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# Chapter 1

Introduction
1.1 Introduction:
Basically this project is used to detect whether anyone is trying to steal our bike. The circuit is setup in such a way that when the handle and the front mudguard are aligned together, the alarm is switched on. The switch is to be put on/off according to the requirement. Now when I am driving the bike or any of my known people are driving the bike its natural that the switch must be kept off. If anybody tries to steal your bike, this circuit turns on the horn of the bike to alert you of the impending theft. Usually, a handle lock is used on the handle bar for the safety of bikes, with the front mudguard in a slanted position. When the handle lock is freed, the front mudguard can be aligned with the body of the bike. This circuit consists of transmitter and receiver sections. The main components used in the circuit are as follows: IC 7805: Helps us converting the voltage into 5V. NE555: This is a timer IC which works in astable multivibrator mode. IR LED: Infrared LED which continuously transmits IR frequency. TSOP 1738: Receiver module senses the IR modulated frequency transmitted by the IR LED. IC LM311: Negative voltage comparator. When IR rays are not incident on the IR receiver module, the voltage at pin 3 of this IC is greater than the voltage at pin 2. As a result, the output of comparator this IC is low. But when the receiver senses IR rays from IR LED, the voltage at pin 3 of this IC is lower than the voltage at pin 2. As a result, the output of the comparator goes high. IC 7473: Used as a JK flip flop. The output of the comparator is latched to JK flip flop. The output of this IC is latched and used to energize relay RL1 via transistor T2.

Chapter 2
Circuit Diagram
2.1 Circuit Diagram:

## Fig. 2.1: Anti Theft Alarm for Bikes

The main components used in the circuit are as follows: IC 7805: Helps us converting the voltage into 5V. NE555: This is a timer IC which works in astable multivibrator mode. IR LED: Infrared LED which continuously transmits IR frequency. TSOP 1738: Receiver module senses the IR modulated frequency transmitted by the IR LED. IC LM311: Negative voltage comparator. When IR rays are not incident on the IR receiver module, the voltage at pin 3 of this IC is greater than the voltage at pin 2. As a result, the output of comparator this IC is low. But when the receiver senses IR rays from IR LED, the voltage at pin 3 of this IC is lower than the voltage at pin 2. As a result, the output of the comparator goes high. IC 7473: Used as a JK flip flop. The output of the comparator is latched to JK flip flop. The output of this IC is latched and used to energize relay RL1 via transistor T2.

Chapter 2
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Working Principle
2.2 Working Principle:
If anybody tries to steal your bike, this circuit turns on the horn of the bike to alert you of the impending theft. Usually, a handle lock is used on the handle bar for the safety of bikes, with the front mudguard in a slanted position. When the handle lock is freed, the front mudguard can be aligned with the body of the bike. This circuit consists of transmitter and receiver sections. The transmitter (IR LED1) is fitted on the back end of the front mudguard and the receiver sensor (IRX1) is fitted on the central portion of the crash guard of the bike such that IR rays from the transmitter directly fall on the sensor when the front mudguard comes in line with the body of the bike. The transmitter section is built around timer 555 (IC2), which is wired as an astable multivibrator with a frequency of around 38 kHz. The output of IC2 is further amplified by transistor T1 and given to an infrared light-emitting diode (IR LED1), which continuously transmits the IR frequency. The receiver section uses IR receiver module TSOP 1738 (IRX1), which is normally used in TV receivers. The receiver module senses the IR modulated frequency transmitted by the IR LED. When no IR rays are incident on the sensor, its output is high. But the output of the IR sensor goes low when it senses the modulated IR signal. The output of the receiver module is given to a negative voltage comparator built around IC LM311 (IC3). The input voltage at pin 2 of IC3 is fixed by using the voltage-divider network comprising resistors R7 and R8. When IR rays are not incident on the IR receiver module, the voltage at pin 3 of IC3 is greater than the voltage at pin 2. As a result, the output of comparator IC3 is low. But when the receiver senses IR rays from IR LED1, the voltage at pin 3 of IC3 is lower than the voltage at pin 2. As a result, the output of the comparator goes high. The output of the comparator is given to a latch made up of JK flip-flop (IC4). The low-to-high going pulse from the comparator makes the output of IC4 high until it is reset. The output of IC4 is latched and used to energize relay RL1 via transistor T2. The relay is connected to the negative terminal of the motorbikes horn, while the positive terminal of the horn is connected to the positive terminal of the battery via resistor R1. The energized relay drives the horn, which continues sounding until you press reset switch S2 momentarily. At night, lock your bike using the handle lock and switch on the circuit using switch S1. Since the IR transmitter (IR LED1) and the receiver (IRX1) will not be in line of sight, IR rays from IR LED1 will not be incident on the sensor.

