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How do Technological and Digital Contexts alter the way in which we Use and Perceive Space?

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Abstract

Much as we adapt and evolve around the advancement of technology, so do our surroundings. The American Telephone and Telegraph Headquarters in New York City [Fig1 1 , opposite page] is one example of many in which skyscrapers are possible due to the introductions of technology for example lifts and communications; without these technologies, such a building would become impractical

However today our perceptions of space have distorted and adjusted to the extent that what once had been a monumental achievement such as long distance communications - have now become a basic requirement of every day life. The introduction of advanced communication technologies to ubiquitous digital devices have meant that we can be almost everywhere and anywhere at anyone time.

This essay therefore explores:

How technological and digital contexts alter our perception of space.

1 Michael Fazio, Marian Moffett, Lawrence Wodehouse, A World History of Architecture, (London, Laurence King Publishing, 2008) page 520

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Contents

Introduction

Page 5

-Environment = setting + context

Environment

Page 7

-Hybrid Environments

Setting

Page 15

-Can a Setting Create an Environment without Context?

Context

Page 23

-Digital Contexts, an Afterthought to Architecture?

Conclusion

Page 32

Bibliography

Page 33

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Introduction

This essay aims to break down the meaning of space and identify through key texts how we perceive it, and what effect technological advancement has had on the way we use those spaces.

Key terms by Malcolm McCullough, an Associate Professor of Architecture and Design, from his book ‘Digital Groundwill structure the way in which this essay explores the topic and also other theorists. His key terms that I will be employing throughout the essay are:

‘Let “setting” describe objective, a priori, space.

Context” is not the setting itself, but the engagement with it, as well as the bias that setting gives to the interactions that occur within it.

Environment” is the sum of all present contexts

it is not

an empty container, but a perception of persistent

possibilities for action. 2

A simplified version of this may be to say that:

Environment = Setting + Context These are terms which, however, have been reinterpreted to create a better understanding with pervasive technologies and our increasingly growing relationship we have with both digital and technological contexts.

2 Malcolm McCullough, Digital Ground, (Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institution of Technology, 2004), page 48

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These keywords will also structure the chapter headings of this essay as each area relates to how we perceive spaces. There are two other key theorists who have their own different concepts and views and will be compared with McCullough’s: Richard Coyne and Marcos Novak.

McCullough has an approach to this topic that looks at the idea that devices and contexts have ubiquitously integrated themselves into our built environment, intelligently always working, always gathering and emitting information.

In contrast to this, Coyne suggests that these devices are there for the users to take control of and tune their place, to create their ideal environment. However, Coyne is a much more recent theorist and so out of the three theorists it therefore makes sense to celebrate his ideas of the much more user-friendly interfaces that come with the advancement of modern digital contexts.

Novak however takes a poetic approach to the idea of the virtual (non-physical) world and treats it such as an alternative architecture. Unlike Coyne and McCullough who separate context from setting, Novak treats them as a whole.

In order to answer the question this essay poses, I will begin looking at what an environment is, followed by how we relate to setting, and finally looking at examples of contexts, with each chapter exploring the key theorists. Architectural examples such as Cedric Price’s Fun Palace and Daem Architecten’s Concert Hall in Bruges will be studied in order to apply ideas to physical examples and provide a better understanding of environment, setting and context.

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Hybrid Environments

It wasn’t until recently in the age of a technological boom that ‘Louis I. Kahn defined architecture as the thoughtful making of space3 ’. By this he didn’t just mean putting up walls and a roof and calling it a building, but the actual thought that goes into designing how one may move through and interact with more than just a volumetric space; what distinguishes architecture from any other space, a non-place.

This therefore begs the question; to what extent should our day to day environments be considered as architecture? Today our experiences of everyday environments are governed by the integration of digital and technological contexts such as personal computers and smart phones, which we become both constantly occupied by and connected to. These devices allow one to introduce data streams into their environment and create a space which is both physical, and virtual; i.e. a ‘Hybrid Space’.

