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Using Modifiers Correctly

The Three Degrees of Comparison Irregular Comparisons Double Comparisons Incomplete Comparisons Good or Well; Bad or Badly Double Negatives 659 661 663 665 666 668

18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7

Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 670 676 685

Grammar Review Writing Application



The Three Degrees of Comparison

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Most adjectives and adverbs have three degrees: the positive, or base, form; the comparative form; and the superlative form. The positive form of a modifier cannot be used to make a comparison. (This form appears as the entry word in a dictionary.) The comparative form of a modifier shows two things being compared. The superlative form of a modifier shows three or more things being compared.

My cousin is tall. The cat ran swiftly. My cousin is taller than I am. My dog ran more swiftly than the cat. Of the three cousins, Paula is tallest. The rat ran most swiftly of all.

She ran swiftly.

Using Modifiers Correctly

The following rules will guide you in forming the comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs: In general, for one-syllable modifiers add -er to form the comparative and -est to form the superlative.
green, greener, greenest The neighbors grass always looks greener than ours. loud, louder, loudest That sonic boom is the loudest noise Ive ever heard. fast, faster, fastest Her hair grows faster than mine.

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She ran more swiftly.

In some cases adding -er and -est requires spelling changes.

big, bigger, biggest hot, hotter, hottest true, truer, truest dry, drier, driest

With some one-syllable modifiers, it may sound more natural to use more and most.
just, more just, most just Of the three, that judges ruling was the most just of all.



She ran most swiftly of all.

18.1 The Three Degrees of Comparison


For most two-syllable adjectives, add -er to form the comparative and est to form the superlative.
ugly, uglier, ugliest Your mask is uglier than mine. That is the ugliest mask Ive ever seen.

If -er and -est sound awkward with a two-syllable adjective, use more and most.
afraid, more afraid, most afraid No one is more afraid of spiders than I am. Of all of us, I was the most afraid.

For adverbs ending in -ly, always use more and most to form the comparative and superlative degrees.
clearly, more clearly, most clearly Lewis gives directions more clearly than most people. This candidate explains his views most clearly of all.
Using Modifiers Correctly

For modifiers of three or more syllables, always use more and most to form the comparative and superlative degrees.
attractive, more attractive, most attractive I think red looks more attractive on you than on me. That watercolor is the most attractive one in the exhibit.

Less and least, the opposite of more and most, can also be used with most modifiers to show comparison.
Are prepared foods less economical than fresh foods? I think cabbage is the least appetizing of all vegetables.

Exercise 1

Identifying Comparisons

In the following sentences, identify the adjectives and adverbs, and write them on a separate sheet of paper. Then write positive, comparative, or superlative to indicate the degree of comparison.

The Blues
A talented blues band can play more softly than a hard-rock band. The slow blues, to my way of thinking, sound the sweetest of all. The sadder the lyrics, the more mellow the melody becomes. The vocalist tells the tale of woe most clearly when the trumpets tone becomes less strident. 5. Then the most emotional mood is created out of songs that describe the least fortunate circumstances.
1. 2. 3. 4.


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly


Irregular Comparisons
Modifiers with Irregular Forms of Comparison

A few modifiers form their comparative and superlative degrees irregularly. It is most helpful simply to memorize their forms.




good well bad badly ill far (distance) far (degree, time) little (amount) many much

better better worse worse worse farther further less more more

(the) best (the) best (the) worst (the) worst (the) worst (the) farthest (the) furthest (the) least (the) most (the) most Using Modifiers Correctly

Exercise 2

Making Correct Comparisons

On another sheet of paper, complete the following sentences by writing the correct degree of comparison of the modifier in parentheses.

Which vegetable tastes the ____________ of all? (good) best

Space and Space Exploration

1. Are there _____ planets in our solar system than the nine we know about? (many) 2. The distance between Venus and Earth is _____ than that between Mars and Earth. (little) 3. Pluto has the _____ mass of all the planets. (little) 4. The _____ planet from the sun is Pluto. (far) 5. Voyager I did a _____ job of photographing Jupiter than its predecessor. (good) 6. One of the _____ space catastrophes ever was the destruction of the Challenger spacecraft in 1986. (bad) 7. Of all the descriptions of the motion of the planets, that of the seventeenth-century astronomer Johannes Kepler is the _____. (good) 8. There are _____ celestial bodies in the Milky Way than just our solar system. (many) 9. Some asteroids have diameters of _____ than 120 miles. (much) 10. A comet, with its bright head and glowing tail, is one of the _____ astronomical sights you will ever see. (good)
18.2 Irregular Comparisons


Exercise 3

Making Correct Comparisons

On another sheet of paper, complete the following sentences by writing the correct degree of comparison of the modifier in parentheses.

The Joy Luck Club is one of the ____________ novels I have ever read. (interesting) most interesting

1. The Joy Luck Club is an entertaining book, and it is ____________ to read than many other contemporary novels. (easy) 2. The novel is by Amy Tan, perhaps the ____________ voice in contemporary Asian American fiction. (lively) 3. The Joy Luck Club is a ____________ book than some that have recently been on the best-seller list. (long) 4. Maxine Wong is another talented Asian American writer, although Amy Tan is ____________ than Wong. (famous) 5. In the book the members of the Joy Luck Club do many things, but their ____________ activity is playing mah-jongg. (frequent) 6. Though she is ____________ experienced than the other club members, June Woo is asked to join the mah-jongg game. (little) 7. Though mah-jongg resembles rummy, it is ____________. (complicated) 8. In my opinion it relies ____________ on strategy than rummy does. (much) 9. Most people believe, however, that chess is still the ____________of all board games. (challenging) 10. Even so, one can play chess ____________ than mah-jongg. (quickly) 11. The club members, who are Junes unofficial aunts, are ____________ than June and observe traditional Chinese customs. (old) 12. At first June is ____________ to be with friends her own age than she is to be playing games with her aging aunts. (happy) 13. The aunts are the ____________ of all when they are reminiscing about their years in China. (content) 14. China seems even ____________ away for June than it does for her aunts, for whom China is a distant memory. (far) 15. Eventually, though, June learns that the ____________ decision of all would be to abandon her Chinese heritage completely. (bad) 16. From all the aspects of her Chinese heritage, it seems that June learns to accept only the ____________. (good) 17. The ethnic roots of many Americans are ____________ than June's. (remote) 18. Many of us would have to go much ____________ back in time to recapture information about our ancestors. (far) 19. Researching, tracing, and studying one's genealogy has become a ____________ pursuit than it once was. (popular) 20. There are some people who will travel to the ____________ corners of the earth to trace their family histories. (far)

Using Modifiers Correctly


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly


Double Comparisons
A redwood grows taller than an oak.