When anyone tries to move the bike away, the IR transmitter and the IR receiver will come in line of sight and the IR rays from the IR transmitter will be incident on the receiver. This will make the output of the comparator (IC3) high. The pulse from the comparator will make the output of latch IC4 high and transistor T2 will conduct to sound the horn via relay RL1. The main components used in the circuit are as follows: IC 7805: Helps us converting the voltage into 5V. NE555: This is a timer IC which works in astable multivibrator mode. IR LED: Infrared LED which continuously transmits IR frequency. TSOP 1738: Receiver module senses the IR modulated frequency transmitted by the IR LED. IC LM311: Negative voltage comparator. When IR rays are not incident on the IR receiver module, the voltage at pin 3 of this IC is greater than the voltage at pin 2. As a result, the output of comparator this IC is low. But when the receiver senses IR rays from IR LED, the voltage at pin 3 of this IC is lower than the voltage at pin 2. As a result, the output of the comparator goes high. IC 7473: Used as a JK flip flop. The output of the comparator is latched to JK flip flop. The output of this IC is latched and used to energize relay RL1 via transistor T2.

Chapter 2
PCB Layout
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## 2.3 PCB Layout:

Chapter 3
Component Description
3.1 IC 7805:
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The 78xx (sometimes LM78xx) is a family of self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator integrated circuits. The 78xx family is commonly used in electronic circuits requiring a regulated power supply due to their ease-of-use and low cost. For ICs within the family, the xx is replaced with two digits, indicating the output voltage (for example, the 7805 has a 5 volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts). The 78xx lines are positive voltage regulators: they produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground. There is a related line of 79xx devices which are complementary negative voltage regulators. 78xx and 79xx ICs can be used in combination to provide positive and negative supply voltages in the same circuit. 78xx ICs have three terminals and are commonly found in the TO220 form factor, although smaller surface-mount and larger TO3 packages are available. These devices support an input voltage anywhere from a couple of volts over the intended output voltage, up to a maximum of 35 or 40 volts, and typically provide 1 or 1.5 amperes of current (though smaller or larger packages may have a lower or higher current rating). Advantages

78xx series ICs do not require additional components to provide a constant, regulated source of power, making them easy to use, as well as economical and efficient uses of space. Other voltage regulators may require additional components to set the output voltage level, or to assist in the regulation process. Some other designs (such as a switching power supply) may need substantial engineering expertise to implement.

78xx series ICs have built-in protection against a circuit drawing too much power. They have protection against overheating and short-circuits, making them quite robust in most applications. In some cases, the current-limiting features of the 78xx devices can provide protection not only for the 78xx itself, but also for other parts of the circuit.

The input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage by some minimum amount (typically 2 volts). This can make these devices unsuitable for powering some devices from certain types of power sources (for example, powering a circuit that requires 5 volts using 6-volt batteries will not work using a 7805).

Even in larger packages, 78xx integrated circuits cannot supply as much power as many designs which use discrete components, and are generally inappropriate for applications requiring more than a few amperes of current.

## Fig. 3.1: IC 7805

3.2 IC NE555:
The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation and oscillator applications. The part is still in widespread use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability.

## Fig. 3.2: NE555 Timer IC

The connection of the pins for a DIP package is as follows: GND: TRIG: OUT: Ground, low level (0 V) OUT rises, and interval starts, when this input falls below 1/3 VCC. This output is driven to +VCC or GND.

RESET: A timing interval may be interrupted by driving this input to GND. CTRL: "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default, 2/3 VCC). THR: DIS: The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL. Open collector output; may discharge a capacitor between intervals.