Furthermore, digital contexts change the way in which we use and perceive environments. For example the home may be considered to become less significant as a home as more and more people bring back their work, thus changing the home to a place of work and as a result, the role of the house changes. This then influences what we call ‘home’, as our work moves into it, the home moves beyond the physical house and into cars or to third places like coffee shops 4 .

3 Aymonino Aldo and Paolo Mosco Valerio, Contemporary Public Space Un-volumetric Architecture, (Italy, Skira Editore, 2006) Page 9 4 Ben Hooker, Heterogeneous Home, (http://www.benhooker.com/heterogeneoushome/, 2007) accessed: November 2011

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Hybrid spaces emerge when we engage with digital contexts that allow us to see presented data. It is something that all of us do now as second nature, be it by answering a phone or accessing the internet. According to the Collins English Dictionary the word hybrid is a: Composite; formed or composed of heterogeneous elements 5

Hybrid spaces therefore consist of physical elements which allow access to a virtual environment; an invented world of directed data streams which are configured to represent forms 6 . As a result these ‘hybridspaces are dynamic, as data accessed by digital devices constantly change. Therefore so do physical spaces which may have been designed for specific functions only, such as the home evolving into a place of work.

Back to the future

The classic sci-fi novel Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson sets the scene in the future,

Hiro Protagonist and Vitaly Chernobyl, roommates, are chilling out in their home, a spacious 20-by-30 in a U-Stor-It in Inglewood, California… Hiro is wearing shiny goggles that wrap halfway around his head… The goggles throw a light, smoky haze across his eyes and reflect a distorted wide- angle view of a brilliantly lit boulevard that stretches off into

5 Dictionary.com, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition,

(HarperCollins Publishers (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/hybrid) accessed:

February 25, 2012

6 Marcos Novak, Liquid Architectures in Cyberspace (http://www.surfacenoise.info/367/readings/novak.pdf, 1991) accessed: January 7

2012

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an infinite blackness. This boulevard does not really exist; it

is a computer-rendered view of an imaginary place 7 .’

Although written almost twenty years ago, there are a lot of accuracies when comparing this scene to the present day. Today developers throw down more and cheaper housing with little designed space and total floor space declining, and yet we tend to accept this and move into them. In the novel Snow Crash, Hiro, the main character escapes from his physical home to the cyber world which exists in the virtual. Just like many of us who escape from reality to watching television programmes or spending hours on end in virtual games, we can relate to this novel. It is something that has simply been accepted in modern society and is overlooked now as the norm.

Snow Crash also sets the scene quite clearly in relation to this essays aim in exploring our modern environments of hybrid spaces. McCullough would identify from this extract

that the setting could be looked at as the U-Stor-It unit in which Hiro Protagonist lives and the context as his interface to the virtual world. Together the context and setting create

a desired environment.

Theorists Response

McCullough would relate to this Snow Crash extract in much

a way Novak would by seeing contexts working quietly and

tucked away (ubiquitously) much as is more of our present day technology. McCullough states: Walking into your house

preheated by its programmable thermostat, you might

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realize that just as much computation is built into your surroundings as is carried about in your bag 8 ’. However he doesn’t blur the line between context and setting like Novak would, but instead acknowledges that contexts are there, always working but not always on display and actually alter the setting, in this case the temperature of your house, to ultimately create the ideal environment for the user.

Novak on the other hand, celebrates the idea that we can be in more than one place at any one time through technologies such as the internet and thus cyberspace, much like Hiro Protagonist in this extract from Snow Crash. His approach is both metaphorical and real at the same time.

Novak considers a type of architecture (environment) cut loose from the expectations of logic, perspective, and laws of gravity. He believes that architecture today is actually the product of the convergence of science and art, of technology and art: “Liquid architectures of cyberspace” and “transarchitectures” are terms in which he uses to address spaces that are created specifically for the virtual world, that do not exist in the physical 9 . This is where Novak’s theories differ from Coyne and McCullough in that he see’s liquid architecture both separate and one with the physical. He views transarchitecture as an expression of the “fourth dimension,” which incorporates time alongside space among its primary elements 10 .

