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TRANSLATING ARTICLES IN KOMPAS USING IDOMATIC METHOD: A PROCEDURAL ANALYSIS

A PAPER
Presented to the Academy of Foreign Language Bina Sarana Informatika in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for Diploma Three (D III) Program

By

BOWO SETYAWAN 31050602

English Department The Academy of Foreign Language Bina Sarana Informatika Jakarta 2008

TRANSLATING ARTICLES IN KOMPAS USING IDOMATIC METHOD: A PROCEDURAL ANALYSIS

Approved for Final Assignment by:

SPONSOR I

HEAD OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

Heru Suyana, S.Pd

Baiatun Nisa, S.Pd

This is to certify that the Board of Examiners has approved the paper of Bowo Setyawan for the Diploma Three (D III) program, English Department of the Academy of Foreign Language.

Jakarta, November , 2008

Board of Examiners:

Examiner I

Examiner II

(.)

(.)

GUIDANCE SHEET FOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT THE ACADEMY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE BINA SARANA INFORMATIKA
SRN NAME SPONSOR TITLE : 31050602 : BOWO SETYAWAN : Mr. Heru Suyana / Mrs. Ratu Lia Siti Rohbiah : TRANSLATING ARTICLES IN KOMPAS USING IDIOMATIC METHOD: A PROCEDURAL ANALYSIS Date Topic Signature

No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08

September 20, 2008 Outlining October 20, 2008 October 23, 2008 October 29, 2008 November 1, 2008 November 3, 2008 November 5, 2008 November 8, 2008 Chapter I ( Introduction) Chapter II ( Theoretical Review ) Chapter III ( Discussion) Chapter IV ( Conclusion & Suggestion) Chapter I IV ( All) Chapter I IV Revised Finished

Note to sponsor of Guiding Sheet of Final Assignment Starting Date : September 20, 2008 Finishing Date : November 8, 2008 Amount of Guiding : 8 (Eight times) Approved by:

(Heru Suyana, S.Pd) NIP: 199410073

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In the name of Allah SWT, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All praise is for Allah SWT. By his grace, the writer has completely accomplished this paper entitled Translating Articles in Kompas Using Idiomatic Method: A Procedural Analysis on time and without any significant obstacles. This paper is particularly submitted to English Department of the Academy of Foreign Language Bina Sarana Informatika Jakarta in partial fulfillment of the requirement for Diploma Three (D III) Program. With the affection and appreciation, the writer would like to acknowledge his indebtedness to the following great people who have assisted the writer to complete this paper, they are: 1. 2. Ir. Naba Aji Notoseputro as the Director of Bina Sarana Informatika Baiatun Nisa, S.Pd as the Head of English Department of the Academy of Foreign Language Bina Sarana Informatika 3. Heru Suyana, S.Pd, the outstanding well -experienced lecturer, as his advisor as well as his favorite lecturer, who has contributed a valuable guidance and spent his time to guide, help and advice the writer seriously and patiently at the steps of drafting and finishing both in his capacity 4. Ratu Lia Siti Rohbiah, SS, the lecturer who is very interested and qualified in the field of Translation, as his sponsor II, for her brilliant guidance and

suggestion as well as her thoroughly supervision to this paper in her capacity.

5.

All the lectures of the Academy of Foreign Language Bina Sarana Informatika who can not be mentioned one by one, for their precious knowledge transfers to the writer.

6.

Hendi, Lala, Aan, Prapti, Siti, Hadi,Wiwik,Shinta, Veny,Vita, Dede,Ego, and still many others as his colleagues in BSI Cengkareng for their sharing, support and off course the wonderful friendship. It was particular honor for the writer to be a part of the gorgeous - amazing class 31.A. They have made the writer being existed.

7.

Sujarwo, as writers best partner ever, for his extraordinary support and giving the writer the very incredible motivation, spirit, as well as new horizon about what to do next after graduating.

8.

Hartono, Ijam, Amir, Yono, and Hudian as the writers office mates, for their kindness as the writer have been studying so far 3 years.

9.

Haerunisa Hamid, a completely generous- stunning woman, for borrowing the writer some international books dealing with translation.

10.

Melke Miscory and Rini Reasita, charming and clever girls, for occasionally letting the writer use her Personal Computer to do this paper during the office hour. It was profoundly valuable for him.

11.

Ida, Vera, The writers Supervisors in the office, for her much tolerance as the writer often breaks the schedule due to go studying to campus.

12.

Junarto, Suwardi, Suwarjo and Sujud as his relatives for all their great contribution and support.

13.

Rinta Mara Alphadora, Heri Kasianto, Wildan betet, Endang, Shodiq, Mieke, Wahyu, Tajib, Bowo, Ika, Ratna, Gunawan, and still others can not be mentioned one by one, as the writers old friends when he was senior high school in Malang, East Java. They always concern to the writer, and often they exist to motivate the writer as he is down. A very special thank is deeply addressed to the writers family, especially to his

great father and beloved mother who have been restlessly supporting, praying, and encouraging him to do best for this paper. In addition to, his the only one beautifulsmart sister, Dwi Retno, she has been profoundly such a trigger for the writer to improve himself. Last but not least, the writer has to be grateful to his the one and only beloved wife, Ade Ujie, who has patiently dedicated her days to the family managing many things due to the writers tight schedule. The writer also totally appreciates for her timeless and tireless sacrifice so far. As a final remark, hopefully, this paper would be useful generally to readers and mainly to the writer himself. Jakarta, November 8, 2008 The Writer,

Bowo Setyawan

ABSTRACT Bowo Setyawan (31050602), Translating Articles in Kompas Using Idiomatic Method: A Procedural Analysis. The primary goal of this paper is to examine how the procedure of idiomatic translation method implemented on articles of Kompas as source text (ST). There are four procedural stages delivered here. This is meant so that the readers who want to comprehend about the method will readily obtain the appropriate guidance and produce the translation as idiomatic as possible. This paper was compiled by using two selected articles of Kompas.Since it is translation from mother tongue into second language, the writer first of all presents some features of Indonesian language in order to recognize the characteristic of the source language. Then, he operated the stages on the article sentence by sentence. Furthermore, he employed the library research to make the paper acceptable and valid. The results of study indicate that to produce such idiomatic translation, any translator should utilize some procedural stages namely; preparation, analysis, transfer, and restructuring. In doing so, one must comprehend firstly the linguistic challenges, form and meaning of both source languages (SL) and target language (TL). Secondly, one should concern in what context the word is uttered. Finally to reexpress the message of source language idiomatically, any translator must use the closest natural equivalence by using the normal and common form of target language. In conclusion, the writer states that translation of Kompas articles using idiomatic method is translating from relatively simple form language into more complicated form language. In order to produce the translation in such idiomatic way, translator should then be qualified for both Indonesian and English. Since this research is still too far from perfect, it will be better if there is another research that has better result and object. Key words: Idiomatic Method, Procedure, ST, SL, TL, Article, Preparation, Analysis, Transfer, Restructuring, Equivalence, Natural.

ABSTRAKSI Bowo Setyawan (31050602), Menerjemahkan Artikel Artikel Harian Kompas Menggunakan Metode Idiomatis: Sebuah Analisa Prosedur Tujuan pokok dari pembuatan paper ini adalah untuk meneliti tentang bagaimana prosedur penerjemahan idiomatis diterapkan pada artikel harian Kompas sebagai teks sumber (TSu).Ada empat tahap yang akan disajikan dalam paper ini. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar pembaca yang ingin memahami tentang metode penerjemahan idiomatis dapat memperoleh panduan yang benar dan kemudian menghasilkan terjemahan yang seidiomatis mungkin. Paper ini disusun dengan menggunakan dua artikel pilihan pada surat kabar Kompas. Karena menerjemahkan dari bahasa ibu ke bahasa kedua, penulis terlebih dahulu menampilkan fitur bahasa Indonesia untuk memahami karakteristik bahasa sumber (BSu). Kemudian, Ia menerapkan tahapan tahapan penerjemahan pada artikel tersebut kalimat demi kalimat. Hasil dari studi menunjukankan bahwa untuk menghasilkan suatu terjemahan yang idiomatis, setiap penerjemah dapat menggunakan empat tahapan prosedur yaitu; persiapan, analisa, transfer, dan restrukturisasi. Untuk itu, seorang penerjemah harus memahami pertama aspek- aspek kebahasaan yaitu bentuk dan makna dari kedua bahasa (sumber dan sasaran). Kedua, seorang penerjemah juga harus memperhatikan konteks dimana sebuah ungkapan digunakan. Terahir, untuk mengungkap kembali pesan bahasa sumber secara idiomatis, setiap penerjemah harus menggunakan padanan yang terdekat dan alami dengan menggunakan bentuk bahasa sasaran yang normal dan wajar. Sebagai kesimpulan, penulis menyatakan bahwa penerjemahan artikel- artikel surat kabar Kompas secara idiomatis adalah menerjemahkan dari bentuk bahasa yang relatif sederhana kedalam bentuk bahasa yang lebih komplek. Untuk dapat menghasilkan terjemahan yang idiomatis, penerjemahnya harus menguasai dengan baik bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris. Mengingat penelitian ini masih sangat jauh dari sempurna, akan lebih baik apabila dikemudian hari terdapat penelitian lain dengan hasil dan objek yang lebih baik pula. Kata Kunci; Metode Idiomatis, Prosedur, TSu, BSu, BSa, Artikel, Persiapan, Analisa, Transfer, Restrukturisasi, Padanan, Alami.

. TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE SHEET .i APPROVAL SHEET ..ii ACCEPTANCE SHEET ...iii GUIDING SHEET .iv

ACKNOWLEGMENTS .....v ABSTRACT .....viii ABSTRAKSI ......ix TABLE OF CONTENTS........x TABLE OF FIGURES.....xiv

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Background and Reason of Choosing the Title.1 Statement of the Problem.......4 Scope of the Problem.4 Method and Procedures of the Analysis5

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW.6 2.1 Linguistic Review..6 2.1.1 Language and Translation......6

2.1.2 Functions of Language..7 2.1.3 Surface Structure (Form)...9 2.1.4 Deep Structure (Meaning)...10 2.1.5 Kinds of Meaning12 a. Primary or Referential............................................12 b. Secondary .............................................................13 2.1.6 Culture and the Impact on Translation14 2.2 Translation...15 2.2.1 Nature of Translation...15 2.2.2 Factors in Translation..17 2.2.3 Translation Methods....20 2.2.4 Translation Techniques....23 a. Transposition.....24 b. Modulation.....25 c. Equivalence....25 d. Adaptation......26 e. Borrowing..26 2.2.5 Standard of Being Equivalent..27 2.3 Idiomatic Translation...28 2.3.1 Definition.28 2.3.2 Procedures of Idiomatic Translation30 a. Preparation.33 b. Analysis.....34

c. Transfer..36 d. Restructuring into Idiomatic Level....37

CHAPTER III DISCUSSION..39 3.1 Indonesian Language Features39 3.1.1 Brief History39 3.1.2 Grammar..39 a. Word Order and Formation...39 b. Adjectives......40 c. The Affixation...40 d. Compound Words.....41 e. Grammatical Gender.41 f. Measure Words..42 g. Negation.42 h. Plurarisation.......42 i. Pronoun......43 j. Verb.......44 3.1.3 Sentence...45 3.1.4 Idioms and Proverbs46 3.2 3.3 About Kompas.46 Idiomatic Method on Selected Articles......47 3.3.1 Article I47 a. Preparation.47

b. Analysis.............48 c. Transfer..........52 d. Restructuring into Idiomatic Level53 3.3.2 Article II...57 a. Preparation.............57 b. Analysis.57 c. Transfer..63 d. Restructuring into Idiomatic Level....64 3.4 Examples of Translation Techniques Used on the Articles.....68 3.4.1 Transposition...68 3.4.2 Modulation...69 3.4.3 Equivalence..............70

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION..71 4.1 4.2 Conclusion...71 Suggestion74