Do not make a double comparison by using both -er or -est and more or most.
INCORRECT A redwood grows more taller than an oak. CORRECT

INCORRECT Aunt Rosa is my most kindest aunt. CORRECT

Aunt Rosa is my kindest aunt.

INCORRECT He will visit us more oftener in the fall. CORRECT

He will visit us more often in the fall.

Exercise 4

Correcting Double Comparisons

Rewrite each of the following sentences, correcting the double comparison.

Thomas Edison, Inventor

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Many people believe that Thomas Alva Edison was the worlds most best inventor. Some people consider him even more greater than Leonardo da Vinci. The phonograph and the electric light are probably Edisons most usefulest creations. Edison was most happiest with his phonograph. He was most proudest of his work on the electric light. Electric light is certainly more safer than candlelight. Edison also took others inventions, such as the telephone and the typewriter, and made them more better. As a boy, Edison was more curiouser than other children. He worked more harder and longer than his peers. Historians agree that Edison was one of the most fruitfulest inventors of modern times. After electric lights were invented, nights seemed more brighter. People could read or do chores more longer after dark. Before the phonograph was invented, hearing great music was more difficulter. The phonograph and the electric light, though expensive at first, became more cheaper as time went by. Edison was blessed with a more quicker mind than most boys his age. After only a few months of formal schooling, he entered the more wider world of work. An illness caused him to become more harder of hearing than he had been before. One of his most earliest inventions was a stock ticker for printing stock-exchange quotations. A more later invention, the movie projector, aided the development of motion pictures. During his lifetime, Edison patented over 1,000 inventions, the most greatest number ever recorded for one person.

Using Modifiers Correctly

18.3 Double Comparisons


Exercise 5

Correcting Irregular and Double Comparisons

Rewrite each of the following sentences, correcting the comparisons.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Using Modifiers Correctly

Mother says that raising twins has been the goodest experience of her life. When they were born, Laura weighed littler than Lonnie, but she soon caught up. All of us children had sunny dispositions, but Lonnies was the most cheerfulest. Lonnie was always serene, even though his health was worser than it should have been. When he got sick, Mother used to go through some of the baddest days of her life. The higher his temperature rose, the more upsetter she became. The worser he felt, the more time she devoted to him. Sometimes, she told us, I would like to go farrer back in history to an era when people had more time to spend with their children. Being the oldest, I tried to be the most good, but I made a lot of mistakes. I could have found more frequenter opportunities to lend a hand. As toddlers, the twins tried to see which one could wander more farther from home. Mother or the baby-sitter would chase them for the gooder part of the morning. We would have appreciated a lesser adventurouser spirit on the twins part. Mucher peace and quiet was what we wanted. The most happiest day of our lives was the twins first day of school.
Writing Correct Comparisons

Exercise 6

On your paper, complete the following sentences by writing the correct degree of comparison of the modifier in parentheses. In two sentences you will use less or least.

Ethnic Cuisine
1. (Many) Americans than ever before are enjoying the pleasures of ethnic cuisine. 2. Mexican dishes are usually (spicy) than those prepared north of the border. 3. Mexican chilies run the gamut in flavor and appearance, but the habaero is the (spicy) one of all. 4. French food, with its emphasis on sauces and careful methods of preparation, is for some people the (elegant) of all the worlds cuisines. 5. French recipes often call for (rich) ingredients, such as real butter and whole cream, than do American recipes. 6. Strangely enough, in spite of their eating habits, the French appear to be no (healthy) than Americans. 7. Mediterranean culturesItalian, Spanish, Greek, Turkish, Moroccanrely (heavily) on foods low in cholesterol than do other cuisines. 8. For many years Chinese food was the (popular) ethnic cuisine in our town, but now Mexican and Tex-Mex foods have more fans. 9. Chinese delicacies such as dim sum and Peking duck are (common) taste treats than the more ordinary chop suey and chow mein. 10. A quick look at the restaurant listings in the yellow pages will convince you that the (good) words to describe Americas food preferences are ethnic and diverse.


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly


Incomplete Comparisons
system. [Any planet includes Mercury.]

Do not make an incomplete or unclear comparison by omitting other or else when you compare a person or thing with the group of which it is a part.
UNCLEAR Mercury is closer to the sun than any planet in our solar CLEAR

Mercury is closer to the sun than any other planet in our solar system. the aunt.]

UNCLEAR My aunt has more pets than anyone. [Anyone includes CLEAR

My aunt has more pets than anyone else.

Be sure your comparisons are between like things.

UNCLEAR The grace of a basketball player is more obvious

than a baseball player. [The grace of a basketball player is being compared illogically with everything about a baseball player.]

The grace of a basketball player is more obvious than that of a baseball player. The grace of a basketball player is more obvious than a baseball players. [The claws of a lion are being compared illogically with everything about a cat.]

Using Modifiers Correctly

UNCLEAR The claws of a lion are sharper than a cat.


The claws of a lion are sharper than those of a cat. The claws of a lion are sharper than a cats.

Exercise 7

Making Complete Comparisons

Rewrite the following sentences to correct the incomplete comparison in each.