8 Malcolm McCullough, page 4 9 Camile A. Silva, Liquid Architectures: Marcos Novak’s Territory of Information, (unpublished master’s thesis, University of Brasilia, Brazil, 2005) 10 Marcos Novak, page 4

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Novak rests his case however in the way he explores the meaning of place: there are fundamental requirements for the perception of space: reference, delimitation, and modulation.’

This suggests ‘that cyberspace does not exist until a distance can be perceived between subject and boundary, that is to say, until it is delimited and modulated 11 . This statement holds very true to what our present day digital devices do; they delimit and modulate data in order for us to benefit from the device.

The modulation of data that digital devices present follows onto McCullough’s beliefs in that when we engage with such devices, the idea of periphery’ comes into play. McCullough defines periphery as: ‘background that is outside focal attention but can quickly be given the attention when necessary12 . If this holds true then setting should become far less important in a designers sense of creating an environment, because what has our attention, perhaps in the cyber world for example, draws us away from the physical setting.

11 Marcos Novak, page 4

12 Malcolm McCullough, page 49

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Tinmith

Tinmithis a system which allows the line between context and setting to be crossed. It is an outdoor Augmented Reality system whereby the user wears apparatus that allow the system to insert a ‘digital’ layer of information in front of what the user actually sees [fig 2, below 13 ].

of what the user actually sees [fig 2, below 1 3 ]. 1 3 Friedrich von

13 Friedrich von Borries, Steffen P.Walz, Matthias Bottger, Space Time Play, (Birkhauser Verlag AG, Basel, Switzerland, 2007), page 346-7

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With Tinmith the user can walk around an outdoor environment and using his fingertips create and edit his surroundings, even if they are out of arms reach. Although at early stages, Tinmith, is intended for helping with town planning, previewing new building designs and evaluating the environmental and aesthetic impact of new structures.

This is perhaps one of the most presentable forms of a hybrid space, where virtual and non virtual come together and play on the users senses to create an environment. The user is fully aware of their setting whilst engaging in a separate context, and thus periphery no longer exists. The user has full control of the architecture that surrounds them, much as Novak celebrates the idea of a liquid architecture,

Liquid Architecture is an architecture whose form is contingent on the interests of the beholder 14 .

Tuning your Environment

Much as transarchitectures cross paths with McCullough, they do so too with Richard Coyne in a very uncertain way. Although devices such as Tinmith do bridge the gap between the real and the virtual; they do so at the control of the user. Tinmith falls under yet another category of devices that are available for us to tune our environments, such as the change of temperature in a room due to a thermostat or even the closing of a window to drown out the annoying sound of a car alarm.

Coyne pays attention to sound, sense, body, place and increment and believes that they imply a return to a more

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sympathetic and organic order of being, where creatures adapt to their environments 15 . This is very much unlike liquid architecture, as Coyne suggests users adapt to environments, rather than the environment adapting to the user. This is because when we experience, we do so using all of our senses.

By comparing the views of McCullough, Novak and Coyne we can see that through the evolution of technology, environments are much more than the immediate physical setting. Digital technologies have allowed us to store, gather and access data in many different forms of representation and have thus changed the way in which we use and perceive spaces. Though Coyne believes in experience through all the senses, digital and technological contexts have changed the way in which we use our settings and calibrate our desired environments. However no matter how real a context such as a virtual setting can be perceived, an environment cannot exist without a setting, much as it cannot without context.

15 Richard Coyne, The Tuning of Place, (Cambridge, Massachusetts, The MIT Press, 2010), page 10

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Can a Setting Create an Environment without Context?