BIBLIOGRAPHY CURRICULUM VITAE APPENDICES

TABLE OF FIGURES

Figures Figure I Figure II

Pages The Language Functions........8 The Relationship between Surface Structure and Deep Structure Based on the Word Classes11

Figure III

The Relationship between Surface Structure and Deep Structure Based on the Unit of Translation12

Figure IV Figure V Figure VI Figure VII Figure VIII

Overview on Translation Task.17 The Various Factors on Translation20 Translation Methods (V Diagram)...22 General Procedure of Translation31 Steps in Translation Project.31

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background and Reason of Choosing the Title Translation is basically a human activity which enables human being to

exchange the ideas and thoughts regardless of the different tongues used. As a matter of fact, new discoveries of knowledge, news, business documents, and any other kind of information have spread so quickly all over the world every day after finishing

any translation activity. For instance, readers in Indonesia can easily get and enjoy new international best seller books that have already translated into their own mother tongue. On the other hand, the readers abroad are able to learn and dig the works of literature in Indonesia that have been rendered into their native language. As a result of this, they will be up to date even though the language gap seemingly becomes a serious permanent obstacle. As the description given above, it illustrates profoundly how significant the role of translation for human kind. It is absolutely no doubt that translation will always exist as the nature of human being with all their unique and pluralism, especially in culture and language, need to socialize and share each other. By nature, translation involves at least two languages and messages. These two categories are technically labeled form and meaning. Everyone seems to agree that meaning is the primary concern in translation. To grasp the meaning, translating consist of some methods comprising some procedures, from the very literal to

idiomatic one. The idiomatic translation is meaning- based translation. In other words, it emphasizes the significant of meaning. In doing so, translator will afterward face the gaps between source language ( SL) and target language (TL) mainly in term of syntax, semantic, and culture. Any method has a purpose to produce the closest equivalence from the source text (ST) into target text (TT). As a matter of fact, idiomatic method has been considered as the most natural ways to render any language. Indeed, the translator should then use the legitimate and acceptable meaning for both source language and Target language. It is no doubt that eventually, the aim of any translating activity has been claimed as Idiomatic translation. As an English learner, it will be both challenge and opportunity to figure out a good translation method since translating entirely needs so much capability of linguistics aspect and non linguistics aspect (culture). It will be completely such a big challenge for the students to over come the gap between source language and target language in term of form, meaning, and pragmatic. Indeed, it could be a real parameter for the learners to examine how quality their English already. On the other hand, study and research on translation might be a precious chance to implement much of the knowledge that has already got so far three years. As a matter of fact, it will be extremely possible for the student to be candidates of translator in the future. Most of English students who are interested in exploring the translation tend to do translating from English into their own mother tongue such as Indonesian or Bahasa. It is commonly believed that translators are better at translating into their native language than into a second language. The underlying reason for this assumption is simply that translators have a more profound linguistic and cultural

background of their mother tongue than of a second language which they have to learn in order to be well-versed translators. As the result of this, it is relatively easier to determine the equivalence meaning in their mother tongue. On the other hand, finding the closest equivalence meaning that sounds natural in foreign language such as English from mother tongue must be completely challenging. Furthermore, the result of translating should be acceptable in target language readers. In doing so, the result of translation should reflect the principle of naturalness as the main characteristic of idiomatic translation. Translating idiomatically from Indonesian into English is more complicated than English into Indonesian. As a matter of fact, It is then the big curiosity and the main reason for the writer has decided Translating Articles in Kompas Using Idiomatic Method; A Procedural Analysis as his chosen title. He tries to employ the procedures namely; Analysis, and Transfer, Restructuring based on underlying theories created by experts in the field of translation in order to get equivalence meaning as natural as possible. Meanwhile, the use of Kompas by the writer, considering the fact that it is the most wanted local paper as well as the best seller at the moment. The news in Kompas covers some interesting features such as: Politics, Sport, Business and Economic, Education, and Entertainment. He does believe that what has been viewed in Kompas deserved to be rendered into second language. The writer has then selected some news to be presented in this paper. Since the target audience would be, for example, English student, or native English speaker, it is completely important to make the English version remain communicative and natural. It should not look like translation. Eventually, the writer believes that rendering the news message in

Kompas into English closest natural equivalence is hard work. It is fully calculation of lexicon, syntax, semantic and even culture.

1.2

Statement of the Problem Generally, there are some problems commonly found for translator on the

process of translating. The problem could be grammatical different, misunderstanding about the context, and cultural barrier. According to the selected title, background of the study, and the research that has been already done by the writer, he then formulates the possible problems need to be discussed as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are the features of Indonesian Language as a source language used? What is the language function used in news article of Kompas? Why should be Idiomatic Method used to translate news article of Kompas? How does the translation procedure implement in idiomatic method? How is the message in the news article of Kompas idiomatically in target language, i.e., English? 6. What are the appropriate techniques used to render the news on kompas so that it would be profoundly natural feeling and looking? going to be revealed

1.3

Scope of the Problem The writer makes a limitation on the point of discussion by studying and

analyzing mainly about idiomatic translation method. It comprises definition, techniques, and procedures and the implementation on transferring the message from the news article of Kompas as a source text into English news article as a target text.

In addition, he also delivers the preliminary linguistics aspect dealing with translation process so that the translator will have such guidance before working the project of translation. As a result of this, others translation method will not be delivered comprehensively in this paper. They will be presented just for the sake of comparative and knowledge reason.

1.4

Method and Procedures of the Analysis This paper was compiled by the writer primarily using library research. He

used the theories about translation mainly about the idiomatic method for translating two selected articles. By regarding to the procedure of idiomatic translation, the text was translated step by step. As primary sources, He has read and analyzed some international and local book collections dealing with translation in the Library of Bina Nusantara University, the National Library, British Council Library, and Library of Bina Sarana Informatika. Their collections have much influenced the form of this paper. In addition, as secondary sources, the writer has employed some online journals and articles to enrich his horizon about translation. Also, he included some selected articles on Kompas as the source language. He then also embraced his note during being student of the Academy of Foreign Language Bina Sarana Informatika.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW

2.1 2.1.1

Linguistic Review Language and Translation According to Richard and Rodgers (1986:101) quoted by Setiyadi (2006:82),

they state language is seen as group of sound arbitrarily associated with specific meaning and organized into sentences or strings of meaningful units by grammar rule. Based on the definition above, the writer concludes that basically language is such particular system comprising form and meaning. This system, thus, can be learned or studied by non native speaker. As a result of this, certain language can be transferred, rendered, or translated into another language. Furthermore, Newmark (1981:123) claims for the translator language is code which he is well aware he will never break, a system he can not wholly grasp, because it is lexically infinite. All he can do is make assumption about it Referring to the explanation above, the writer then draws a conclusion. Firstly, there is no absolute one to one correlation or formal correspondence (translating nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs) on translating. It is due to the fact that there will always be the existence of linguistic and non linguistic obstacles during the process of translation.

Secondly, one should seek the closest meaning or equivalence using particular method. Since each translator should individually attempt to formulate particular assumption, the result of translation could be relatively varied. In fact, it much depends on the way translator overcome both linguistic and non linguistic (cultural) barrier. The more he or she analyzes the barriers the better the result will be. In addition to this, Catford (1965:1) in Cholliludin (2007:7) gives the link between language and translation by stating translation is an operation performed on languages: a process of substituting a text in one language for a text on another; translation must make use of a theory of language, general linguistic theory. Relying on the description above, the writer finally concludes that to be a good translator and to produce a good translation, one should then be qualified for both source language (SL) and target language (TL) in term of the rules of each language using the general linguistic theory. General linguistic theory means set of rules that can be applied generally on all languages. 2.1.2 Functions of Language Basically, there are three functions of language. As stated by Buhler quoted by Newmark ( 1981:12) the expressive function is author- centered, the personal use the writer makes of his language; informative function is the extra linguistic information content of the text ; vocative function is reader centered . According to explanation above, the writer may jump to conclusion that generally there are three kinds of language or text based on its function. They are: 1. Expressive text, it emphasizes the feeling of the writer but not the reaction of the reader. For example, work of literature such as poem, novel, drama etc.

2.

Informative text, it emphasizes on particular topic discussion or the content. Further more, this text is neither writer- centered nor reader centered. For instance, we can find it on scientific text, technical reports, and text books.

3.

Vocative text, it emphasizes on the way to persuade the readers so that they react as the text wants. Persuasive texts such as propaganda, regulation, notices, and instructional text are the examples of this text. Furthermore, Nida and Taber (2003:26) claim language is not restricted to

mere informative and expressive functions; it must also be clearly imperative, especially in the sort of document. From the explanation above, the writer deduces that beside some functions that have been mentioned above, there is another function of language that is imperative function. As a matter of fact, it emphasizes on target language and readercentered. We can find this kind of text for example in holly book such as, Koran, Bible etc. The details of language functions are shown by the following Figure I.
The language Functions
No 1 Characteristics Typical Examples Ideal style Text emphasis Focus Method Unit of Translation Maximum Minimum Types of language Lost of meaning New words and Meaning EXPRESSIVE Literature Authoritative text Individual Source Language Writer ( 1st person) Literal translation Small Collocation Word Figurative Considerable Mandatory if in SL text INFORMATIVE Scientific and Technical reports and text books Neutral, objective Target language Situation (3rd person) Equivalent effect translation Medium Sentence collocation Factual Small Not permitted unless reason given VOCATIVE Polemical writing, Publicity, notices, popular literature, propaganda Persuasive or imperative Target language Reader (2nd person) Equivalent effect recreation Large Text Paragraph Compelling Dependent on cultural differences Yes, except in formal text

2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9

Figure I (Adapted from Newmark)

2.1.3

Surface Structure ( Form) According to Larson (1984:3), he states when we speak about form of a

language, we are referring to the actual words, phrases, clauses, sentences, etc., which are spoken or written. These forms are referred to as the surface structure of language. From the above explanation, the writer concludes that principally, surface

structure belongs to syntax level in which attempts to describe grammatical structure of a particular language. The structure details an underlying structure and a transformational process. The underlying structure of English for example will have a subject-verb-object order (e.g. Bowo hits the ball). The transformational process will allow an alteration of the word order which gives possible construction like the ball was hit by John. Still, Larson (1984:33) classifies: In surface structure, units are grouped into increasingly larger units in a hierarchy of grammatical structures. Morphemes (roots and affixes) unite to form words, words unite to form phrases, phrases unite into clauses, clauses into a sentence, sentences into a paragraph, paragraphs into discourse units of various kinds, and these unite to form a text story, letter, sermon, or whatever. From the elaboration above, the writer may go to a conclusion that basically, surface structure constitutes grammatical classes or parts of speech that most of language learners have been familiar with. They are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, pronoun, and interjection. Then, these parts of speech will be distributed into phrases, clause, and sentence.

Moreover, Larson (1984:29) states But not all languages have the same surface structure grammatical classes some have conjunctions others do not, some have prepositional phrase, others do not. Relying on the description above, the writer suggests that word classes may differ from language to language. As the result of this, as previously mentioned, it might be impossible for the translator always employ formal correspondence since, for example, the word sedih or bersedih meaning sad or unhappy, in Bahasa is categorized into verb, but in English it is categorized into adjective. Thus, there should be syntax adjustment to re- express the meaning. 2.1.4 Deep Structure ( Meaning) Larson (1984:29) states behind the surface structure is the deep structure, the meaning. It is this meaning that serves as the base for translation into another language. The writer concludes that deep structure belongs to semantic level. In other words, the focus on deep structure is meaning. It is the one that can be rendered form one language to another language. Two words in two languages might have the same meaning but difference class (form), such as, the Indonesian sedih (verb) meaning sad (adjective) in English. It is obvious that semantic level is the underlying structure to do any translation. Further more, Nida and Taber (2003:39) states these restructured expression are basically what many linguist call kernels ; that is to say ,they are basic structural elements out of which language builds its surface structurethis means that if one can reduce grammatical structures to the kernels level they can be transferred more readily and with a minimum distortion.