Historical Native American Dwellings

Native American homes of the past were just as varied as today. 2The buffalo-skin dwellings of the Plains groups were more portable than the Wichita. 3The design of the tepees of the Plains peoples was perhaps more ingenious than any design. 4Women were responsible for erecting the tepees, and they could do this faster than anyone. 5Many people think that the tepee was more beautiful than any Native American dwelling. 6The lodges of the Pawnees were warmer and sturdier than the Plains groups. 7Because the Pawnees did not move frequently, their homes were less portable than Native American dwellings. 8The Pueblo groups of New Mexico were probably cooler than anyone, for they lived in well-insulated buildings made of adobe. 9Some Pueblo dwellings were several stories high, like many city dwellers today. 10If I could, I would rather live in a tepee than any place.
18.4 Incomplete Comparisons



Good or Well; Bad or Badly

Always use good as an adjective. Well may be used as an adverb of manner telling how ably or adequately something is done. Well also may be used as an adjective meaning in good health.
Blue is a good color for you. [adjective] You look good in blue. [adjective after a linking verb] You dress well. [adverb of manner] Arent you feeling well? [adjective meaning in good health]

Always use bad as an adjective. Therefore, bad is used after a linking verb. Use badly as an adverb. Badly almost always follows an action verb.
That was a bad idea. [adjective] The milk tasted bad. [adjective following a linking verb] I feel bad about your moving to another state. [adjective following a linking verb]
Using Modifiers Correctly

The faucet is leaking badly. [adverb following an action verb]

Exercise 8

Correcting Errors with Good, Well, Bad, and Badly

If a sentence contains an error with good, well, bad, or badly, on your paper write the form that should have been used. If a sentence is correct, write correct.

Marisa did bad on her algebra test. badly

1. Youll do good on your tests if you will just remember to study, my mother always tells me. 2. Thats easy for you to say, I always answer. You were always a good student. 3. I dont feel good enough to study because of this headache. 4. My mother feels badly that I am ill. 5. Would a little chicken soup taste good to you today? she inquires kindly. 6. Ill eat whatever you think will make me well, I respond. 7. But, really, my head hurts so bad that I dont know that soup will help much, I continue. 8. I know, but your grandmother always believed that eating good could cure anything, Mom says. 9. Lets give it a try, then. Maybe it will help me study well for the test, too, I say. 10. That soup smells so well that Im starting to feel cured already.


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Exercise 9

Using Good, Bad, Well, and Badly

On your paper complete the following sentences by writing good, well, bad, or badly.

Taking a Hike
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

No one can hike ____________ without comfortable hiking shoes. Improper equipment can make a hiker or camper feel ____________ . ____________ planning is absolutely essential for a long and difficult hike. A hike that is planned ____________ will not be enjoyable and may be unpleasant. Locating a ____________ trail is one important aspect of planning a hike. A hiker who is not feeling ____________ can become a serious problem on the trail. Hikers feel ____________ if they cannot keep up with their companions. If a hike begins ____________, the hikers may become discouraged and decide to turn back. The views along the Appalachian Trail look as ____________ as the views that one sees in the Rocky Mountains. Hikers should know their capabilities ____________ before they start off on an ambitious hike. I recently took an energetic walk with my friend Arnold, who could not hike _____. Arnold tripped and hurt himself _____ after we had hiked only about a mile and a half. Arnold said that his new hiking boots felt _____, but I thought they looked quite loose on his feet. It also appeared that the soles were too thin to support his weight _____. I felt _____ that he had hurt himself because I had really wanted our hike to go _____. Arnold had been feeling _____ about his girlfriend, but then she suddenly broke up with him. Needless to say, his confidence was _____ shaken. He needed a _____ friend to spend time with him and make him forget his problems. Ever since we were young children, we have gotten along with each other very _____. I will be very disappointed if this misadventure hurts our friendship _____.
Writing Paragraphs with Modifiers

Using Modifiers Correctly

Exercise 10

Write two paragraphs, using each of the phrases below. You can use the phrases for each paragraph in any order.
SAMPLE danced badly SAMPLE SENTENCE Ellie danced badly at her first audition.

Paragraph 1 1. feel well 2. stumbled badly 3. than any other basketball player 4. than those of Patrick Ewing 5. played well

Paragraph 2 6. feel good 7. drove well 8. than any other student 9. failed her driving test badly 10. looked bad

18.5 Good or Well; Bad or Badly



Double Negatives
I dont have any stereo equipment. I have no stereo equipment.

In general, do not use a double negative, two negative words in the same clause. Use only one negative word to express a negative idea.
INCORRECT I dont have no stereo equipment. CORRECT CORRECT

INCORRECT We havent seen no concerts this year. CORRECT CORRECT

We havent seen any concerts this year. We have seen no concerts this year.

INCORRECT My parrot never says nothing. CORRECT CORRECT

My parrot never says anything. My parrot says nothing.

The words hardly and scarcely are also negatives. Do not use them with other negative words such as not.
Using Modifiers Correctly
INCORRECT I havent hardly finished. CORRECT

He cant scarcely never be on time. He can scarcely ever be on time.

I have hardly finished.

Exercise 11

Identifying Double Negatives

On your paper write each double negative in the following sentences. If a sentence is correct, write correct.

Working Out
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I used to think there wasnt no reason for me to exercise. I didnt want no new activity to distract me from my other interests. I hadnt never explored the possibility of joining an aerobics class. Eventually, my friend Ramn convinced me that my negative attitude was neither sensible nor smart. I signed up for an aerobics class at the Y, but at first I didnt want nobody to watch me make mistakes. The other students never said nothing about my clumsy moves. They didnt seem to have no interest in anything but stepping, jogging, and dancing to the high-energy music. Soon I realized that exercising never gets no harder; it just gets easier. Now I hardly never miss a session. Not even bad weather can keep me from working out.


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Exercise 12

Correcting Double Negatives

On your paper rewrite the following sentences, eliminating the double negative in each. (Most sentences can be corrected in more than one way.) If a sentence is correct, write correct.