Settings are spaces that are designed, in order to provide a function for the users of that space. This chapter explores settings before contexts, as identified by McCullough, are put into place. I have deliberately used examples that do not require digital devices to fulfil their function in order to fully appreciate the beauty of design and question the importance of integrating digital technologies.

The Fun Palace

The Fun Palace [fig 3, below 16 ] designed by Cedric Price is an architecture which Novak bases his theory on. It is a pre-digital example chosen to emphasis that liquid architectures can exist without digital contexts; however require more input from the user which perhaps contributes to the experience.

from the user which perhaps contributes to the experience. 1 6 Neil Spiller, Visionary Architecture Blueprints

16 Neil Spiller, Visionary Architecture Blueprints of the Modern Imagination, (London, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 2006), page 41

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Neil Spiller, the writer of Visionary Architecture, suggested that: ‘as the twentieth century progressed, architects started to ask why architecture had to have dedicated functions and simple rectilinear plans and sections… 17 ’ and so inspired by socialism, in the early 1960s Cedric Price proposed his Fun Palace. The Fun Palace was a design for an entertainment centre which was built with moveable parts to create space for different situations. Therefore the setting of this building was dynamic, and it allowed the user to engage with the architecture as the user saw fit. One may argue the beginning of responsive architectures and space which evolves around the user, without the aid of digital ubiquitous devices.

The building was primarily intended to provide facilities for dancing, music, drama and fireworks. Cedric’s belief was that the Fun Palace would, through the use of correct new technologies, become a building in which the user would have control of. The marketing material suggested:

“Choose what you want to do or watch someone else doing it. Learn how to handle tools, paint, babies, machinery, or just listen to your favourite tune. Dance, talk or be lifted up to where you can see how other people make things work. Sit out over space with a drink and tune in to what’s happening elsewhere in the city. Try starting a riot or beginning a painting – or just lie back and stare at the sky.”

17 Neil Spiller, page 41

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Using an unenclosed steel structure, fully serviced by travelling gantry cranes the building comprised a ‘kit of parts’: pre-fabricated walls, platforms, floors, stairs, and ceiling modules that could be moved and assembled by the cranes. Virtually every part of the structure was variable.

Its form and structure, resembling a large shipyard in which enclosures such as theatres, cinemas, restaurants, workshops, rally areas, can be assembled, moved, re- arranged and scrapped continuously,’ promised Price 18 .

In response to this building Marcos Novak reinforced his theories of a liquid architecture. Cedric Price’s architecture attempted to create spaces that would respond to the users needs, such as opening up spaces for performances.

Novak saw the Fun Palace as a metaphorically liquid architecture that could be calibrated to the needs of the user, however McCullough and Coyne are theorists who are more interested in the relationship users have with contexts, and contexts with users. It is therefore interesting to explore Coyne’s exploration of threshold in the physical environment:

Contrary to the expectation that ubiquitous device might auger “smoother and more natural forms of interaction and expression,” I press the case for their capacity to defamiliarize and even alienate 19 . Applying this to the Fun Palace one may argue that Coyne would view the idea of a liquid architecture to one that users may feel wary about for their unfamiliarity.

18 Interactive Architecture, Cedric Price Fun Palace (http://www.interactivearchitecture.org/fun-palace-cedric-price.html) accessed :

January 2012

19 Richard Coyne, The Tuning of Place, page 169

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The tuning of place is suggested through mostly ubiquitous devices such as the mobile phone or McCullough’s reference to the thermostat in which we, the user, have full control over. This is unlike the idea of a liquid architecture which although attempts to satisfy the needs and wants of the user, does so in an unfamiliar and uncertain way and could make the user feel uncomfortable within their setting.

Daem Architecten’s Concert Hall

The second case study for a setting is a concert hall, built in 2003 in Bruges; it is a modern example of a building built for

a very specific function. Concert halls have been built for

hundreds of years despite technological evolutions and the sole function has remained the same. Daem Architecten’s

contemporary concert hall [fig 4 20 , opposite page] is built in

a very historical museum city and therefore attempts to provide a window of modernity.