Based on explanation above, the writer then recognizes the kernels is another word for deep structure. It is the simple sentence construction which is at least consists of one subject and one predicate. For example, a surface structure, Bowo is presenting his paper while the assessors are checking the content, details two kernels Bowo is presenting his paper and the assessors are checking the content. More detail, Nida and Taber (2003:37) explain: These four categories include (1) Object refers to those semantic which designate things or entities which normally participate in events, e.g., house, dog, man, sun, stick, water, spirit, etc.(2) Event is the semantic class which designate actions, processes, happenings, e.g. , run, jump, kill, speak ,shine, appear, grow, die.(3) Abstract refers to the semantic class of expression which have as their only their referents the qualities, quantities, and degrees of objects, events, and other abstract (4) Relations are the expression of the meaningful connection between the other kinds of terms. According to the preceding explanation, the writer then makes a conclusion that deep structure as the element of meaning has such classes (semantic classes) as in surface structure with its grammatical classes. Thus, to help the process of translation, it will be better for translator use the semantic classes as the parameter. It is simply due to the fact that semantic classes are nearly universal than grammatical classes. That is, types of units, the features, and the relationships are essentially the same for all language. See the following Figure II and III to observe the relationship between surface structure and deep structure.
The Relationship between Surface Structure and Deep Structure Based on the word classes
No 01 02 03 04 Surface Structure Nouns, Pronouns Verb Adjective, Adverb Conjunctions, Preposition, Particles etc Deep Structure Things or Object Events Attributes or Abstract Relations Figure II (Adapted from Larson)

The Relationship between Surface Structure and Deep Structure Based on the unit of Translation
No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Surface Structure Morpheme Word Phrase Clause Sentence Paragraph Section Division Part Text Meaning Component Concept Complex Concept Proposition Propositional Cluster Semantic Paragraph Episode Episode Cluster Semantic Part Discourse Figure III (Adapted from Larson) Deep Structure

2.1.5 a.

Kinds of Meaning Primary or Referential Meaning Dealing with this, Larson (1984:109) states the primary sense is the meaning

suggested by the word when it is used alone. It is the first meaning or usage which word will suggest to most people when the word is said in isolation. It is meaning the meaning learned early in life and is likely to have reference to physical situation. Based on the theory above, the writer may go to a conclusion that primary meaning is the very common or general meaning. That is, the meaning that most of people have already acknowledged it. As a matter of fact, it is the meaning that often we can find in dictionary. That is why it can then be said as dictionary meaning. Meanwhile, the intended meaning of isolation is the usage of the primary meaning is only in the first usage without accompanied by certain context. Furthermore, Machali (2000: 25) claims referential meaning is the first meaning implemented in such detail meaning such as: lexical meaning, grammatical meaning or textual.

To sum up, the writer then makes a conclusion that primary meaning or referential meaning is the meaning of the words as symbol referring to objects, events, abstract, and relation those already discussed previously. Those are the words in their first meaning grammatically as noun, verb, adjective, etc. b. Secondary ( Situational , Connotative , and Figurative Meaning) The first secondary meaning is situational meaning as mentioned by Larson (1984:42) the relationship between the writers or speaker and the addressee will affect the communication. Where the communication takes place, when it takes place , the age, sex, and social status of the speaker and hearer, the relationship between them, the presuppositions that each brings to the communication, the cultural background of the speaker and the addressee and many other situational matters result in situational meaning. According to explanation above, the writer then concludes that the situational meaning is the usage of the word in its context. Context is the total environment and situation which the words uttered by the speaker or writer of the source language. As a matter of fact, the context can be situational and cultural. Nida and Taber (2003:91) statebut we not only understand the reference words; we also react to them emotionally, sometimes strongly, sometimes weakly, sometimes affirmatively, sometimes negatively. This aspect of the meaning which deals with our emotional reaction to words is called connotative meaning. The writer concludes that connotative meaning is extended usage of the primary word. Thus, any word can be various in meaning much depending on the way the user react .It can be either positive connotative or negative connotative. Particular word having negative connotative in any target language may impress positive connotative or vice versa. The translator should acknowledge the

circumstances of the usage since words used by precisely the same persons in the different circumstances might carry quite different connotations Beekman and Callow (1974:104) as quoted by Larson (1984:124) state the figurative sense of word almost invariably will need to be translated with a word or phrase which is not literal translation of the word in the source language. From the preceding explanation, the writer then concludes that the translator can not translate the figurative meaning of the source language in such literal way. As a result of this, the writer ought to render the meaning by employing the figurative meaning of the source language. It is the extended meaning of the primary meaning or the referential meaning. In order to know the details of the figurative meaning (see also Appendices about Figurative Senses) 2.1.6 Culture and the Impact on Translation Newmark (1991:73) claims language is a substantial but partial reflection of culture, culture being defined here as the total range of activities and ideas and their material expression in objects and processes peculiar to a group of people, as well as their particular environment thus pampas , tandoori, and curculio are cultural words. From the description above, the writer then draw a conclusion that there are at least two kind of words namely universal word and cultural word. Indeed, universal word is relatively easier to be rendered since they are generally acceptable. On the other hand, cultural words are locally acceptable in particular group. Any translator should trace back the total cultural contains before rendering. Thus, there will be readjustment on translation.

Furthermore, Newmark (1991:73) details there is hardly a book on intercultural or interlinguistic relation between Chinese and English that does not state that dragons are kindly and protective in Chinese, baleful in English; red is ceremonial and happy in Chinese but cruel or frightening in English mourning is black in English but white in Chinese. Based on the explanation above, the writer concludes that it is obvious that there should be special treatment to the cultural words. One cannot assume any cultural word in the same way with the universal word. In this case, a translator should treat the source language differently, a part from the target language since the way of thinking of the original writer is very likely to differ from the situation faced by people in the target language such already explain by Newmark above.

2.2 2.2.1

Translation The Nature of Translation According to Nida and Taber (2003:12), they state translating consist in

reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalence of a source language message, firstly in term of meaning and secondly in terms of style. Based on the theory above, the writer then draws a conclusion that translation is both process and product. The main purpose of any translation activity is transferring source language message into target language. Thus, the focus or emphasize of the product of translation is the equivalence of meaning. That is, the one that is acceptable for both source language and target language. The first priority of the equivalence is in term semantic aspect or deep structure. The secondary priority is in term of syntax, style, or grammar. In doing so, translator should make proper grammatical and lexical adjustments.

Furthermore, Nida and Taber (2003; 14) state (1) contextual consistency has priority over verbal consistency (or word for word concordance) (2) dynamic equivalence has priority over formal correspondence (4) forms those are used by and acceptable to the audience for which a translation is intended have a priority over forms that may be traditionally more prestigious. According to the explanation above, the writer then concludes that firstly, context should be prioritized more than word. Secondly, the equivalence reaction between source language audience and target language audience should be the main consideration rather than grammatical equivalence. Thirdly, the form should be regarded as something acceptable but not habitually prestigious one. Also, Larson (1984:3) says translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into receptor language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of the second language by way of semantic structure. It is meaning which is being transferred and must held constant. Only the form changes. Based on the definition above, the writer then concludes that translation is transformation of a written SL text into an optimally equivalent TL text, and which requires the consideration of syntactic (form) and the semantic (meaning). In other words, it can be said that the translation is a process toward finding the meaning from source language into target language. In order to preserve the content of message the form must be transformed from source language into target language. Especially for two language that have much grammatical difference. The brief process of how translation task operates on both so languages (source language and target language) can be shown by the following Figure IV. As we can see, the significant point of any translation activity is the transfer of the source language message or meaning using the normal form of target language

OVERVIEW OF THE TRANSLATION TASK


SOURCE LANGUAGE Text to be Translated RECEPTOR LANGUAGE Translation

Discover The Meaning

Re express The Meaning

MEANING

Figure IV (Adapted from Larson)

Newmark (1988: 5) quoted by Machali (2000:4) states that translation is rendering the meaning of text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. The writer concludes that a good translation should fulfill the same function in the TL as the original did in the SL. It indicates that any translator ought to reexpress the meaning of the source language message into the natural form of the target language. The form adjustment in target language must not change the intended meaning of source language. 2.2.2 Factors in Translation According to Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary (2000: 152), factor means fact, circumstance, etc that help to produce the result. Based on the explanation above, the writer concludes that factors dealing with the translation activity are the things that should be concerned by the translator to do the project of translation. The things then could be such consideration for the translator to achieve a particular level or quality.

Hoed (2006: 40) states there are three important factors that should be concerned by the translator dealing with translating. First is the difference between source language and target languagesecond is the contextthird is the procedure. Relying on the preceding elaboration, the writer deduces that any translator ought to make at least three considerations before go translating. They are: 1 The differences between source language and target language especially in term of syntax aspect, lexical aspect as well as the cultural aspect should be taken into account. 2 The context, it is meant that the translator should analyze the total environment and situation of the text that could be situational context and cultural context. 3 The translator should employ such well arranged procedure to have a good translation. In this way, the writer discussing about four main steps that are preparation, analysis, transfer, and restructuring. Furthermore Newmark (1991; 32) claims at least there are ten various factors that impinge semantically on text. He says the text may therefore be pulled in ten different directions, as follows: 1 The individual style or idiolect of the SL author. When should it be (a) preserved (b) normalized. 2 The conventional grammatical and lexical usage for this type of text, depending on the topic and the situation. 3 Content items referring specifically to the SL or third language (i.e. not TL) cultures. 4 The typical format of the text in the book, periodical, newspaper, etc., as influenced by the tradition at the time. 5 The expectations of the putative readership bearing in mind their estimated knowledge of the topic and the style of language they use, expressed in terms of the largest common factor, since one should neither translate down ( nor up) to the readership. 6 ,7 and 8 as for 2, 3, and 4 respectively, but related to the TL 7 What is being described or reported, ascertained or verified (the referential truth), where possible independently of the SL text and the expectation of the readership.

The views and prejudices of the translator, which may be personal and subjective , or may be social and cultural , involving the translators group loyalty factor, which may reflect the national, political , ethnic, religious assumption, social class, sex, etc. of the translator.

According to the explanation above, the writer may jump to conclusion that there are ten considerations for translator to determine the message of the text on the translation activity. Firstly, five factors on the source language side are: 1 The writer has particular intention and goal about his or her text. 2 The source text has particular grammatical rules, contextual, both situational and cultural. 3 The source language text has its particular cultural background. 4 The source text has particular background of place and time. 5 The material discussed in source language has the unique. Secondly, five factors on the target language text side are: 1 The readers on the target language have their own interpretation about the translation. 2 The target text has particular grammatical rules, contextual, both situational and cultural. 3 4 5 The target text has different setting or background from the source text. The target language text has its particular cultural background. The result of translation in target language much depends on the level of translators knowledge. For the detail illustration can be seen at the following Figure V

The Various Factors on Translation


9. The moral and the Factual Truth 1. SL Writer 5. TL Readership

6. TL Norms 2. SL Norms TEXT 7. TL Culture 3. SL Culture

4. SL Setting and tradition

10. The translator

8. TL Setting and Tradition

Figure V (Adapted from Newmark)

2.2.3

Translation Methods According to Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary (2000: 270), method means

(1) way of doing something, (2) quality of being well- planned and organized. Based on the definition above, the writer draws a conclusion that basically method dealing with activity of translation is the base or plat form used by the translator to produce a translation. Larson (1984: 17) states form based translations attempt to follow the form of the source language and are known as literal translations. Meaning based translations make every effort communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Such translation called as idiomatic translation. According to explanation above the writer concludes that generally there are two kinds of translation. They are:

Form -based translation or writer centered translation. It means that translator endeavor to preserve the form of the source language as original as possible regardless the significant of meaning for the target text readers.

Meaning based translation or reader centered translation. It means that translator tries hard to share the source language message or meaning by some adjustments (syntax and semantic) so that the message sounds natural in target language. As a result of this the result of the translation would be understandable by the target language readers. More detail, Newmark (1988:45-47) as quoted by Ordinary (2008) mentions
1.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

8.