V+, VCC : Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V. The 555 has three operating modes:

Monostable Mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce free switches, and touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on.

Astable free running Mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation and so on. Selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of
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the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. The use of a microprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature, linearize it and even provide calibration means.

Bistable Mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce free latched switches.

Monostable Mode:

## Fig. 3.3: Schematic of a 555 in monostable mode

In the monostable mode, the 555 timer acts as a one-shot pulse generator. The pulse begins when the 555 timer receives a signal at the trigger input that falls below a third of the voltage supply. The width of the output pulse is determined by the time constant of an RC network, which consists of a capacitor (C) and a resistor (R). The output pulse ends when the voltage on the capacitor equals 2/3 of the supply voltage. The output pulse width of time t, which is the time it takes to charge C to 2/3 of the supply voltage, is given by

where t is in seconds, R is in ohms and C is in farads. While using the timer IC as a monostable the main disadvantage is that the time span between the two triggering pulses must be greater than the RC time constant. Bistable Mode: In bistable mode, the 555 timer acts as a basic flip-flop. The trigger and reset inputs (pins 2 and 4 respectively on a 555) are held high via Pull-up resistors while the threshold input (pin 6) is simply grounded. Thus configured, pulling the trigger momentarily to ground acts as a 'set' and transitions the output pin (pin 3) to Vcc (high state). Pulling the reset input to ground acts as a 'reset' and transitions the output pin to ground (low state). No capacitors are required in a bistable configuration. Pin 5 (control) is connected to ground via a small-value capacitor (usually 0.01 to 0.1 uF); pin 7 (discharge) is left floating. Astable Mode:

Fig. 3.4: NE555 Astable Circuit In astable mode, the 555 timer puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specified frequency. Resistor R1 is connected between VCC and the discharge pin (pin 7) and another resistor (R2) is connected between the discharge pin (pin 7), and the trigger (pin 2) and threshold (pin 6) pins that share a common node. Hence the capacitor is charged through R1 and R2, and discharged only through R2, since pin 7 has low impedance to ground during output low intervals of the cycle, therefore discharging the capacitor. In the astable mode, the frequency of the pulse stream depends on the values of R1, R2 and C:

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## and the low time from each pulse is given by

where R1 and R2 are the values of the resistors in ohms and C is the value of the capacitor in farads.

## Fig. 3.5: IC NE555

3.3 IC LM311:
Features:

Low input bias current : 250nA (Max) Low input offset current : 50nA (Max) Differential Input Voltage : 30V Power supply voltage : single 5.0V supply to 15V Offset voltage null capability Strobe capability

Description:
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The LM311 series is a monolithic, low input current voltage comparator. The device is also designed to operate from dual or single supply voltage. The LM111, LM211 and LM311 are voltage comparators that have input currents nearly a thousand times lower than devices like the LM106 or LM710. They are also designed to operate over a wider range of supply voltages: from standard 15V op amp supplies down to the single 5V supply used for IC logic. Their output is compatible with RTL, DTL and TTL as well as MOS circuits. Further, they can drive lamps or relays, switching voltages up to 50V at currents as high as 50 mA. Both the inputs and the outputs of the LM111, LM211 or the LM311 can be isolated from system ground, and the output can drive loads referred to ground, the positive supply or the negative supply. Offset balancing and strobe capability are provided and outputs can be wired. Although slower than the LM106 and LM710 the devices are also much less prone to spurious oscillations. The LM111 has the same pin configuration as the LM106 and LM710. The LM211 is identical to the LM111, except that its performance is specified over a -25C to +85C temperature range instead of -55C to +125C. The LM311 has a temperature range of 0C to +70C.

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## Fig. 3.7: IC LM311

3.4 IC 7473:
This device contains two independent positive pulse triggered J-K flip-flops with complementary outputs. The J and K data is processed by the flip-flops after a complete clock pulse. While the clock is LOW the slave is isolated from the master. On the positive transition of the clock, the data from the J and K inputs is transferred to the master. While the clock is HIGH the J and K inputs are disabled. On the negative transition of the clock, the data from the master is transferred to the slave. The logic states of the J and K inputs must not be allowed to change while the clock is HIGH. Data transfers to the outputs on the falling edge of the clock pulse. A LOW logic level on the clear input will reset the outputs regardless of the logic states of the other inputs.