1. When our family goes camping, we like to find a site where there isnt no one around. 2. Dont never pitch your tent on sloping ground, for you will be very uncomfortable. 3. Nobody should never forget to dig a trench around the tent, in case it rains during the night. 4. Cant none of them help us pitch our tent? 5. Its best never to leave no food in your tent, for animals may be attracted to it. 6. One time my sister and I discovered a raccoon in our tent, and after that we didnt leave nothing edible inside. 7. In some wilderness areas, campers arent allowed to build no fires, and they must cook all their meals on a portable stove. 8. Some campers bring canned food along, but we dont bring none because it is too heavy to carry. 9. My parents always pack dried food because it is light and doesnt never spoil. 10. When it is time to break camp, no one should leave no trash on the ground, and all fires should be put out. 11. Our most memorable camping trip was one I dont never want to repeat. 12. One summer we decided to go to Crater Lake in southern Oregon because we hadnt never been to that site in the Cascade Range. 13. There isnt no more beautiful place in all the world. 14. The lake hasnt no inlet or outlet. 15. Nobody cant see it without being amazed by its sapphire-blue color. 16. However, we didnt have no idea about the areas changeable summer weather when we pitched our tent. 17. We hadnt no sooner gone to bed than it began to rain. 18. We didnt get hardly any sleep as the rain poured down, the wind blew, and the temperature dropped. 19. In the morning when we opened our tent flap, we realized we hadnt had no other camping experience like this before. 20. The rain had turned to snow, leaving not a patch of green grass or a brown tree trunk anywhere to be seen. 21. We had never seen nothing like it before in our lives. 22. We wanted something hot to drink, but we couldnt start no fire. 23. There wasnt scarcely any dry firewood around. 24. We decided that we didnt want to spend no more time there, even though the lake looked beautiful surrounded by the snow-covered trees. 25. We just hadnt no idea that it could snow in the Cascades in the middle of summer.

Using Modifiers Correctly

18.6 Double Negatives



Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers

Place modifiers as close as possible to the words they modify in order to make the meaning of the sentence clear. Misplaced modifiers modify the wrong word, or they seem to modify more than one word in a sentence. To correct a sentence with a misplaced modifier, move the modifier as close as possible to the word it modifies.

Soaring over the edge of the cliff, the photographer captured the eagle. [participial phrase incorrectly modifying photographer] The photographer captured the eagle soaring over the edge of the cliff. [participial phrase correctly modifying eagle] The photographer easily spotted the eagle with highpowered binoculars. [prepositional phrase incorrectly modifying eagle] The photographer with high-powered binoculars easily spotted the eagle. [prepositional phrase correctly modifying the photographer]

Soaring over the edge of the cliff, the photographer captured the eagle.

Using Modifiers Correctly



Place the adverb only immediately before the word or group of words it modifies. If only is not positioned correctly in a sentence, the meaning of the sentence may be unclear.
UNCLEAR Dan only has art on Monday. [Does Dan have only one

class on Monday, or does he have no class on any day but Monday, or is Dan the only person (in a group) who has one class on Monday?]

Dan has only art on Monday. [He has no other class.] Dan has art only on Monday. [He does not have art on any other day.] Only Dan has art on Monday. [No other person has art on Monday.]


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Dangling modifiers seem logically to modify no word at all. To correct a sentence that has a dangling modifier, you must supply a word the dangling phrase can sensibly modify.

Working all night long, the fire was extinguished. [participial phrase logically modifying no word in the sentence] Working all night long, firefighters extinguished the fire. [participial phrase modifying firefighters]



After finishing his homework, it was time to play soccer. [prepositional phrase logically modifying no word in the sentence] After finishing his homework, the boy went to play soccer. [prepositional phrase modifying boy]


Using Modifiers Correctly


Sleeping soundly, the raucous alarm startled me into consciousness. [participial phrase logically modifying no word in the sentence, since me is an object pronoun] Sleeping soundly, I sprang into consciousness at the sound of the raucous alarm. [participial phrase modifying I]


Exercise 13

Identifying Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers

On your paper, write the misplaced or dangling modifier from each sentence. If a sentence is correct, write correct.

The police officer saw the tire explode in his binoculars. in his binoculars

1. Last night Darnell had a flat tire on the way to his job. 2. A motorcycle rider offered to fix the tire with a friendly grin. 3. Coming out from behind some parked cars, neither Darnell nor his helper could see the police officer. 4. Watching the motorcycle rider work, the tire was soon fixed. 5. I only have trouble on this road, Darnell lamented.

18.7 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers


Exercise 14

Correcting Misplaced Modifiers

Rewrite each sentence, moving the misplaced modifier closer to the word it modifies.

I noticed the park walking home from school. Walking home from school, I noticed the park.

At the Park
1. The sign at the park entrance said, Children should be with an adult under eight years of age. 2. A little boy was riding around on a bicycle with unmatched shoes. 3. Scampering around the top rung of the jungle gym, Marty noticed a baby squirrel. 4. Helen saw the sand castle her little sister had built on the way home from school. 5. The new paint set was under the porch that he had received for his birthday. Exercise 15 Identifying and Correcting Dangling Modifiers

Rewrite each sentence that needs correction, fixing the dangling modifier. If a sentence has no dangling modifier, write correct.

Using Modifiers Correctly


Waking to the screech of the alarm, the blankets were pulled up over Petes head. Waking to the screech of the alarm, Pete pulled the blankets over his head.

Rise and Shine

Waking up in the dark, Petes room seemed mysterious and gloomy. After taking a shower, the sun finally came out. Putting on a short-sleeved shirt, the temperature outside was warm. Shouting from the kitchen downstairs, Petes dad let him know that juice and cereal were on the table. 5. The school bus pulled up right on time after a hurried breakfast.
1. 2. 3. 4. Exercise 16 Using the Adverb Only

Rewrite each of the following sentences, adding the word only. Then explain what only means in your sentence.

I sleep late on Saturday. I sleep late only on Saturday. I dont sleep late on any day except Saturday.

Only on Saturday
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I wake up early on Saturdays if theres an emergency. The chore I have is mowing the grass. I go to the movies on Saturday afternoons. I eat pizza at my favorite pizzeria, Pauls Place. I can appreciate how much my Saturdays mean to me.


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Exercise 17

Correcting Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers

On your paper rewrite the following sentences, correcting any misplaced or dangling modifiers. (Some sentences can be corrected in more than one way.)