Word-for-word translation: in which the SL word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context. Literal translation: in which the SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents, but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. Faithful translation: it attempts to produce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures. Semantic translation: which differs from 'faithful translation' only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text. Adaptation: which is the freest form of translation, and is used mainly for plays (comedies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture is converted to the TL culture, and the text is rewritten. Free translation: it produces the TL text without the style, form, or content of the original. Idiomatic translation: it reproduces the 'message' of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original. Communicative translation: it attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership.

See the following Figure VI to acknowledge the methods of translation and the relationship with the SL and TL.

Translation Methods (V Diagram)

SL Emphasis Word for- word Translation Literal Translation Faithful Translation Semantic Translation

TL Emphasis Adaptation Free Translation Idiomatic Translation Communicative Translation

Figure VI (Adapted from Newmark)

In conclusion, the writer then resumes that first of all, there are various methods of translation based on the function of each method already mentioned above as follows:

Word for word translation: the main use of this method is either to understand the mechanics of the source language or to translate or decode a difficult text as pre-translation process.

Literal translation is used as pre-translation process as well; furthermore, it may indicate some problems that have to be solved.

Faithful translation is used to transfer cultural words and preserve the degree of grammatical and lexical variation from SL norms. Also, it attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text-realizations of the SL writer.

Semantic translation is used the same way with faithful translation but it more flexible than faithful one. However, it does not rely on cultural equivalence and makes very small compromises to the readership.

Adaptation translation is mainly used to translate plays and poetry: themes, characters, plots preserved, SL culture converted to TL culture and text is rewritten.

Free translation is used to paraphrase the source language that is the translator uses his or her own words.

Idiomatic translation that is the main goal of any translation. It used to render as natural as possible the message by employing such expression that does not exist in source language text.

Communicative translation is used to communicate the message by set the message both grammatically and semantically acceptable in source language and target language.

Second of all, the writer then concludes that if those eight methods divided into two half, they would be: Form based translation or writer centered translation: word for word, literal, faithful, and semantic translation. 2 Meaning based translation or reader centered translation: Adaptation, free, idiomatic, and communicative translation. 2.2.4 Translation Techniques According to Oxford Learners Dictionary (2000: 443), a technique means (1) way of doing something, especially one that needs special skills. (2) Skill, with which somebody is able to do something practical.

The writer concludes that technique dealing with translation activity is the crafts the translator can employ on translating project. The crafts seem to be practical guidance that is aimed to help the work of translator. The guidance can be used by translator to convey the source language message. As a result of this, any translator is supposed to be more and more creative when he or she finds any obstacle during translating. a. Transposition Molina and Hurtado (2004: 499- 500) claim transposition is a shift of word class. According to the definition above, the writer may go to the conclusion that transposition operates only in the level of syntax or surface structure or grammatical class. It means that the translator may use this kind technique for shifting from one word class to another class (for example the replacement or shifting certain phrases into certain words) without changing the intended meaning of the source language. According to Hoed, (2006:72) transposition is the way to produce the correct translation by changing the grammatical structure from source language into target language. From the description above, the writer concludes that naturally grammatical classes or form can be varied among the languages. As a result of this, to find the closest natural equivalence any translator should pay more attention to the target language form. It means that translator is permitted to change the form of the target language as long as the changing or the shifting will not change the intended meaning or message of the source language.

b.

Modulation Molina and Hurtado (2004: 499-500) say modulation is a shift of point of

view modulation is a shift in cognitive categories. From the above description, the writer draws conclusion that modulation operates on semantic level or meaning level. It means that the translator will change the point of view (for example it can be the use of antonym) in order to achieve the naturalness of the message in the target language. Also, Hoed (2006: 74) states modulation is translator give the equivalence which is semantically different point of view or the range of meaning without changing the intended message. The writer concludes that the way translator expresses about certain source language message can be varied. As long as refers to the same concept and not changing the message or content, the writer may make the semantic adjustment in translation. c. Equivalence Molina and Hurtado Molina and Hurtado (2004: 499-500) mention accounts the same situation using completely different phrase. According to the definition above, the writer may jump to conclusion that equivalence technique generally refers to the commonly accepted and used equivalents of idioms, proverbs, idiomatic expression and lexicalized terms, i.e. terms commonly accepted as equivalents of source language term.

Nida and Taber (2003:58) mention here we are dealing not with functional grammatical classes but with categories of meanings which can be said to be compatible or incompatible, and which mutually select or eliminate each other. Based on previous explanation, the writer then concludes that equivalence technique is the way translator to find the closest natural equivalent expression in target language without changing the meaning. Thus, it can be concluded also as contextual conditioning. d. Adaptation Molina and Hurtado (2004:499) say adaptation is a shift in cultural environment. According to the explanation above, the writer concludes that basically adaptation technique means adapting a source language situation when it does not exist in the target language or would be considered inappropriate in the target culture in order to give the naturalness of the translation. Furthermore, Hoed (2006: 78) categorizes into cultural equivalence by saying translating by giving the cultural element that exists in target language. From the explanation above, the writer may jump to conclusion that principally some words or expression only have meaning in its context whether it is situational or cultural one. e. Borrowing Molina and Hurtado (2004: 499) claim borrowing is a word taken directly from another language.

Based on the explanation above, the writer concludes that generally borrowing technique in translation means borrowing from the source language a term or concept to overcome the gap in the target language or to create a stylistic effect. Also, Hoed (2006: 76) says translator could not find the appropriate equivalence in the target language. As a result of this, he or she employs new word taken from the phonology of source language. According to the definition above the writer then concludes that borrowing technique can be done by a special type of borrowing, consisting of borrowing an expression from the source language and translating literally each element. Calques can be either lexical or structural. 2.2.5 The Standard of Being Equivalent Nida and Taber (2003: 2) state when a high percentage of people misunderstood a rendering, it can not be regarded as legitimate translation. Based on the above explanation, the writer simply concludes that the very minimum standard of the translation is that it should be understood by the readers on target language audience. Thus, any translator should make it intelligible. Larson ( 1984: 6) states the best translation is the one which (1) uses the normal language forms of the receptor language, (2) communicates, as much as possible , to the receptor language speakers the same meaning that was understood by the speaker s of the source language, and ( 3) maintains the dynamic of the original source language text. From heading explanation, the writer then draws the conclusion that the translator should shift the paradigm in translating from old focus of translation which

is the form of the message being the main purpose into new focus of translation which emphasize merely on the message. That is; 1 The translator should use the normal form of target language to convey the message of source language. 2 The translator should much concern on the response of the receptor or target language reader. 3 The translator ought to try to maintain as much as possible on dynamic equivalence of translation level. Furthermore, Nida and Taber (2003:24) claim dynamic equivalence is therefore to be defined in terms of the degree to which the receptors of the message in the receptor language respond to it substantially the same manner as the receptors in the source language. Based on to the above definition, the writer draws a conclusion that dynamic equivalence is the term describing the equal response or reaction between the readers on the source language and the readers on the target language about the content or the message.

2.3 2.3.1

Idiomatic Translation Definition Larson (1984:18) claims Idiomatic translations use the natural forms of the receptor language, both in grammatical construction and in the choice of lexical items. A truly idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation. It sounds like it was written originally in the receptor language. Therefore a good translator will try to translate idiomatically.

According to the definition above, the writer may go to the conclusion as follows: 1. Idiomatic translation is the way translator renders the message of the source language by using both the natural grammatical constructions (form) and lexicon (word) of target language without changing the intended meaning. 2. Translating idiomatically will result such a natural translation that it does not look like a translation. 3. Idiomatic translation is every translators goal. It means that idiomatic method can be regarded as the most appropriate method to overcome the gap among the languages. Also, Nida and Taber (2003: 203) state idiomatic is natural characterized by the use of grammatical construction and combination of words which do not violate the ordinary patterns of language. The writer concludes that in order to make the result of translation remain idiomatic. The translator must obey the rule of the surface structure or form of the target language. It means that the grammatical structure of the translation will not break the rule existed. Mossop (1990:343) claims idiomatic translation is now so established as the correct way to translate in government and business, and in schools of translation, that it appears to be natural. According to the description above, the writer may jump to the translation that idiomatic translation nowadays has been used for many purposes. Not only the students who are really interested in translation but also for those dealing with human

activity. It indicates that this method has been proven as the effective way to render the message from source language into target language. More detail, Larson (1984:34) explains how to deal with idiomatic translation term by explaining the steps of the process by saying the translator must study the surface structure of the source language to find concepts, proposition, etc, of the semantic structure. Then, he has the task of reconstructing from the semantic structure into the surface structure of the target language. From the explanation above, the writer concludes that to make the result of translation remain idiomatic, any translator should do the two following steps: 1 The translator should first of all analyze the grammatical structure and semantic structure of the source language (decoding). 2. The translator then re express the meaning in target language using the very acceptable and natural expression representing in the grammatical construction in the target structure (encoding). 2.3.2 Procedures of Idiomatic Translation According to the Macquire Dictionary as quoted by Machali (2000:62), procedure is the act or manner of proceeding in any action or process. The writer then concludes that the procedures dealing with the activity of translation are some definite stages or process used to produce the translation. Nida and Taber (2003:33) explain the detail stages or steps in translating by saying: The second system of translation consist of a more elaborate procedure comprising three stages: (1) analysis, in which the surface structure (i.e., the message as given in language A) is analyzed in terms of ( a) the grammatical relationship and (b) the meaning of words and combination of words, ( 2) transfer, in which the analyzed material is transferred in the mind of the translator from language A to language B , and ( 3) restructuring, in which the transferred material is restructured in order to make the final message fully acceptable in the receptor language. For the illustration, see the following Figure VI.

General Procedure of Translation


Receptor

Source

Analysis Transfer

Restructuring

Figure VII (Adapted from Nida and Taber)

From the preceding explanation, the writer then concludes that basically the procedure in translation consists of some steps as follows: 1 Analysis step, it is decoding of form (syntax) and meaning (semantic) in order to trace the message of source language the text. 2 3 Transfer step, the result of the analysis step then is kept in brain of translator. Restructuring step, it is at which the translator tries to re express the source language message into target language by using the natural grammatical form (syntax) and lexicon of target language without changing the meaning Meanwhile, Larson (1984: 519) says the steps to be discussed below include (1) preparation, (2) analysis, (3) transfer, (4) initial draft (See the following Figure VIII)

Steps in Translation Project


Preparation Initial Draft

Analysis

Transfer

Figure VIII (Adapted from Larson)