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## 3.5 TSOP 1738:

TSOP Photo modules are excellent Infrared sensors for remote control applications. These IR sensors are designed for improved shielding against electrical field disturbances. TSOP Photo modules are miniature IR sensor modules with PIN photodiode and a preamplifier stage enclosed in an epoxy case. Its output is active low and gives +5 V when off.

Pin Assignment:

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Photo modules are 3 pin devices. These pins are assigned for +V,V and output. The pin assignment of TSOP 1738 from the front side (projected side) is Pin 1 Ground, Pin 2 + 5V and pin 3 Output. The photo module requires regulated 5V supply. If the supply voltage increases, the device will be destroyed. Design Considerations: For the proper functioning of the Photo module, it is necessary to consider some important aspects: 1. Supply voltage should be + 5 Volts. For this, a 5.1 volt Zener must be connected to the +V pin and ground. 2. A 100 uF capacitor should be connected to the +V pin as a buffer and filter capacitor. This will suppress the power supply disturbances .3. Carrier frequency should be close to the center frequency of the band pass filter 38 kHz in the case of TSOP 1738. 4. Between each 10 to 70 cycles, a gap time of 14 cycles is necessary to reset the module. 5. DC lights such as tungsten bulb and daylight affects the functioning of the photo module. 6. Signals from Fluorescent lamps with electronic ballast will affect the working of the photo module.

7. Continuous IR signal (non- pulsed) will disturb the photo module and it will not respond 8. Burst length must be 10 cycles per burst or more.

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## 3.6 Infrared LED:

Absolute Maximum Ratings Ta= 25C unless otherwise specified) Stresses exceeding the absolute maximum ratings may damage the device. The device may not function or be operable above the recommended operating conditions and stressing the parts to these levels is not recommended. In addition, extended exposure to stresses above the recommended operating conditions may affect device reliability.
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FEATURES Wavelength is 940 nm Chip material is GaAs Medium wide emission angle is 50 degrees. Here there is a high output.

## Fig. 3.12: IR LED

3.7 BC 547:
The BC547 is a general purpose silicon NPN BJT transistor found commonly in European electronic equipment; the part number is assigned by Pro Electron, which allows many manufacturers to offer electrically and physically interchangeable parts under one identification. The BC547 is commonly available in European Union and Commonwealth Countries and is often the first type of bipolar transistor young hobbyists encounter. As a representative of the large family of bipolar transistors the BC547 provides a "stepping off point" to the use of more esoteric, higher voltage, current or frequency devices for beginners.
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If the TO-92 package is held in front of one's face with the flat side facing toward you and the leads downward, (see picture) the order of the leads, from left to right is collector, base, emitter.

## Fig. 3.13: BC 547

3.8 SL100:
SL100 is a general purpose, medium power NPN transistor. It is mostly used as switch in common emitter configuration. The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its characteristic curves. This is known as the biasing. For switching applications, SL100 is biased in such a way that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets turned off completely. The emitter leg of SL100 is indicated by a protruding edge in the transistor case. The base is nearest to the emitter while collector lies at other extreme of the casing.
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## Fig. 3.14: SL 100

3.9 Resistor:
A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current through it in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR

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## Fig. 3.15: Resistor

Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance, the maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance is determined by the design, materials and dimensions of the resistor. Units The ohm (symbol: ) is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm. Commonly used multiples and submultiples in electrical and electronic usage are the milliohm (1x103), kilohm (1x103), and megohm (1x106).

Ohm's law The behaviour of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's law:

Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I) through it where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R).

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## Equivalently, Ohm's law can be stated:

This formulation of Ohm's law states that, when a voltage (V) is maintained across a resistance (R), a current (I) will flow through the resistance.

3.10 Capacitor:
A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops in the dielectric that stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while

allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other purposes.