Going to the Circus

Barnum and Bailey circus is a big event, for it comes only to our town once a year. 2Julio and I arrived early and took our seats inside the tent in high spirits. 3Dimming the lights, the elephants lumbered into the ring. 4Swinging their great trunks, the trainers marched the elephants in a circle. 5On a tightrope high above the ring, we watched the acrobat walk steadily and fearlessly. 6Three lions were released from a cage growling fiercely. 7The clown pretended that he had been attacked by the lions, but one girl in the audience only screamed. 8Galloping around the ring, a woman in a blue sequined dress waved to the crowd on horseback. 9Julio watched nervously as the trapeze artists leaped through the air clutching his chair. 10We watched her intently sitting on the bleachers and eating cotton candy. 11Facing north, the second ring could be seen quite clearly. 12The snake charmer only charmed one snake, but it was a big one. 13A trainer commanded a bear with a chair. 14Watching the acrobats, the thrills never stopped. 15Barking furiously, the clowns chased little dogs around the tent. 16Julio enjoyed photographing the ringmaster with his miniature camera. 17Knowing what a bad photographer I was, the spectacle itself was enough. 18The band played a march dressed in star-spangled khaki. 19Taking their bows, the crowd applauded all the performers. 20Under the stars our hearts were content as we walked home.
Exercise 18 Review: Correcting Modifiers

Using Modifiers Correctly

The following paragraph contains 10 errors in the use of modifiers. Rewrite the paragraph, correcting the errors.

Ted Williams, Home-Run Ace

Williams is considered one of the most finest baseball players of all time. 2At the age of 17, a team in San Diego was the team he joined. 3By 1939 he was playing good enough to start with the Boston Red Sox. 4From that time until his retirement in 1960, Ted Williams only played baseball with the Red Sox; he never played for no other team. 5Williams was one of baseballs all-time most greatest hitters. 6His batting average was higher than most other players. 7He hit especially good in 1941, when he had a 0.406 batting average. 8Williams did not play so bad in 1942 either. 9In both 1941 and 1942, he hit more home runs than any player in the league.

18.7 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers


Exercise 19

Correcting Modifiers

On your paper rewrite the following sentences, correcting the misplaced, dangling, or other incorrect modifiers in each. (Some sentences can be corrected in more than one way.) If a sentence is correct, write correct.

Winston and Sabah only go out together once a week. Winston and Sabah go out together only once a week.

Winston and Sabah

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Walking along the sidewalk, a stone made Winston trip and fall. Winston hadnt hardly time to get to Sabahs house without being late. In a great hurry, the buzzer rang as Sabah ran to the door. Out for a walk, Winston and Sabah walked more farther than they usually did. The yogurt sundaes they stopped to eat tasted well. As they walked to the movies, they saw that a fire had destroyed a neighbors house and the chimney was only left standing. Sleeping too late the next morning, the school bus left Sabah behind. Sabah felt worser than she had felt in a long time. Walking to school, Sabah bought a stuffed bear from a vendor with fuzzy pink fur. Because she was late, Sabahs teacher reprimanded her. Sabah felt badly that she had overslept. Sabah decided that English grammar was more easier than algebra. She liked English class better than any class. Winston and Sabah only had one class together. Winston wrote an essay about his cat using a ballpoint pen. Sabah wrote a paragraph about her dog concentrating deeply. The teacher announced that both had done good. Hoping to do well on the pop quiz, a silence fell over the classroom. Having fallen asleep, Sabah threw her pencil at Winston. Winston felt well that his friend was looking out for him. Greeting each other enthusiastically, Winston and Sabah met after school. Running in all directions, Sabah waved as their classmates left for home. In the middle of the football field, Winston and Sabah watched the team practice. The bestest player was not at the practice. Starting for home, Winston and Sabah bid each other a fond farewell.

Using Modifiers Correctly


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Exercise 20

Correcting Modifiers

On your paper rewrite any of the following sentences in which there are errors in the use of modifiers, correcting the errors in your revision. (Some sentences may be corrected in more than one way.) Write correct for each sentence that does not contain any errors.

Famous Comic Strips

1. In 1896 the first comic strip appeared in the New York World, called The Yellow Kid. 2. The next comic strip to come along was The Katzenjammer Kids, whose prankster stars, Hans and Fritz, usually behaved bad. 3. Hans and Fritz never gave the Captain and Mama no peace. 4. In Mutt and Jeff, a strip that started in 1908, Mutt is more taller than Jeff. 5. Mutt and Jeff was one of the most early strips to appear in the newspaper. 6. All the comic strips in the early years depended upon slapstick more than any form of comedy. 7. Based on a typical family, the cartoonist of The Gumps drew popular characters. 8. The character Andy Gump had a mustache, but he didnt have no chin. 9. First appearing in 1919, Frank King sometimes drew innovative backgrounds for his Gasoline Alley strip. 10. People liked this strip very much, especially after the character Uncle Walt adopted little Skeezix. 11. Before Gasoline Alley there had been no comic strip in which the characters grew up and aged. 12. Although full of political content, Little Orphan Annie also told a good story. 13. The eyes of Little Orphan Annie are larger than most people. 14. For its first ten years, the Thimble Theatre comic didnt have no Popeye in it. 15. Blondie was more widely circulated than any comic strip. 16. Dagwood, Blondies husband, only made huge sandwiches when he raided the refrigerator; he never made an average-sized sandwich. 17. In his pursuit of such bizarre criminals as Flattop and Eighty-eight Keys, a yellow hat and square jaw were the trademarks of the cartoon detective Dick Tracy. 18. In Peanuts, Pigpen is more dirtier than his friends Charlie Brown, Lucy, and Linus. 19. The comic-strip opossum, Pogo, makes philosophical comments on life. 20. In spite of its sometimes controversial political remarks, Garry Trudeau won a Pulitzer Prize for his Doonesbury strip. 21. The editorial page only runs political cartoons, not comic strips. 22. Solving one problem, another problem always faces the kindly heroine of Mary Worth. 23. In the strip Peanuts, Charlie Brown always feels badly after his baseball team loses. 24. Many people believe that Calvin and Hobbes is funnier than any comic strip. 25. The strip Flash Gordon is more older than most of the other strips in newspapers today.

Using Modifiers Correctly

18.7 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers



Grammar Review
The passage in this workshop is taken from An American Childhood, a memoir by Annie Dillard. In it Dillard recalls her fascination with books that describe the pleasures and perils of rock collecting, one of her hobbies as a child. The passage has been annotated to show the kinds of modifiers covered in this unit.