According to the explanation and previous Figure, the writer may jump to conclusion that before the three steps that have already mentioned previously, there should be also a preparation step. The preparation is done due to the fact that any process will give better result by the act of preparing. As a matter of fact, the preparation here deals with the necessary tools needed by the translator and also the audience design. The result of the translation is an initial draft that should be tested the naturalness and the equivalence. Dealing with the idiomatic method, it means that the initial draft should be restructuring into idiomatic level. Also, Cholliludin ( 2007: 46) proposes there are six important steps on translating; (1) Identification of sentence, (2) analysis of sentence ( the surface structure), determine subject, predicate, and object and the modifiers (3) Analysis the sentence semantically, ( 4) rearrange the sentence into normal or appropriate order, (5) translate the text as natural as possible, (6) set the translation into idiomatic level. Based on the previous explanation the writer then categorizes the six steps into three main steps as already mentioned previously by the writer. They are; 1 Identification of sentence, analysis of sentence (the surface structure), and analysis the semantic aspect are done in analysis step. 2 3 Transfer is done in translators mind. Rearrange the sentence into normal or appropriate order, translate the text as natural as possible, and set the translation into idiomatic level are done in restructuring step. As a conclusion, the writer summarizes from the explanations above that basically the procedure of idiomatic translation consists of some practical steps or stages as follows;

a. Preparation Hoed (2006:65) states before start translating, translator must establish audience design and need analysis. According to the explanation above, the writer concludes that any translator ought to make such a good preparation in advance. It means that the translator should at least determine the readers or the audience and the purpose of the translation project that he will conduct. Furthermore Larson (1984:509) says before any translation work is begun, the project must be defined what is to be translated? For whom? By whom? With what resources? Or the text, the target, the team, and the tools must all be decided upon. Based on the explanation above, the writer then may jump to the conclusion that prior to having translation project, any translator much better determines firstly about what kind of text to be translated, secondly who will read the translation, thirdly what the aims are, and finally what tools will probably be employed to assist the project. Also, Ida and Taber (2003:31) mention the priority of the audience over the forms of the language means essentially that one must attach greater importance to the form understood and accepted by the audience for which a translation is designed than to the forms which may posses a longer linguistic tradition or have greater literary prestige. According to the description above, the writer draws a conclusion that audience design is remarkable important on the translation project. It is simply due to the fact that the naturalness and the equivalence can be measured by term of the response of the target text readers. In other words, prior to conducting the translation

project, any translator should acknowledge well about who will be the audience and plan the method and technique used to formulate the equivalence and the naturalness of the translation. b. Analysis Nida and Taber (2003:34) claim there are three major steps in analysis (1) determining the meaningful relationships between the words and combinations of word (2) the referential meaning if the words and special combination of words (the idioms) and (3) the connotative meaning, i.e., how the users of the language react, whether positively or negatively to the words and combination of them. According to the explanation above, the writer then concludes that prior to translation activity; any translator should analyze the grammatical constructions of the source language and the possible semantic or meaning reflected by those grammatical constructions. Furthermore, Nida and Taber (1984:91) state the analytical procedures by which we come to understand the message we want to translate involve two quite distinct but closely related aspects of message: (1) the grammatical and (2) the semantic. Based on the preceding description, the writer concludes that basically any translator is going to deal with the form and meaning. First of all, any translator should examine the form or the syntax structure of the source language and try to trace the various meaning inside the form already identified. As already mentioned by the writer previously, basically there are two important elements that translator must concern on analysis step. The two crucial elements are syntax and semantic.

1.

Syntax Analysis Nida and Taber (2003:38) say it is important to realize that there is a kind of

fit between the semantic categories and certain grammatical classes. For instance, objects are most typically expressed by nouns or pronouns, events by verbs, and abstract by adjectives and adverbs. The writer concludes that in syntax analysis, the translator try to identify the sentence patterns (simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, and compound complex sentence) that are basically represent by grammatical clause or part of speech such as : noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc. Larson (1984:29) claims an analysis of the surface structure of a language of a language does not tell us all that we need to know about the language in order to translate. Behind the surface structure is the deep structure, the meaning. According to the explanation above the writer then concludes that analyzing the syntax structure of source language basically means analyzing the surface structure or form already mentioned by the writer on the previous discussion. It means that the surface structure still has to be analyzed its deep structure or meaning in order to trace the message of the source language. 2. Semantic Analysis Nida and Taber (2003:56) say having analyzed the meaningful relationships between words; we must now study the meaning of words or linguistic units themselves. Such a study must be divided into two parts: (1) the words as symbols which refer to objects, events, abstracts, relations (referential meaning, and (2) the words as prompters of reactions of the participants in the communication.

From the description above, the writer then concludes that analyzing the semantic structure of the source language means identifying the various meaning on the grammatical constructions. Indeed, the meaning can be both referential meaning and contextual meaning Larson (1984:521) says as the translator reads through the text, he should write down any lexical items which seem to be key words. These will be words which are crucial to an understanding of the text. One of the first steps in analysis should be careful study of these key words. According to the explanation above, the writer then concludes that on the analysis of semantic, it would be better for the translator to pay more attention to the difficult vocabularies in order to get the meaning by noting those difficult words and look them up on dictionaries ( for referential meaning) and analyze the context (for connotative meaning). c. Transfer Larson (1984:524) says transfer is the process of going from the semantic structure analysis to the initial draft of the translation. The transfer takes place in the mind of the translator. According to the definition above, the writer may draw a conclusion that in transfer stage, any translator has been started to elaborate or identify the meaning of the source language in mind. Any translator tries to transfer the meaning of grammatical structure of the source language into meaning of target language. The result of transfer process usually is still an initial draft.

Nida and Taber (1984: 99) mention after having completed the process of the analysis which involved grammatical and semantic aspect of the text, it is then essential that the result of the analysis be transferred A number of persons may assist by way of analysis and restructuring, but the transfer it self is the crucial and focal point of the translation process. According to the explanation above, the writer concludes that transfer stage is very important before one goes to final result of the translation. It will be some adjustment on semantic structural and syntax structural. It means that the translator should convey the target language meaning on such acceptable and natural grammatical form of target language. d. Restructuring into Idiomatic Level About this, Nida and Taber (2003: 120) say in restructuring the messageit is essential that one should consider the problem from three perspectives: (1) the varieties of language or style which may desirable, (2) the essential components and characteristic of these various styles and (3) the techniques which may be employed in producing the type of style desired. According to the above explanation the writer draws a conclusion that the restructuring of the message from source language into target language should consider the varieties of language or style: It means that translator should pay any attention to the fact that language could vary in term of time (older and newer form), geography (dialect), economic classes or castes, circumstances of use, oral or written usage, types of discourse and literary genres. In this case, the result of translation should follow or preserve the original language varieties of the source language. In doing so, the translator can employ some translation techniques such as transposition, modulation, equivalence, etc in order to make the result of translation as idiomatic as possible

Meanwhile, Larson (1984:525) states as the translator begins he should be working at paragraph level. Once he is sure what the paragraph is to communicate, he should compose the draft as naturally as possible, without looking at the source language or even the semantic rewrite. He should just let it flow naturally, expressing the meaning clearly. Based on the explanation above, the writer then concludes that in restructuring stage, the main task of the translator is reproducing the message of the source language text into target language text as idiomatic as possible that is in such natural and normal way. In doing so, translator must much concern on the target language form. It means that translator must render or translate the message of source language using the normal and natural grammatical construction of target language. As result of this, the audience or the readers of the target language will not fell and consider the result of the translation as a translation.

CHAPTER III DISCUSSION

3.1 3.1.1

Indonesian Language Features Brief History Indonesia or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language,

was declared the official language with the declaration of Indonesias independence in 1945, following the youth pledge declaration in 1928. Then, the Indonesian name for the language is Bahasa Indonesia (literally means the language of Indonesia). Sometimes the language is called Bahasa by English speakers though this simply means language. To certain degree, Indonesian can be regarded as open language. Over the years, foreign languages such as Sanskirt, Chinese, Arabic, Portuguese, Dutch and English have influenced and expanded the Indonesian language, mostly trade contacts and international media. 3.1.2 a. Grammar Word Order and Formation Adjectives, demonstrative pronouns, and possessive pronouns follow the noun they modify. In other words, it is contrary to the English pattern which uses explaining explained pattern ( e.g. old house) Indonesian language employ

explained explaining pattern ( e.g. rumah tua literally means house old). The basic word order of Indonesian is Subject- Predicate- Object (SVO). However, many

Indonesians will speak in passive voice, making use of the Object- Verb- Subject word order. This OVS word order will often permit the omission of the subject and/or object. For examples Adding a sense of politeness and respect to a statement or question Ellipsis of Pronoun Bisa dibantu Literal English Can to be helped? Idiomatic English Can I help you?

Convenience when the subject is unknown, not important, or implied by the context Implied Subject Literal English Idiomatic English Rumah ini dibeli lima House this to be purchased The house was purchased tahun lalu five years a go five years a go In Indonesian words are generally formed via three methods. New words can be created through Affixation (attaching the affixes onto root words), compound word (a composition of two or more separate words), or reduplication (repetition of words or portions of words) b. Adjectives Unlike in English, adjectives in the Indonesian language follow nouns they modify (explained explaining pattern); Indonesian Mobil Merah Dia seorang dosen yang terkenal sekali Sebuah cerita panjang c. Affixation The Indonesian language utilizes a complex of affixes ( i.e. prefix, infix, suffix, and confix ( circumfix)). Sometimes it can cause some confusion .Some base words when combined with two affixes ( e.g. me + BW ( base word) + kan) can Literal English Car red He/ She person lecturer who well- known very A story long Idiomatic English Red Car He/ she is a very wellknown lecturer A long story

produce an adjective rather than a verb, or even both. For example, bosan when comnnined with the affixes me- and kan produces the word membosankan meaning boring ( adjective) or to bore (someone) ( active verb). See the examples bellow for example of noun affixes, verb affixes, and adjective affixes. Noun Affixes Prefix Infix Suffix Confix Verb Affixes Prefix Suffix Confix Adjective affixes Prefix Infix Cinfix d. Example of Affix PenKe-el-an pe-...-an Example of Affix MengBel-i Ber--an di-i Example of Affix TerSe -emKe- - an Root Word Duduk ( sit) Hendak ( want) Tunjuk ( point) Bangun (wake up) Kerja ( work) Root Word Gambar ( picture) Ajar ( teach) Jauh ( far) Pasang ( pair) Sakit ( pain) Root Word Kenal ( know) Rupa ( appereance) Cerlang ( bright) Barat ( west) Derived Word Penduduk ( resident) Kehendak ( desire) Telunjuk ( index finger) Bangunan ( building) Pekerjaan ( occupation) Derived Word Menggambar ( to draw) Belajar ( to study) Jauhi ( avoid)
Berpasangan ( to be paired)

Disakiti ( is being hurt) Derived Word Terkenal ( famous) Serupa ( similar) Cemerlang ( brilliant) Kebaratan ( weaternized)

Compound Word In Indonesian, new words can be formed by conjoining two or more base

words. For example the word rumah ( house) and makan ( eat) are compounded to form rumah makan (restaurant). It means that by compundig two words invidually different meaning can produce new word with profoundly new meaning. e. Grammatical Gender

Generally Indonesian does not make use of grammatical gender. For example, the same word is used for he and she ( Dia/ Ia) or her and his ( -nya). So it is relatively more simple than English with its grammatical gender. f. Measure Words Another distinguishing feature of Indonesian Language is its useof measure words. Examples of this measure words are: ekor ( used for animal), buah ( generally used for non-living things), orang ( used for people). Lembar ( used for paper), helai (used for long, thin, and generally flat things), batang ( used for stick like object) etc. See the following examples; Indonesian Tiga ekor sapi Sepuluh orang tentara Lima helai kertas Tiga batang coklat g. Negation There are three major forms of negation used in Indonesian language, namely tidak, bukan, and belum.For examples are: saya tidak tahu ( I do not know), Saya bukan pencuri ( I am not a thief), Saya belum selesai ( I have not finished yet). h. Pluralisation Plurals are expressed by means of reduplication, but only when the plural is not implied in the context. For example, orang is person, orang- orang is people, but seribu orang is a thousand of people, as the use of a numeral (i.e. seribu) renders it unnecessary to mark the plural form. Literal English Three tails of cow Ten people soldier Five piece paper Three jar chocolate Idiomatic English Three of cows tail Ten soldiers Five pieces of paper Three jars of chocolate

By contrast there are also some types of plural words that are expressed by reduplication of a similar sounding (but essentially different) word. In these cases the general sound of a word/phrase is repeated, but the initial letter of the repeated word is changed. A common example of this is sayur-mayur (not sayur-sayur) meaning "vegetables" (plural). Another type of reduplication can be formed through the use of certain affixes (e.g. pe- + -an). For instance, they are; pepohonan (various kinds of trees), from the word pohon (tree), perumahan (houses/ housing, from the word rumah (house) or pegunungan (mountains, mountain range, from the word gunung (mountain), and so on. i. Pronoun

Common Indonesian Pronouns Type First Person Second Person Indonesian Saya (standard, polite), Aku (informal, familiar), Gua/Gue (informal, slang) Kami (exclusive.), Kita (inclusive.) Anda (polite, formal), Saudara/Saudari (polite, formal Kamu (familiar, informal), (Eng)kau (familiar, informal), Lu (informal, slang) Kalian (plural, informal), Anda sekalian (plural, formal), Saudara(i)-saudara(i) (polite) Ia, Dia Beliau (high respect) Mereka

Third Person

Possesive Pronouns Type of possessive pronouns First person Possessive Example of Example of derived pronouns root word word(s) Saya, Aku (I) -ku meja (table) Kami (we, ... (milik) kursi (chair) referring to 1st kami/kita and 3rd person), mejaku (my table) kursi (milik) kami, kursi (milik) kita (our chair)

Second person

kita (we, referring to 1st and 2nd person Kamu (you) -mu Anda, Saudara ... (milik) (you (polite Anda/Sau dara Kalian (you ... (milik) (plural) kalian Dia, Ia (he, she, -nya it) Beliau (he, she, ... (milik) it (polite)) Beliau Mereka (they) ... (milik) mereka

meja (table) kursi (chair)

mejamu (your table) kursi (milik) Anda/Saudara (your chair) kursi (milik) kalian (your chair) mejanya (his, her, its table meja (milik) Beliau (his, her, its table) kursi (milik) mereka (their chair)

kursi (chair meja (table) meja (table kursi (chair

Third person

Demonstrative Pronoun Demonstrative Pronoun Ini Itu Demonstrative Pronoun Ini Itu Demonstrative Pronoun + yang Yang ini Simple Use Buku ini Kucing itu Plural Form (via duplication Buku-buku ini Kucing-kucing itu Example Sentence English Meaning This book That cat Noun English Meaning These books Those cats English Meaning

Q: Anda mau membeli buku Q: Which book do you yang mana? wish to purchase? A: Saya mau beli yang ini A: I would like this one (this book) Q: Kucing mana yang makan Q: Which cat ate your tikusmu? mouse? A: Yang itu! A: That one (that cat)!