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An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance 'C', defined as the ratio of charge 'Q' on each conductor to the voltage 'V' between them:

## Fig. 3.17: Capacitor Operation

Chapter 4
Procedure
4.1 Procedure:
Firstly I designed the PCB Layout of my circuit using PCB Express. The next step was accumulation of the various components required. Thus the later was purchased from an electronic store. After completion of the layout the PCB design print was taken on a glossy sheet and fabricated on the copper clad PCB. Fabrication included the following steps: 4.1.1 Cleaning of PCB: For the cleaning of the copper clad we use the metallic wool which is rubbed evenly all over the

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copper clad surface. This process is done for the removal of any finger prints and grease from the clad. The printing of the PCB would not be precise until all the fingerprints and grease is removed. Thus the clad must be properly cleaned using metallic wool. 4.1.2 Printing of PCB Layout: The printing of the PCB involves the use of an electric iron. The print of the layout design is placed on the clad. Once the image is imprinted properly on the surface of the clad then it is left in open air for cooling. After 15 minutes when the copper clad comes to the normal room temperature then the clad is placed under tap water for further cooling of the PCB. It is inserted in water for 15 minutes till the print paper is removed from the surface of the PCB and the print of the layout comes accurately on to the PCB. One thing must be kept in mind that the tracks should be clearly visible that is the imprint should be precise. If not so then a permanent marker must be used for the redesigning of the layout. 4.1.3 Etching: During the process of etching the printed layout on the PCB is dipped in a solution of anhydrous ferric chloride. This solution is prepared with water. The PCB is dipped completely in the solution and it is stirred rigorously in the solution. After 15 minutes the etching is done and the copper layer is removed from the PCB which makes it translucent in nature. Thus it is one of the most important processes for fabricating of PCB.

4.1.4 Removal of Toner: After the etching of the PCB the toner part is removed through rubbing the PCB with ethanol. This is done with the help of the cotton or tissue papers. After this process the black toner on the tracks of the layout are removed. 4.1.5 Drilling: After the fabrication process the PCB is drilled so that the components can be fitted in the PCB for the connections. While drilling holes in the PCB care must be taken regarding the size of the drill bit used. Hole size may vary in accordance with the lead size of components used. Now the PCB is ready for the further process of fitting the components and soldering.
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After the completion of the above all the required components are fitted on their specified positions. Now they are soldered using a soldering iron. Here in this project I avoided the use of a relay and diode since this was no meant to be used for practical purpose. Instead to indicate the running of the project I used a buzzer. Thus when the buzzer goes on due to disturbance in the rays between IR LED and TSOP 1738 indicates the working of the project. Also a 9V battery is used instead of a 12V battery since relay is not being used. Thus it led to the successful running and completion of my project.

Chapter 5
Result & Conclusion

## 5.1 Result & Conclusion:

I have successfully tested all the designs and the layouts. The layout for the circuit is first of all designed on the express PCB software. Then the working of the circuit can be checked using software such as Multisim. When these steps are finalized the holes are drilled on the PCB using a drill machine. Finally the components are fitted on the PCB are soldered. Since the tracks are imprinted soldering becomes quite an easy job. During the making of this project I have faced a lot of challenges and difficulties. The layout designing must be as compact as possible and the tracks
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made must have adequate width so that they cannot be short circuited in between. While fabricating of PCB is done the iron must be properly used and when etching is done care must be taken that the chemical solution made is fresh. Drilling must be done with precision otherwise the tracks can get short circuited. Finally the soldering of the components should be precisely done and open wires should be taped down to avoid short circuiting. Thus I would like to conclude by stating that my project is under working condition.

List of Abbreviations:

IC: Integrated Circuit IR LED: Infrared Light Emitting Diode DIP: Dual in Line Package PWM: Pulse Width Modulation DIS: Discharge GaAs: Gallium Arsenide DTL: Diode-Transistor Logic
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RTL: Resistor-Transistor Logic TTL: Transistor-Transistor Logic PCB: Printed Circuit Board

References:
Books: [1] Electronic Devices & Circuits Author: JB Gupta Edition: 2011 Publisher: SK Kataria & Sons [2] Understanding Electronics Components Author: Filipovic D Miomir Edition: 2003
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Publisher: MikroElectronika [3] IC 555 Projects Author: E Parr Edition: 1978 Publisher: Bernard Babani Sites: [1] http://www.bkbelectronics.com/buy%20item/analog%20ic/ne555.html [2] http://www.national.com/mpf/LM/LM311.html#Overview

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