Literature Model
from An

American Childhood
by Annie Dillard

Using Modifiers Correctly

Positive form of the adjective wild

Positive form of the adverb recently

Correct use of good

Correctly placed prepositional phrase modifying men

eople who collected rocks called themselves rockhounds. In the worst of cases, they called their children pebble pups. Rockhounds seemed to be wild and obsessive amateurs, my kind of people, who had stepped aside from the rush of things to devote themselves to folly. . . . Some rockhounds had recently taken up scuba diving. These people dove down into brawling mountain streams with tanks on their backs to look for crystals underwater, or to pan for gold. The gold panning was especially good under boulders in rapids. One book included a photograph of a mild-looking hobbyist in his basement workshop: he sawed chunks of Utah wonderstone into wavy, landscapy-looking slabs suitable for wall hangings. Here was a photograph of rockhounds in the field: Two men on a steep desert hillside delightedly smash a flat rock to bits with two hammers. Far below stands a woman in a dress and sensible shoes, doing nothing. Here is their campsite: a sagging black pyramidal tent pitched on the desert floor. A Studebaker fender nudges the foreground. The very hazards of field collecting tempted me: tramping for miles over rough country, facing cold, heat, rain, cactus, rough lava, insects, rattlesnakes, scorpions, and glaring alkali


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Grammar Review
flats. Collectors fell over boulders and damaged crystals. Their ballpoint pens ran out of ink. . . . Getting back home alive only aggravated their problems. If you bring home five hundred pounds of rocks from an average collecting trip, what do you do with them? Splay them attractively about the garden, one book suggested lamely. Give them away. Hold yard sales. One collector left five tons of rough rock in his yard when he moved. . . . On the other hand, rock collecting had unique rewards. For example, the thinner you sliced your specimens when you sawed them up, the more specimens you had. In this way you could multiply your collection without leaving home.
Correct placement of the adverb only

Comparative form of the adverb thin

Review: Exercise 1

Making Correct Comparisons

Using Modifiers Correctly

The following sentences are about rock collecting. For each sentence, write on your paper the proper comparative or superlative form of the modifier in parentheses.

Rock collecting is ____________ in some areas than in others. (easy) easier

1. Rock hunting in areas where the ground is already broken, such as quarries and building sites, is ____________ than hunting in areas with unbroken ground. (simple) 2. Some rock hunters gather rocks at a local site, whereas others travel ____________ than that for specimens. (far) 3. One of the ____________ practices to engage in while rock hunting is trespassing on private property. (bad) 4. One of the ____________ and most dangerous things a rock hunter can do is to hunt alone on a steep rock wall. (silly) 5. Of the rock hunters various tools, a rock hammer is the ____________ implement for loosening solid rock. (good) 6. To loosen individual crystals, a chisel works ____________ than a pocketknife. (good) 7. Museum specimens are often larger and ____________ than those kept by amateur rock collectors. (impressive) 8. Minerals can be identified ____________ than rocks because the atoms in minerals are arranged in a regular pattern, resulting in the formation of crystals. (quickly) 9. Rocks and minerals cannot always be identified simply by looking at them; ____________ testing is often required. (far) 10. Of the various testing methods, the one that is probably used ____________ is the streak test. (frequently)
Grammar Review


Grammar Review
Review: Exercise 2 Correcting Double Comparisons

The following sentences are based on passages from An American Childhood that are not reprinted in this textbook. Rewrite the sentences, correcting any errors of double comparison. If a sentence contains no errors, write correct.

To outsiders no one seems more crazier than rockhounds. To outsiders no one seems crazier than rockhounds.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Using Modifiers Correctly

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

The young Annie Dillard liked nothing more better than the natural sciences. She was more curiouser about rocks than she was about stamps or coins. To Dillard, rock hunting seemed like the most liveliest of hobbies. The books she read showed rockhounds hunting for specimens in the most wildest places imaginable. Although Dillard obtained her own specimens by less ruggeder methods, she still found the rocks secrets intriguing. Some plain-looking rocks, when scratched on a rough surface, created streaks of color more brighter than greasepaint. Even the dullest rocks, when cracked open, might reveal lovely crystals inside. Of the rocks in Dillards collection, the most prettiest was a red one called cinnabar. Many minerals have strange names, but chalcopyrite (a brassy yellow mineral) was the most hardest for Dillard to pronounce. Dillard longed to possess rocks with names even odder than that of chalcopyrite: sillimanite and agaty potch, for example. Dillard was impressed with the fact that the earth is more older than any rock yet discovered. Before she began to read about rocks, she thought they were the most drabbest things imaginable. Only with more further exposure to the subject did she begin to find them fascinating. Once she started her collection, she looked for the most fastest way to expand it. With delight she learned that the more thinner she sliced her specimens, the bigger her collection became. She realized that more sooner or later she would need a larger room for the collection. With time and training, Dillard developed a more stronger descriptive prose than most other authors of her generation. One of her most greatest gifts is her keen eye for detail. All of her most latest books, including her fiction, continue to reflect her strong grounding in nature. Its interesting to note that the seeds of her talent as an adult author were planted much more earlier in a youthful enthusiasm for rock collecting.


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Grammar Review
Review: Exercise 3 Correcting Incomplete Comparisons

The following sentences are about minerals and gemstones. Rewrite the sentences, correcting any errors of incomplete comparison. Some of the sentences can be revised in more than one way. If a sentence contains no errors, write correct.

The value of a diamond is far greater than an amethyst. The value of a diamond is far greater than that of an amethyst.

1. On the Mohs scale, which lists minerals by their hardness, the mineral talc is softer than any mineral. 2. Quartz, a mineral that can cut glass, is much harder than talc. 3. Diamonds, among the worlds most valuable minerals, are harder than anything in nature. 4. The facets, or flat surfaces, of a diamond are different from an amethyst. 5. Among the stones called beryls, which come in different colors, green is more valuable than any color. 6. Green beryls are called emeralds, and the value of some emeralds is higher than some diamonds. 7. The emeralds from Colombia are finer than those supplied by any South American country. 8. More fine rubies are found in Southeast Asia than anywhere. 9. The appearance of many synthetic rubies is very close to natural rubies. 10. Unlike most other gemstones, pearls are not minerals but an organic material. 11. A gemologist is more interested in the chemical structure of precious stones than any scientist. 12. Unlike other gemstones, such as lapis and malachite, diamonds are not only polished, but also facet-cut. 13. The aquamarine from Brazil is of better quality than Colombia. 14. In Thailand one can find finer sapphires than anywhere. 15. Unlike any rubies, star-rubies appear to contain six-rayed stars that can be seen in bright light. 16. In ancient China, jade was considered more precious than any gemstone. 17. Chinese collectors often valued a tiny piece of jade sculpture over any artifact. 18. The turquoise jewelry created by a Navajo is different from a Zuni. 19. Native American artisans create more exquisite turquoise jewelry than anyone. 20. Today there is a greater selection of gemstones available than at any time in history.