Yang itu

j.

Verbs Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for

tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense

indicators (sometimes referred to as aspect particles), such as belum (not yet) or sudah (already). On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and denote active-passive voices. Such affixes include prefixes, infixes, suffixes, and their combinations; all of which are often ignored in informal conversations. 3.1.3 Sentence As could be found in English sentence, basically there are four kinds of sentence in Indonesian. Firstly, simple sentence, it means the sentence must at least consist of one clause. The clause is usually using the basic pattern SVO. Secondly, compound sentence, the sentence consists of two clauses in which both of them are independent clauses. The clauses then can be connected by coordinate conjunction. Thirdly, complex sentence, it is the sentence in which has two different clauses. One is independent clause and the other is dependent clause. As a result of this, the two clauses must be connected by using subordinate conjunction. Lastly, complex compound sentence, it is generally the combination of compound and complex sentence that use at least three clauses connecting by two different conjunctions. For examples: 1. Simple sentence: Dosen itu senang dengan karyanya (the Lecturer likes his work). 2. Compound Sentence: Para Mahasiswa harus segera menyelesaikan tugas ahir dan mengikuti sidang (Students must accomplish the final Assignment and attend the oral test).

3. Complex Sentence: Hadi belum bisa lulus tahun ini karena belum menyelesaikan Tugas Ahirnya (Hadi can not graduate this year because he has not finished the Final Assignment yet). 4. Compund Complex Sentence: Wanita yang berbaju biru itu adalah ibuku dan Dia adalah seorang Dosen (Woman who is dressed in blue is my mother and she is a lecturer) 3.1.4 Idioms and Proverb As any languages, Indonesian language has idioms and proverbs. One example of proverb is Ada gula, Ada semutLiterally it means. "Where there's sugar, there are ants". But idiomatically it would be equivalent to the modern English idiom "Where there's a will there's a relative. Where there is a good thing (sugar) there will be people taking advantage of it (ants). The idiom membanting tulang means work hard, Raja tega means certain bad character such as cruel. Indonesian idioms can be quite cynical 3.2 About Kompas Kompas is right now one of the local leading newspapers in Indonesia. As a matter of fact, in the most of big cities in Indonesia, It has growth as one of the best seller paper. One of the most important reasons of how Kompas can go so far its content maturity. Every article in Kompas profoundly provides what the readers need. Not only local feature but also its world wide coverage has made kompas very important to be missed. Furthermore, its critical idea about either the current crucial issues or folk feeling or aspiration have been further real representation for the people to the elite of the government or among the people themselves in accordance

to the motto of kompas Amanat Hati Nurani Rakyat that is Indonesian for the representation of peoples heart The presence of kompas in Indonesian journalism has passed a long history. Started in June 28th, 1965, when a man namely Petrus Kanisius Ojong pubished the first edition of kompas following the bankruptcy of his monthly magazine called Intisari (Now, has been republished) in 1963. At the first day of publication, at least 4800 copies could reach the readers. Even though its first appear tend to be the representation of chatolic party (since Mr. Ojong is one of the official of the Chatolic party), slowly but surely the paper has became independent and grasped most of papers readers. The last survey by AC Nielsen in 1999 shown at least 600.000 copies are sold out every single day. Ultimately, the writer does believe that articles of kompas are good choice for his object of translation paper. It will be totally challenge on how the writer could translate the Indonesian paper into idiomatic English. The way kompas delivers the news must be Indonesian journalism standard which is the appropriate rule of Indonesian language becoming the main concern. Thus, how to re express the message of the selected articles onto acceptable English version would quite improve the mastering of English for writer of this paper. 3.3 3.3.1 a. Idiomatic Translation on Selected Articles Article I ( See Appendices) Preparation Before the writer start translating the text, He very first determines Team, Target (Audience Design), and Tools used for the project as follows;

1. Team: The writer executes the translation project by himself. 2. Target (Audience Design): The target of the translation is mainly for English majoring students who are interested in learning the idiomatic translation process or procedure. Also, the target Audience could be the English native speakers who want to learn about Indonesian newspaper. 3. Tools: The writer uses some dictionaries as the main aids to assist the project. They are; Indonesian English dictionary, English Indonesian dictionary, Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary, Grammar Textbook, and some articles on English Newspaper to check the naturalness of his translation. b. Analysis Having read all the passage on article I, the writer then conclude that the article is about sport event coverage. The article tells us about the race championship namely MotoGP that is very interesting and popular among the audience. As the matter of fact, the function of the text above is Informative since the emphasis of the article are neither the readers nor the writer but the objectivity of the content. Furthermore, being objective and neutral has been characteristic of news article. Title Casey Stoner Juara di Assen Syntax Analysis It is a simple sentence. Subject = Casey Stoner (Proper Noun), Verb = Juara, Adverb = di Assen (Adverb of Place) Semantic Analysis Casey Stoner = Casey Stoner, juara = Won ,di Assen = in Assen Sentence 1 Pembalap Australia, Casey Stoner, tidak terbendung lagi untuk menjadi juara MotoGP Belanda dari lomba yang berlangsung sabtu (28/6) di Sirkuit Assen. Syntax Analysis

It is a complex sentence. Subject = Pembalap Australia, Casey Stoner (Appositive), Verb Phrase = Tidak terbendung lagi untuk menjadi juara, Object = Moto GP Belanda, Adjective Clause = yang berlangsung sabtu (28/6) di sirkuit Assen (dependent clause) Semantic Analysis Pembalap australia, Casey Stoner = Australian racer, Casey Stoner, Tidak Terbendung Lagi untuk menjadi juara = Couldnt avoid winning, MotoGP Belanda = the Dutch MotoGP, Dari lomba yang berlangsung (28/6)di sirkuit Assen = from which was held the 28th of June in Assen circuit Sentence 2 Start dari urutan pertama, Stoner tidak tersusul pembalap lainya sampai masuk garis finis. Syntax Analysis It is a Complex sentence. Adverbial Phrase = Start dari urutan pertama, Object = Stoner, Verb = tidak tersusul, Subject = pembalap lainnya, Adverbial Clause = Sampai masuk garis finish Semantic Analysis Start dari urutan pertama= starting from first position, Stoner = Stoner, tidak tersusul = could not be exceeded, pembalap lainnya= by other riders, Sampai masuk garis finish = until he entered the finish line Sentence 3 Dia mencatat waktu 42 menit 12,337 detik saat menyelesaikan 26 putaran. Syntax Analysis It is a Complex sentence. Subject = stoner, verb = Mencatat, Object= waktu 42 menit 12,337 detik, Adverbial Clause = saat menyelesaikan 26 putaran Semantic Analysis Stoner = Stoner, Mencatat = made,waktu 42 menit 12,337 detik = a record of 42 minutes and 12.337 seconds, Saat menyelesaikan 26 putaran = when he finished 26 laps Sentence 4 Tempat kedua direbut pembalap spanyol, Dani Pedrosa, yang ketinggalan 11,310 detik dari stoner sedangkan pembalap Amerika Serikat, Colin Edward, merebut posisi ketiga. Syntax Analysis It is a complex compound sentence. Object 1 = Tempat kedua, verb 1 = direbut, Subject 1 = Pembalap spanyol, Dani Pedrosa, Adjective Clause = Yang ketinggalan 11, 310 detik dari stoner, Conjunction = sedangkan, Subject 2 = Pembalap Amerika, Colin Edward, Verb 2 = merebut, Object 2 = Posisi ketiga Semantic Analysis Pembalap Spanyol, Dani Pedrosa == Spanish rider, Dani Pedrosa, Yang ketinggalan 11,310 detik dari Stoner = who was left 11.310 behind Stoner, merebut

tempat kedua = attained the second place, sedangkan = Meanwhile, Pembalap Amerika, Colin Edward = American rider, Colin Edward merebut posisi ketiga = attained the third place Sentence 5 Menangnya Stoner di GP Belanda menjadikan peringkatnya di klasemen pembalap naik keurutan tiga besar Syntax Analysis It is complex Sentence. Subject = Menangnya Stoner Di GP Belanda (Phrase), Verb = menjadikan, Object = Peringkatnya, Adverb = di klasemen pembalap Adverb = naik ke urutan tiga besar Semantic Analysis Menangnya Stoner di GP Belanda = Stoners winning in Dutch Grand Prix, Menjadikan = has made, Peringkatnya = his rank, di klasemen pembalap = in the riders standing, naik ke posisi ke urutan tiga besar = going up to the best three Sentence 6 Saya sempat gugup di awal start tetapi semuanya bisa diatasi, ungkap stoner yang sukses ke 20. Syntax Analysis It is a Complex sentence. Subject = Stoner, Adjective clause = yang sukses ke- 20, Verb = ungkap, Noun clause = saya sempat gugup di awal start tetapi semuanya biasa diatasi, Semantic Analysis Saya sempat gugup di awal start tetapi semuanya bisa diatasi, = I was nervous at the beginning start, but everything could be overcame, ungkap = said, Stoner = Stoner, yang sukses ke-20 = who has succeeded for twenty times Sentence 7 Pemimpin klasemen sementara sampai lomba kesembilan dari 18 yang harus diselesaikan saat ini dipegang Dani Pedrosa yang mengumpulkan nilai 171. Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Subject = Dani Pedrosa, Adjective Clause = yang mengumpulkan nilai 171, Adverb = saat ini, Verb = dipegang, Object = Pemimpin klasemen sementara, Adjective phrase = sampai lomba kesembilan dari 18 yang harus diselesaikan Semantic Analysis Pemimpin klasemen sementara sampai lomba kesembilan dari 18 yang harus diselesaikan = the leader of temporary rank until ninth championship from which 18 must be finished, saat ini = now, dipegang = is held, Dani Pedrosa = by Dani Pedrosa, yang mengumpulkan nilai 171 = who collects points of 171 Sentence 8 Pedrosa berhasil merebut posisi pertama dari tangan pembalap Italia, Valetino