The location of the building was on an old market square, and therefore in a central part of the city and so needed to fit sensitively into its surroundings. It achieved this by following the soft angular form of the city and was designed as ‘architecture of the eye, of sensory experience rather than of abstract theory 21 ’.

20 Photo, Innovation for Sustainable Production (http://www.i- sup2008.org/general/official_opening.htm), accessed : February 2012 21 Lucy Bullivant, 4dsocial Interactive Design Environments, (West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons Ltd), page 106

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19 What makes this a relevant case study in terms looking at setting is how it

What makes this a relevant case study in terms looking at setting is how it how it is designed around the senses and the way in which it utilises setting to enhance the context. Referring back to McCullough’s definition that context is something that we immerse ourselves into, and not the setting itself then the contexts in the case of this concert hall are the performances that take place.

Most of us would agree that as soon as the performance in a concert hall or any type of performance space begins our attention is directed straight to it; it becomes peripheral. Much as McCullough draws on the idea of being immersed into that which takes your attention, the setting becomes less significant to ones senses and thoughts, the concert hall helps enhance the experience, and therefore environment.

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McCullough and Novak can both

immersiveness makes the concert hall distinguishable from a

non-place through design, and through experience it becomes architecture.

agree that this

Coyne on the other hand explores the senses and how do they, and do not work together. What is interesting is that he mentions less about how senses make us feel about a place, but more about how they may be agonistic: ‘People often think of sound as a source of noise and annoyance, they seek visual confirmation of sounds as if to settle the matter of their source 22 . Perhaps it is for this reason the Bruges concert hall becomes such an ideal environment, as the context of the musicians, the sounds that we engage with and become immersed by, is aided and enhanced by the design of the setting, and so creates an environment which is ideal and harmonic to the users.

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21 The foyers [Fig 5 2 3 , above] are designed with exposed hard elements, lots

The foyers [Fig 5 23 , above] are designed with exposed hard elements, lots of space and lots of light which enhances the sense of dynamic within the building. This relates back to Coynes statement that we seek visual confirmations to settle our senses. Much like watching a concert, the dynamic setting of the foyers create a new context which add to the experience of arrival, finding the hall, watching the concert, and then leaving again through the foyer. This environment is achieved mostly by means of setting in which the user has little control over. Contexts do not need to be ‘added’ to

23 Lucy Bullivant, page 108

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create the environment, but rather the design itself composes its own context.

Though these case studies did not include examples of digital contexts, they do reveal to us the way in which we perceive space. The fact that the Fun Palace can adapt around the user is extraordinary, yet, according to Coyne comes with a sense of uncertainty which could cause the user to feel uncomfortable, as they are not in full control unlike with their own devices.

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Digital Contexts, an Afterthought to Architecture?

We have now looked at environment and setting and how settings can be designed in order to create a context, such as the dynamics of the Fun Palace. This chapter explores the impact of adding contexts, in particular digital contexts, to a setting.

The Fun Palace is such an example of a setting in that the building evolves around the user to meet required needs. Therefore the users can adapt and morph the building to their own contextual needs and in turn create the desired environment. However this equation has a two way relationship and as such, the context (remembering that context is not the setting itself, but the engagement with it, as well as the bias that setting gives to the interactions that occur within it 24 ) can become what changes and morphs the environment. This happens almost every time you engage with something, whether digital or not, such as when one paints a picture of their surroundings on a canvas, they all of a sudden become much more in tune with their setting, taking in almost every detail and they themselves have altered their own environment by seeing it in a new light.