Using Modifiers Correctly

Grammar Review


Grammar Review
Review: Exercise 4 Choosing the Correct Modifier

The following sentences are based on passages from An American Childhood not reprinted in this textbook. For each sentence choose the correct form of the modifier in parentheses, and write it on your paper. Then indicate whether the modifier you have chosen is being used as an adjective or an adverb.

To the young Annie Dillard, few hobbies seemed as (good/well) as rock collecting. goodadjective

1. Dillard obtained the first rocks in her collection from a newspaper boy whom she did not know very (good/well). 2. The newspaper boy had received the rocks as a gift from a (good/well) customer named Mr. Downey. 3. Mr. Downey, an avid rock hunter and collector, could no longer maintain his collection because his health was failing (bad/badly). 4. He had not been feeling (good/well) for several months, so he decided to give the collection to his newspaper boy, one of the few young people he knew. 5. The newspaper boy felt (bad/badly) because he did not have enough time to devote to the rock collection, and eventually he decided to give it to Dillard. 6. Dillard noticed right away that some of the rocks were attractive; others did not look too (good/well). 7. The fact that he could identify only two stalagmites made the newspaper boy feel (bad/badly) about his right to the collection. 8. Dillard herself was not (good/well) informed about the rocks and minerals when she first accepted the collection. 9. Had someone tested her on the names of Mr. Downeys rocks, Dillard would have done quite (bad/badly). 10. It was (good/well) that Dillard was able to borrow and read several books about rocks and minerals. 11. Dillard became more and more interested in rocks, quickly learning how to identify them (good, well). 12. She discovered that rockhounds were people that she got along with very (good, well). 13. She felt (good, well) about the amount of information and assistance some of these rockhounds could provide for her. 14. When she went on rock-finding expeditions, Dillard at first was (bad, badly) frustrated about not knowing what to do when she brought her findings home. 15. The rigors of actually looking for the rocks did not seem (bad, badly) by comparison.

Using Modifiers Correctly


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Grammar Review
Review: Exercise 5 Correcting Double Negatives

The following sentences are about precious metals. Rewrite the sentences, eliminating any double negatives. Most sentences can be corrected in more than one way.

Finding precious metals isnt no easy task. Finding precious metals is no easy task.

1. Gold is a very malleable metal; if you hammer it, it wont never break. 2. Because there isnt no more malleable metal, people began using gold for jewelry thousands of years ago. 3. Nobody never has to worry that gold will tarnish, as many other metals do. 4. You cant make no jewelry out of pure gold, however, for it is too soft. 5. Pure gold is hardly never found; usually it is combined with another metal. 6. For centuries there wasnt nothing more valuable than gold. 7. Silver was also deemed valuable, but there wasnt no interest in platinum. 8. Medieval alchemists tried to create gold, but no one could make none. 9. Few early European explorers of the Americas hadnt never heard about the legend of El Dorado. 10. Most prospectors in nineteenth-century America never had no scientific training. Review: Exercise 6 Correcting Misplaced Modifiers

Using Modifiers Correctly

The following sentences elaborate on ideas suggested by the passage from An American Childhood. Rewrite the sentences, correcting each misplaced modifier. If a sentence has no errors, write correct.

Dillard identified rocks consulting books and visiting local museums. Consulting books and visiting local museums, Dillard identified rocks.

1. Rockhounds seem eccentric to conventional people, having an unusual obsession. 2. Everyday activities seem unimportant to adventurous rockhounds with their dull routines. 3. Divers find some of the most interesting specimens in mountain streams using scuba-diving equipment. 4. Rockhounds often pan for gold in streams leaving no opportunity unexplored. 5. Some hobbyists might find enough gold to turn a tidy profit in the water. 6. Browsing through a book, Dillard noticed a strange photograph of a rockhound. 7. The picture showed a hobbyist sawing a chunk of wonderstone in his workshop destined for use as a wall hanging. 8. Lugging home huge quantities of rock, the question of practicality gnaws at the hobbyist. 9. The rockhound now begins to search for ideas about unloading his bounty in books. 10. One idea is to sell the specimens to friends occupying too much space.
Grammar Review


Grammar Review
Review: Exercise 7 Correcting Dangling Modifiers

The following sentences elaborate on ideas suggested by the passage from An American Childhood. Rewrite the sentences, correcting each dangling modifier by adding appropriate information. Reword the sentence if necessary. Some sentences can be corrected in more than one way. If a sentence has no errors, write correct.

Finding rock collectors wildly impractical, their hobby was attractive. Finding rock collectors wildly impractical, Dillard was attracted to their hobby.

Using Modifiers Correctly

1. Calling themselves rockhounds, rock collectors sometimes called their children pebble pups. 2. Pausing to reflect, rock hunting began to seem like a wild obsession. 3. Strapping on their heavy tanks, the hunt for rock crystals in mountain streams began. 4. After studying the photographs and reading the anecdotes in books about rock collecting, Dillard decided the hobby was both artistic and adventurous. 5. Sawed into wavy slabs by one hobbyist, its suitability for wall hangings was achieved. 6. After climbing a steep hillside, the flat rock was smashed with two hammers. 7. Pitched in the desert, a tent served as the rockhounds refuge from the elements. 8. Hunting for unusual rock specimens in wild and isolated places, minor problems like running out of ink arose. 9. After moving to a new home, five tons of rock remained in the rockhounds old yard. 10. Tramping for miles over rough country, their ballpoint pens ran out of ink. Review: Exercise 8

The following passage describes the artist Georgia OKeeffe, whose painting appears on the opposite page. Rewrite the passage, correcting the errors in spelling, grammar, and usage. Add any missing punctuation. There are twenty-five errors.