Rossi, yang pada lomba kemarin hanya menduduki peringkat ke -11. Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Subject = Pedrosa, Adverb = berhasil, Verb = merebut, Object = posisi pertama, Adverb = dari tangan pembalap Italia, Valentino Rossi, Adjective Clause = Yang pada lomba kemarin hanya menduduki peringkat ke- 11 Semantic Analysis Pedrosa, berhasil merebut = successfully grasped, posisi pertama = first position, dari tangan pembalap Italia, Valentino Rossi, = from Italian rider, valentino Rossi, yang pada lomba kemarin hanya menduduki peringkat ke- 11 = who was just finished in eleventh position. Sentence 9 Rossi, yang sempat tergelincir pada awal lomba, di klasemen sementara berada di ututan ke- dua dengan mengoleksi nilai 167. Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Subject = Rossi, Adjective Clause = yang sempat tergelincir pada awal lomba, Adverb = di klasemen sementara, Verb = berada, Object = urutan ke dua, Adverb = dengan mengoleksi nilai 167 Semantic Analysis Rossi, yang sempat tergelincir pada awal lomba = who was slipped at the beginning of race, di klasemen sementara = in the temporary standing, berada = is on, urutan ke-dua = second position, dengan mengoleksi nilai 167 = by collecting the points of 167 Sentence 10 Sekalipun sempat terlempar di urutan ke 14 dalam lomba kemarin, ia berhasil memperbaiki posisi dan duduk di urutan ke 11. Syntax Analysis It is a compound - complex sentence. Adverbial Clause = sekalipun sempat terlempar di urutan ke 14 dalam lomba kemarin, Subject = Ia, Adverb = berhasil, Verb 1 = memperbaiki, Object 1 = posisi, Verb 2 = duduk, ordinate conjunction = dan, Adverb = di urutan ke- 11 Semantic Analysis Sekalipun sempat terlempar di urutan ke 14 dalam lomba kemarin = Even though Rossi had been thrown into fourteenth position in yesterday race, Ia = he, berhasil memperbaiki = successfully improved, posisi = position, dan = and, duduk = sat, di urutan ke- 11 = in the eleventh position Sentence 11 Untuk kategori lomba 250 cc, gelar juara disabet pembalap spanyol, Alvaro Bautista, diikuti Thomas Luthi juga dari Spanyol dan Marco Simoncelli (Italia) di peringkat kedua dan ketiga. Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Adverb = Untuk kategori lomba 250 cc, Subject =

pembalap spanyol, Alvaro Bautista, Verb = disabet, Object = gelar juara, Adjective phrase = diikuti Thomas Luthi juga dari Spanyol dan Marco Simoncelli (Italia) di peringkat kedua dan ketiga. Semantic Analysis Untuk kategori lomba 250 cc = for the category of 250 cc, gelar juara = winner title, disabet = was taken, pembalap spanyol, Alvaro Bautista = by the Spanish rider, Alvaro Bautista, diikuti Thomas Luthi juga dari Spanyol dan Marco Simoncelli (Italia) di peringkat kedua dan ketiga = followed by Thomas Luthi from spain and Marco Simoncelli (Italy) on second and third position Sentence 12 Di kategori lomba 125 CC, juaranya adalah Gabor Talmacsci dari Hongaria, pembalap Spanyol, Johan Olive, berhasil merebut tempat kedua dan Simone Corsi dari Italia di peringkat ketiga Syntax Analisis It is a compound sentence. Adverb = Di kategori lomba 125 CC, Subject 1 = Talmacsci dari Hongaria, Verb 1 = adalah, object 1 = juaranya, Subject 2 = pembalap Spanyol, Johan Olive, Adverb = berhasil, Verb 2 = merebut, Object 2 = tempat kedua, Ordinate Conjunction = dan, Subject 3 = Simone Corsi dari Italia, Verb 3 = be (linking verb), adverb = di peringkat ketiga Semantic Analysis Di kategori lomba 125 CC = for category of 125 CC, juaranya = the winner, adalah = was, Gabor Talmacsci dari Hongaria = Gabor Talmacsci from Hungary, pembalap Spanyol, Johan Olive = the Spanish rider, Johan Olive, berhasil merebut = successfully attained, tempat kedua = second rank, dan = and, Simone Corsi dari Italia = Simone Corsi from Italy, di peringkat ketiga = was in the third rank c. Transfer Even though the transfer process basically happens in the translators mind, the writer keeps writing all the sentences in order to make the readers of this paper get complete comprehension and sooner acknowledge the way writer thinks. Basically the following sentence is the initial drafts that for some reason can be changed in the next step (restructuring) in order to make the result of translation as idiomatic as possible. Title Casey Stoner won in Assen Sentence 1

Australian racer, Casey Stoner, could not avoid winning Dutch MotoGP from which was held in Assen circuit. Sentence 2 Starting from the first position, Stoner could not be exceeded by other riders until he entered the finish line. Sentence 3 He made a record of 42 minutes and 12.337 seconds after finishing 26 laps Sentence 4 Spanish rider, Dani Pedrosa, who was left 11.310 seconds behind Stoner attained the second place meanwhile American rider, Colin Edward, attained the third place Sentence 5 Stoners winning in Dutch Grand Prix has made his rank rising to the best three Sentence 6 I was nervous at the beginning start, but everything could be overcame, Stoner who has succeeded for twenty times said Sentence 7 The leader of temporary rank until ninth championship from which 18 must be finished, now is handed by Dani Pedrosa who collects points of 171 Sentence 8 Pedrosa successfully grasped first position from Italian rider, Valentino Rossi who was just finished in eleventh position. Sentence 9 Rossi who was fallen at the beginning of race, in the temporary standing is on second position by collecting the points of 167 Sentence 10 Even though Rossi had been thrown into fourteenth position in yesterday race, he successfully improved position and sat in the eleventh position Sentence 11 For the category of 250 cc winner title was taken by the Spanish rider, Alvaro Bautista followed by Thomas Luthi from spain and Marco Simoncelli (Italy) on second and third position Sentence 12 For category of 125 cc, the winner was Gabor Talmacsci from Hungary, the Spanish rider, Johan Olive, successfully attained second rank and Simone Corsi from Italy was in the third rank d. Restructuring into Idiomatic Level The writer finally has re-arranged the initial draft in the transfer process by replacing or omitting the word or expression that does not express the principle of the idiomatic translation (naturalness). The way writer delivers the result is sentence by

sentence followed by the explanation or the reason. Here they are the final result of the translation in the field of sport. Title Casey Stoner claimed the first podium in Assen Explanation: The use of phrase claimed the first podium is more idiomatic or natural mainly for the title of motor racing sport. Furthermore, the above phrase has the same meaning with the word win. It means that the intended message remain preserved. Sentence 1 The Australian rider, Casey Stoner, was unavoidable to be the fastest one on the Dutch MotoGP held in Assen. Explanation: The noun rider is more idiomatic than the use of noun racer. Then the word unavoidable is natural expression and the same meaning with can avoid. Meanwhile, the use of superlative the fastest means he is the only one finishing first or win. Sentence 2 Starting from the pole position, Stoner was able to maintain his position until he finished the race. Explanation: In the context of motor racing sport, the phrase pole position (figurative meaning) is more commonly used than phrase first position. Also the phrase maintain his position is more idiomatic than the use of verb exceed. Sentence 3 Finishing 26 laps, he booked 42 minutes and 12.337 seconds.

Explanation: The use of the verb book (Figurative meaning) is more naturally used to replace phrase made a record in which both of the expressions have the same intended meaning. Sentence 4 Spanish, Dani Pedrosa, left 11.310 seconds behind Stoner was in second place meanwhile the third place belonged to American, Colin Edward. Explanation: The omission of the noun rider is for the reason of the naturalness. Everyone knows that the Spanish refers to Dani Pedrosa, the rider. Sentence 5 Being a winner in Dutch Grand Prix, Stoners position is going up the best three in the standing. Explanation: The replacement of the verb rise by verb phrase go up has made the sentence above sounds more idiomatic. The replacement does not change the intended meaning. Sentence 6 I was nervous at the beginning start, but everything was just fine Stoner who has succeeded for twenty times said. Explanation: The use of sentence or expression everything was just fine is more acceptable and natural expression than everything could be overcome. Sentence 7 The points leader until ninth race from which 18 must be finished, now is handed by Dani Pedrosa by collecting 171 points.

Explanation: The use of the phrase point leader until ninth race sounds normal and natural usage rather than using the leader of temporary rank until ninth championship. Then, phrase by collecting 171 points is also better choice than the use of clause who collects 171 points.

Sentence 8 Pedrosa successfully stole first position from Italian rider, Valentino Rossi who was just finished in eleventh place. Explanation: In the context or the term of sport, the word steal (figurative meaning) is more appropriate than the word grasp. Also, the noun place is more normal usage than the noun position. Both of forms have the same meaning. Sentence 9 Rossi who was slipped at the beginning of race, in the temporary standing is on second position by collecting the points of 167. Explanation: The use of verb slip is better equivalent than the verb fall that is very general meaning. Sentence 10 Even though Rossi had been crashed into fourteenth place in yesterday race, he successfully improved position and sat in the eleventh place. Explanation: The use of the verb crashed is more natural than verb thrown as well as place is better usage than position. Sentence 11 For the category of 250 cc, title was taken by the Spanish rider, Alvaro Bautista followed by Thomas Luthi from Spain and Marco Simoncelli (Italy) on second and third place.

Explanation: The phrase winner title can be replaced by noun title. Also, the word place could replace position. Sentence 12 For category of 125 cc, the winner was Gabor Talmacsci from Hungary, the Spanish rider, Johan Olive, successfully finished second and Simone Corsi from Italy was in the third place. Explanation: The use of phrase attained second rank can be replaced by the phrase finished second which is more natural and appropriate in this context. Meanwhile, the use of noun rank on the other hand should be changed into the noun place in order to make the result the translation sounds normal and natural as the main principle of the idiomatic translation. (For complete idiomatic translation of article I see Appendices)

3.3.2 a.

Article II (see Appendices) Preparation It would be the same as the preparation of the previous article respectively.

b.

Analysis After the writer has read all the passage on the following article, He then

concludes that the article is about political event coverage. As the matter of fact, the function of the text above is still remaining Informative since the emphasis of the article are neither the readers nor the writer but the objectivity of the content. It is all about how the situation or the atmosphere of the US Presidential election seems to be. As a matter of fact, the article tells us about the competition of two US President main candidates.

Title Obama Ungguli lagi McCain Syntax Analysis It is a simple sentence. Subject = Obama, Verb = ungguli, Adverb = lagi, Object = McCain Semantic Analysis Obama = Obama, ungguli = surpass, lagi = again, McCain = McCain Sentence 1 Beberapa jajak pendapat terbaru menunjukan, popularitas calon presiden AS dari Demokrat, Barack Obama, kini kembali naik Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Subject = Beberapa jajak pendapat terbaru, Verb = menunjukan, Noun Clause = popularitas calon presiden AS dari Demokrat, Barack Obama, kini kembali naik. Semantic Analysis Beberapa jajak pendapat terbaru = some newest surveys, menunjukan = show, popularitas calon presiden AS dari Demokrat, Barack Obama, kini kembali naik = the popularity of democratic presidential candidate, Barack Obama, is going up now. Sentence 2 Hasil jajak pendapat terbaru Ascociated Press dan Yahoo News yang diumumkan jumat (19/9) menunjukan Obama unggul tipis atas lawannya, calon presiden dari Republik, Jhon McCain, 50 persen berbanding 47 persen. Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Subject = Hasil jajak pendapat terbaru Ascociated Press dan Yahoo News, Adjective Clause = yang diumumkan jumat (19/9), Verb = menunjukan, Noun Clause = Obama unggul tipis atas lawannya, calon presiden dari Republik, Jhon McCain, 50 persen berbanding 47 persen Semantic Analysis Hasil jajak pendapat terbaru Ascociated Press dan Yahoo News = the result of newest survey by Ascociated Press and Yahoo News, yang diumumkan jumat (19/9) = that was announced Friday september 19th, menunjukan = showed, Obama unggul tipis atas lawannya, calon presiden dari Republik, Jhon McCain, 50 persen berbanding 47 persen = Obama won slightly from his rival, republican presidential candidate, Jhon McCain, 50 percent: 47 percent. Sentence 3 Hasil jajak pendapat itu mencerminkan secara umum kekuatan dan kelemahan masing masing. Syntax Analysis It is a simple sentence. Subject = Hasil jajak pendapat itu, Verb = mencerminkan,

