late 1700s and early 1800s, slavery was seen as a horrible, restraining institution. Abolitionist movements finally sprang up, and Britain led the pack by banning the slave trade in 1804 and enforcing the statute with a powerful navy fleet to coerce other countries such as Portugal and Spain to reluctantly do so as well. 2. With the end of the slave trade finally in the late 1800s, the Diaspora finally ended. The slave trade had immense risks attached to it but also has the prospects of great profits in store for the successful trader who can ship slaves to the Americas without them dying off from the terrible conditions inside the cramped ships. By the late 18th Century, the trade and slavery were important backbones to the economies of the Atlantic basin of Africa, linking it to the newly integrated global economy.

RELIGIOUS Holy Books Beliefs, Teaching Conversion Sin/Salvation Deities

The slaves arriving in Spanish and Portuguese territory were converted gradually to Catholicism, although African customs still carried great weight.

SOCIAL Family Gender Relations Social Classes Inequalities Life Styles

The slave trade altered the old kinship clan system and forced the centralization of societies in response to the growing threat of raiding kingdoms and invading or intruding Europeans (such as Boers or the Portuguese), thus creating more hierarchal societies in which forms of servitude eventually evolved; slaves were used as servants, concubines, soldiers, administrators, and field workers. Slaves in African societies themselves were inferior to the rest of the social hierarchy, even though they sometimes gained important positions such as being government officials. Creation of harems started to emerge, coming away from its original Islamic context. Sudanic states, closely modeled as Islamic style governments, viewed slaves differently as nonbelievers who needed to be converted to Islam. African societies enslaved their rivals. In the Americas, slaves made up an extremely high proportion of colonial populations, reaching 80 percent in the Caribbean Islands and 35-40 percent in Brazil; there was also a social hierarchy established, where freedmen and Creole freedmen born ethnic Africans were at the top, the mulattoes were in the middle, and the slaves were at the bottom; this tended to create slight tensions between the groups of peoples and contributed to the separation of African society in the Americas. Color and race were great influences that indicated social status. Crafts such as bronze casting, woodcarving, and weaving flourished in Africa; guilds of artisans developed their crafts, executed with great skill so as to even impress the

INTELLECTUAL, ARTS

Art, Music Writing, Literature Philosophy Math & Science Education

Europeans. Much of the art or craft had a religious meaning behind it.

NEAR: GEOGRAPHY Location Physical Movement Human/Environment Region

The African interior was infested with malaria and other tropical diseases, so the Europeans were never able to successfully get into the interior of the continent.

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