Both theorists McCullough and Coyne acknowledge the presence and integration of digital contexts in our everyday environment, however McCullough see’s them as ubiquitous and that they change the way in which we work, rest, shop and play, whereas Coyne conceives contexts as devices that

24 Malcolm McCullough, page 48

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allow us to configure our environment to our own ideal. He suggests that: ‘the personal stereo, digital camera and smart phone of the urban nomad aggravate the flow, and configure space in the process with subtlety, and incrementally 25 . As we become more immersed into these devices we begin to lose sense of the setting which surrounds us. That’s because the setting, as Coyne’s theory suggests becomes ‘configured’, a recent and obvious example is the use of the smart phone, which transforms a non-place such as waiting room or lobby, into a place where the user is free to do as they please, whether that’s continue to work online, communicate with friends or even shop.

The Tuning of Place suggests that we add and control contexts in our setting in order to ‘bring things into alignment, as if closer to an ideal state 26 ’, such as how McCullough describes the integration of ubiquitous devices. However Coyne goes on to further suggest that this ‘can also be characterized as a hack, the fine adjustment of parameters, and a compensation for a condition where an ideal can never be met’. If we ourselves become the ‘hacker’ by configuring our contexts to meet our own ideal environment, for example when we select what music we play in our home, we may be at risk of upsetting someone else’s ideal environment. This begs the question then, if we can ever reach an ideal environment or as Coyne suggests that it is something that will always need to be recalibrated and re-tuned over and over. As an example, sound which as a result of a mobile phone in this case can change the effect of an environment in both pleasant and unpleasant ways for

25 Richard Coyne, page 13

26 Richard Coyne, page 5

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the users of a place at any given time as Coyne argues that the mobile phone ringtone lures its owner and its insistence repels bystanders 27 .

Hooker’s Heterogeneous Home

The Heterogeneous Home, by Ben Hooker is a proposal which is based upon how digital devices influence the home. The project aims to separate the home from the house, mostly through a means of an architectural language. The theory behind this idea is in response to how the house is slowly becoming just another place to work and as a result the context of the home has changed. Within his proposal he utilises both setting and context to create an environment which meets his definition of home.

A sketch diagram [fig 5 28 , on the next page] shows how one may separate the home from the house, in that the digital and virtual world is ‘left outside’ when entering. His design goes on to propose that the users should use their home as is intended, a place to rest, play, eat and sleep without the need to be always working.

27 Richard Coyne, page 13 28 Ben hooker, page 8

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26 O f course this is impractical however; one wouldn’t simply leave their mobile phone outside

Of course this is impractical however; one wouldn’t simply leave their mobile phone outside their home as we rely too heavily on them to stay connected in the modern world. Coyne realises what Hooker is trying to break away from in his design which is ‘habit’. He puts forward that: routines are what make us human, a television schedule for example for people who live alone or are unemployed welcome the regularity of the television schedule as a way of giving order

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to their lives 29 . Routines offer regularity and help to create an identity that allow one to tune their domestic, social and working life, and so it would be foolish to remove the contexts that define us from our own homes.

This seems an extreme attempt by Hooker to separate the home from the virtual, and he does realise, just like Coyne, that we do need a balance in order to maintain our routines. It is also foolish to disregard technology that can be beneficial to housekeeping and so Hooker has further suggestions of contexts that have been adapted to meet the needs of the heterogeneous home.

Hence Hooker decides to not separate digital technology from the house, but utilise aspects of the home that we are familiar with, and ‘digitalise’ them. They consequently become tools in which we can use to tune our homes. The following page shows an example of his ‘Weekend Light’ and ‘Programmable Wall Setting’. [Fig 6 30 ]

29 Richard Coyne, page 82 30 Ben hooker, page 17

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The ‘weekend light’ is a sign that lights up only on Friday afternoon until Sunday evening, as a reminder that it is the weekend, and that the users can live differently from the rest of the week. Thus allowing a regular routine to take place and acting as a reminder of how important routine and moderation is, unlike quiet streets that have been replaced by shops with signs saying ‘always open’. The sunset below refers again to Coynes tuning of place. The user is able to set a background of their choosing, and break away from their setting to something they may find more ideal.