Georgia OKeeffe
Born in 1887 in Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, art was an early love of Georgia OKeeffe. 2She began studing art while still in her teens. 3She worked in Chicago as an advertising illustrator in 1909 but she resumed her art studies in 1912. 4 First worked as a teacher for the public school system in Amarillo, Texas. 5She then taught art at the University of Virginia And more later, she returned to Texas to head the art department at West Texas State Normal College.


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Grammar Review

Georgia OKeeffe, The White Place in Shadow, 1940

Using Modifiers Correctly

Although she had been painting good for some years, OKeeffe did not produce no important works until 1915. 7They were large charcoal drawings based on elements in nature showing great promise. 8These works were seen by the photographer and gallery owner Alfred Stieglitz who admired them very much. 9 OKeeffes first exhibition was in 1916 at one of Stieglitzs galleries in New York City. 10Eight years later OKeeffe and Stieglitz was married. 11Every year until her husbands death, it had an exhibit at one of Stieglitzs galleries. 12 After visiting New Mexico in 1929, the dessert landscape became OKeeffes main subject. 13She was more happier painting there than anywhere. 14 In the years after her husbands death, she made Abiquiu, New Mexico, her permanant home. 15 OKeeffe belonged to the first generation of American abstract artists and drew on her American roots (particularly the vastest landscape of the arid Southwest) more than many of her compatriots. 16She was not greatly influenced by no European art. 17OKeeffe often used large, simplest forms that combined both soft and vivid colors. 18In many of her works, she exaggeratted the size of an object. 19 OKeeffe painted some of the more dramatic landscapes in all America. 20 In her painting The White Place in Shadow, she used subdued tones and massive shapes more than anything to capture the dry, sun-bleached cliffs of northern New Mexico. 21A setting such as this would perhaps be attractive to the rockhounds described by Annie Dillard than to most people.
Grammar Review


Grammar Review
Review: Exercise 9

Mixed Review
Read the following biography of Annie Dillard. Then rewrite the sentences below it, correcting any errors in the use of modifiers. If you need additional information in order to complete any of your sentences, consult the biography.

Annie Dillard
Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Annie Dillard fell in love with nature when, at the age of 10, she discovered The Field Book of Ponds and Streams at a local library. Always a fine scholar, Dillard excelled in her studies at Hollins College. For her masters degree, she wrote a paper on Henry David Thoreau, the famous American nature writer to whom she is often compared. Dillards journal of a year spent alone in rural Virginia became the basis for Pilgrim at Tinker Creek, which earned her the 1975 Pulitzer Prize. This vivid and introspective exploration of the natural world remains Dillards best-known work. She has also published a volume of poetry and several more works of nonfiction, including her fine autobiography, An American Childhood (1987). In 1992 Dillard published her first book of fiction, The Living, to great critical acclaim. In this novel she described the harsh life of the pioneers who came to the Pacific Northwest during the nineteenth century. In spite of her successes, Dillard claims to dislike writing because it takes her away from the great outdoors.
1. Writing vividly about the world of nature and her own experiences, Annie Dillards books have enjoyed great popularity. 2. Some readers and critics consider her writings about nature as powerful as the classic American author Henry David Thoreau. 3. Born in Pittsburgh, her youth is described vividly in the book An American Childhood, an autobiography published in 1987. 4. As a child, Dillard was an avid reader and almost never had no trouble with her schoolwork. 5. She later did good at Hollins College in Virginia. 6. After spending a year in rural Virginia, her journal of that period was expanded into her acclaimed best-seller Pilgrim at Tinker Creek. 7. Pilgrim at Tinker Creek is probably more popular than any book by Dillard. 8. Although it was Dillards first book, Pilgrim at Tinker Creek won her the 1975 Pulitzer Prize as the years most finest work of nonfiction. 9. Dillard has only published a single volume of poetry. 10. Cooped up in her office, writing often keeps Dillard away from the natural world she loves.

Using Modifiers Correctly


Unit 18 Using Modifiers Correctly

Writing Application
Modifiers in Writing
Good writers are careful about the clear use and placement of modifiers. Notice, for example, the italicized modifiers in the following passage from Flannery OConnors A View of the Woods.
No one was particularly glad that Mary Fortune looked like her grandfather except the old man himself. He thought it added greatly to her attractiveness. He thought she was the smartest and the prettiest child he had ever seen and he let the rest of them know that if, IF that was, he left anything to anybody, it would be Mary Fortune he left it to. She was now nine, short and broad like himself, with his very light blue eyes, his wide prominent forehead, his steady penetrating scowl, and his rich florid complexion; but she was like him on the inside too. She had, to a singular degree, his intelligence, his strong will, and his push and drive.

Techniques with Modifiers

Try to apply some of OConnors techniques when you write and revise your own work.
1 Use comparative and superFor more about the writing process, see TIME Facing the Blank Page, pp. 121-131.

lative forms of modifiers when appropriate.

WEAK VERSION a smart and pretty child OCONNORS VERSION the smartest and the prettiest child

2 Place modifiers correctly to make

Using Modifiers Correctly

your meaning clear.

CONFUSING PLACEMENT With his very light blue eyes, his wide prominent forehead, his steady penetrating scowl, and his rich florid complexion, she was now nine, short and broad like himself. . . . OCONNORS VERSION She was now nine, short and broad like himself, with his very light blue eyes, his wide prominent forehead, his steady penetrating scowl, and his rich florid complexion.


Practice using modifiers correctly by revising the following passage on a separate piece of paper.

Margaret watched her friend Linda windsurf sitting on the prow of the small boat. She wondered if she would ever be able to do it as effortlessly. There only was one way to find out. Taking a deep breath, her board was tossed into the water. Then she took another deep breath and plunged in after it. Climbing aboard, her feet were positioned just as Linda had taught her. She began to skim over the water as the wind became stronger. Feeling more freer than a seagull and more playful than a dolphin, suddenly the wind shifted, tossing her off the board. The sea was icy. It had not been icy near the shore. Struggling to the surface, a sobering thought occurred to her. She had a long way to go before she could windsurf in Lindas league.
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