DataNatures

Though the heterogeneous home consists of sketchbook ideas from Hooker which synchronise well with McCullough’s and Coyne’s theories, Hooker has also done an outdoor installation.

DataNatures [Fig 7 31 , next page] is an installation which took the appearance of a parking ticket machine so that it would fit into the everyday environment, and allow people to engage with it. By pressing the ‘push’ button, it would produce a personalised ticket, unique to every user. The ticket had printed on it information, mostly useless, which it gathered there and then about the surroundings such as how many times a day the trash cans would be emptied 32 .

31 Lucy Bullivant, page46

32 Lucy Bullivant, page 46

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What this installation has done is blend into its setting, the urban grain of the city, by appearance and yet invites the user to access information about the surroundings gathered digitally. Thus blurring the threshold between physical and digital, by means of adding a context, the ticket machine, to the setting, a street. Much like Liquid Architecture, this is a digital device that attempts to present itself in its immediate setting and thus challenges the boundary of hybrid spaces.

Hooker has managed to satisfy both McCullough and Coyne in that he has created objects that utilise the digital technologies to create hybrid spaces and can be tuned to the users’ ideal. Devices which work ubiquitously, hidden away when not needed, and are there, when they are wanted. He has created an architecture that is Novak’s definition of liquid architecture.

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Conclusion

This essay has taken three key ideas that look at digital technologies by three key theorists: McCullough, Coyne and Novak. McCullough has an approach that identifies devices as ubiquitous yet works along side static settings in order to create an environment.

By analysing the other theorists, the idea of ubiquity is challenged. The Concert Hall in Bruges celebrates dynamic and exposes the users’ senses to the surroundings of movement and sound. Similarly, the Fun Palace was designed to be a dynamic structure, adapting to the needs of the users and as Coyne suggests: creating a desired environment which could be ideal, or even one that is uncertain and uncomfortable to us.

What cannot be challenged by McCullough is the idea that an environment requires both a setting and a context to exist. If there is no engagement or dynamic within a space, then there is no context. Novak suggested that cyberspace cannot exist until it is delimited and modulated into something that can be presentable to us, and nor can an environment exist without a modulated setting and context.

As Hooker identified, technological and digital devices have indeed altered our perception and use of space. The fact that we access our work at home changes the function of the house altogether. His installations and proposals take on ideas from all three key theorists and do not limit our environments but instead he attempts to create environments which actually allow the user to see and use their space as they desire.

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Bibliography

Aymonino Aldo and Paolo Mosco Valerio, Contemporary Public Space Un-volumetric Architecture, (Italy, Skira Editore, 2006)

Ben Hooker, Heterogeneous Home, (http://www.benhooker.com/heterogeneoushome/, 2007) accessed: November 2011

Camile A. Silva, Liquid Architectures: Marcos Novak’s Territory of Information, (unpublished master’s thesis, University of Brasilia, Brazil, 2005)

Friedrich von Borries, Steffen P.Walz, Matthias Bottger, Space Time Play, (Birkhauser Verlag AG, Basel, Switzerland, 2007)

Interactive Architecture, Cedric Price Fun Palace

(http://www.interactivearchitecture.org/fun-palace-cedric-

price.html) accessed : January 2012

Lucy Bullivant, 4dsocial Interactive Design Environments, (West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons Ltd)

Malcolm McCullough, Digital Ground, (Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institution of Technology, 2004)

Marcos Novak, Liquid Architectures in Cyberspace (http://www.surfacenoise.info/367/readings/novak.pdf, 1991) accessed: January 7 2012

Michael Fazio, Marian Moffett, Lawrence Wodehouse, A World History of Architecture, (London, Laurence King Publishing, 2008)

Neal Stepenson, Snow Crash, (London, Penguin Books Ltd, 1993), page 18 Neil Spiller, Visionary Architecture Blueprints of the Modern Imagination, (London, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 2006)

Richard Coyne, The Tuning of Place, (Cambridge, Massachusetts, The MIT Press, 2010)