Adverb = secara umum, Object = kekuatan dan kelemahan masing masing. Semantic Analysis Hasil jajak pendapat itu = the result, mencerminkan = reflects, secara umum = generally, kekuatan dan kelemahan masing masing = each strength and weakness Sentence 4 Kelompok perempuan, minoritas muda, dan tidak menikah mengatakan lebih suka menonton sebuah pertandingan bola bersama Obama. Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Subject = Kelompok perempuan, minoritas muda, dan tidak menikah, verb = mengatakan, Noun Clause = (mereka) lebih suka menonton sebuah pertandingan bola bersama Obama. Semantic Analysis Kelompok perempuan, minoritas muda, dan tidak menikah = women, minority young, and unmarried, mengatakan = told, lebih suka menonton sebuah pertandingan bola bersama Obama = they prefer watching a soccer game with Obama Sentence 5 Kelompok laki-laki, berkulit putih, dan menikah lebih suka menonton bersama McCain. Syntax Analysis It is a simple sentence. Subject = Kelompok laki-laki, berkulit putih, dan menikah, Verb = lebih suka, Object = menonton bersama McCain. Semantic Analysis Kelompok laki-laki, berkulit putih, dan menikah = Men, White Skin and Married, lebih suka = prefer, menonton bersama McCain = wacthing with McCain. Sentence 6 Jajak pendapat terbaru yang dilakukan Gallup, Kamis, juga menunjukan bahwa ekonomi AS yang buruk justru membuat posisi Barack Obama jauh lebih baik. Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Subject = Jajak pendapat terbaru yang dilakukan Gallup, Kamis, Adverb = juga, Verb = menunjukan, Noun Clause = bahwa ekonomi AS yang buruk justru membuat posisi Barack Obama jauh lebih baik. Semantic Analysis Jajak pendapat terbaru yang dilakukan Gallup, Kamis, = Newest survey done by Gallup on Thursday, juga = also, menunjukan = showed, bahwa ekonomi AS yang buruk justru membuat posisi Barack Obama jauh lebih baik = that the worsening economic situation in the US has made much better position for Obama Sentence 7 Obama kembali mengungguli McCain, 48 berbanding 44, keunggulan terbesar Obama dalam dua minggu terahir.

Syntax Analysis It is a simple sentence. Subject = Obama, Adverb = kembali, Verb = mengungguli, Object = McCain, 48 berbanding 44, Appositive = keunggulan terbesar Obama dalam dua minggu terahir Semantic Analysis Obama = Obama, kembali mengungguli = beat again, McCain, 48 berbanding 44, = McCain 48: 44, keunggulan terbesar Obama dalam dua minggu terahir = the biggest obamas victory for the last two week. Sentence 8 Gallup menjelaskan, Obama terus dipandang lebih baik ketimbang McCain untuk membawa ekonomi AS keluar dari masalah masalah ekonomi Syntax Analysis It is a Complex sentence. Subject = Gallup, Verb = menjelaskan, Noun Clause = Obama terus dipandang lebih baik ketimbang McCain untuk membawa ekonomi AS keluar dari masalah masalah ekonomi Semantic Analysis Gallup = Gallup, menjelaskan = explained, Obama terus dipandang lebih baik ketimbang McCain untuk membawa ekonomi AS keluar dari masalah masalah ekonomi = Obama is regarded he is better than McCain to bring the US economy finding way out of the crises. Sentence 9 Di sisi lain, McCain justru semakin tercoreng oleh realitas bahwa dia adalah pendukung deregulasi dalam pasar finansial Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Transition words = Di sisi lain, Object = McCain, Adverb = justru semakin, Verb = tercoreng (passive), Subject = oleh realitas, Adjective Clause = bahwa dia adalah pendukung deregulasi dalam pasar finansial Semantic Analysis Di sisi lain, = in other side, McCain = McCain, justru semakin tercoreng = was much disgraced, oleh realitas = by the reality, bahwa dia adalah pendukung deregulasi dalam pasar finansial = that he is supporter of deregulation in financial market Sentence 10 Namun, kejatuhan Lehman Brothers membuat McCain berubah dan menyuarakan akan mengatur transaksi keuangan jika terpilih. Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Transition word = Namun, Subject = kejatuhan Lehman Brothers, Verb = membuat, Noun Clause = McCain berubah dan menyuarakan akan mengatur transaksi keuangan jika terpilih. Semantic Analysis Namun = however, kejatuhan Lehman Brothers = the fall of Lehman Brothers,

membuat = made, McCain berubah dan menyuarakan akan mengatur transaksi keuangan jika terpilih = McCain changed and vowed to regulate financial transaction if he is elected. Sentence 11 McCain baru sekarang menyatakan itu. Syntax Analysis It is a simple sentence. Subject = McCain, Adverb = baru sekarang, Verb = menyatakan, Object = itu. Semantic Analysis McCain = McCain, baru sekarang = just now, menyatakan = tells, itu = that Sentence 12 Padahal, seruan itu sudah lama muncul, tetapi tidak didukung oleh McCain sebagai senator AS. Syntax Analisis It is a complex sentence. Transition word = padahal, Subject = seruan itu, Verb = sudah lama muncul, Conjunction = tetapi Verb 2 = tidak didukung (passive), Subject 2 = oleh McCain sebagai senator AS. Semantic Analysis Padahal, = as a matter of fact, seruan itu = that urge, sudah lama muncul, = has been appeared, tetapi = but, tidak didukung = it was not supported, oleh McCain sebagai senator AS = by McCain as senator Sentence 13 Berdasarkan jajak pendapat yang dilakukan New York Times dan CBS News, 48 persen responden menyatakan Obama sebagai pilihan mereka, sedangkan 43 persen mengatakan memilih McCain Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Adverb = Berdasarkan jajak pendapat, Adjective Clause = yang dilakukan New York Times dan CBS News, Subject = 48 persen responden, Verb = menyatakan, Object = Obama sebagai pilihan mereka, Conjunction = sedangkan, Subject 2 = 43 persen, Verb 2 = mengatakan, Object 2 = memilih McCain Semantic Analysis Berdasarkan jajak pendapat = according to the survey, Yang dilakukan New York Times dan CBS News = that was done by New York Times and CBS News, 48 persen responden = 48 percent of respondent, Menyatakan = told, Obama sebagai pilihan mereka = Obama was their choice, Sedangkan = meanwhile, 43 persen = 43 percent, mengatakan = told, Memilih McCain = they chosen Obama Sentence 14 Keunggulan pasangan Obama -Joe Biden atas McCain- Sarah Palin juga tampak dari jajak pendapat yang dilakukan Press TV.

Syntax Analisis It is a simple sentence. Subject =Keunggulan pasangan Obama -Joe Biden atas McCain- Sarah Palin, Adverb = juga, Verb = tampak, Adverb = dari jajak pendapat Adjective Clause = yang dilakukan Press TV. Semantic Analysis Keunggulan pasangan Obama -Joe Biden atas McCain- Sarah Palin = Obama Joe Bidens leading against McCain Sarah Palin, juga = also, tampak = seemed, dari jajak pendapat = from the survey, yang dilakukan Press TV = that is done by Press -TV Sentence 15 Sekitar 46 persen dari 10.958 responden meyakini Obama Biden akan lebih baik ketimbang McCain Pakin dalam mengelola pemerintahan. Syntax Analysis It is a complex sentence. Subject = Sekitar 46 persen dari 10.958 responden, Verb = meyakini, Noun Clause = Obama Biden akan lebih baik ketimbang McCain Pakin dalam mengelola pemerintahan Semantic Analysis Sekitar 46 persen dari 10.958 responden = about 46 percent of 10,958 respondents, meyakini = were sure, Obama Biden akan lebih baik ketimbang McCain Pakin dalam mengelola pemerintahan = Obama Biden would be better than McCain on Managing the Government Sentence 16 Hanya 17 persen responden yang mengatakan McCain Palin pilihan terbaik untuk ke Gedung Putih. Syntax Analisis It is a complex sentence. Adverb = Hanya, Subject Complement= 17 persen responden, Adjective Clause = yang mengatakan, Noun Clause = McCain Palin pilihan terbaik untuk ke Gedung Putih. Semantic Analysis Hanya 17 persen responden = It was only 17 percent of respondent, yang mengatakan = who said, McCain Palin pilihan terbaik untuk ke Gedung Putih = McCain Palin were the best choice for white house Sentence 17 Isu Ekonomi termasuk faktor yang menentukan dalam pemilu di AS Syntax Analysis It is a simple sentence. Subject = Isu Ekonomi, Verb = termasuk, Object = faktor yang menentukan, Adverb = dalam pemilu di AS Semantic Analysis Isu Ekonomi = economic problem, termasuk = is, faktor yang menentukan = determining factor, dalam pemilu di AS = in the US election.

c.

Transfer Even though the transfer process basically happens in the translators mind,

the writer keeps writing all the sentences in order to make the readers of this paper get complete comprehension and sooner acknowledge the way writer thinks. Basically the following sentence is the initial drafts that for some reason can be changed in the next step (restructuring) in order to make the result of translation as idiomatic as possible. Title Obama surpassed McCain Again Sentence 1 Some newest surveys show the popularity of democratic presidential candidate, Barack Obama, is going up now Sentence 2 The result of newest survey by Ascociated Press and Yahoo News, that was announced Friday September 19th showed Obama won slightly from his rival, republican presidential candidate, Jhon McCain, 50 percent to 47 percent Sentence 3 The result reflected generally each strength and weakness Sentence 4 Women, mostly young, and unmarried told they preferred watching a soccer game with Obama Sentence 5 Men, White Skin and Married, prefer wacthing with McCain Sentence 6 Newest survey done by Gallup on Thursday also showed that the worsening economic situation in the US has made better position for Obama Sentence 7 Obama beat again, McCain 48: 44, the biggest obamas win for the last two week Sentence 8 Gallup explained, Obama is regarded he is better than McCain to bring the US economy finding way out of the crises. Sentence 9 In other side, McCain was much disgraced by the reality that he is supporter of deregulation in financial market Sentence 10 However, the fall of Lehman Brothers made McCain changed and vowed to regulate financial transaction if he is elected

Sentence 11 McCain just now tells that Sentence 12 As a matter of fact, that urge has been appeared but, it was not supported by McCain as senator Sentence 13 According to the survey that was done by New York Times and CBS News 48 percent of respondent told, Obama was their choice meanwhile, 43 percent told they chosen McCain Sentence 14 Obama Joe Bidens leading against McCain Sarah Palin also seemed from the survey that is done by Press -TV Sentence 15 About 46 percent of 10,958 respondents were sure Obama Biden would be better than McCain on Managing the Government Sentence 16 It was only 17 percent of respondent who said McCain Palin were the best choice for white house Sentence 17 Economic problem is Determining factor in the US election d. Restructuring into Idiomatic Method The writer finally has re-arranged the initial draft in the transfer process by changing or omitting the word or expression that does not express the principle of the idiomatic translation (naturalness). The way writer delivers the result is sentence by sentence followed by the explanation or the reason. Here they are the final result of the translation in the field of politics. Title Once more, Obama beat McCain Explanation: The sentence above sounds more idiomatic for the title of an article in English that is the word again replaced by once more. It is simply due to the fact that title should be made as attractive as possible so that the readers pay attention to it. . Sentence 1 Some latest polls have proven the popularity of democratic presidential candidate,

Barrack Obama, is going up now Explanation: The superlative latest is more natural than newest. Then the word survey is too general meaning and should be replaced by noun poll that is more normal usage for election terms. Also, the replacement the verb show into verb phrase have proven is for the sake of naturalness. Sentence 2 The result of latest poll done by Associated Press and Yahoo News that was announced Friday September 19th showed Obama won slightly from his rival, republican presidential candidate, Jhon McCain, 50 percent : 47 percent Explanation: The verb done is added to make the form clear and natural. Sentence 3 The result reflected generally each strength and weakness Explanation: The sentence 3 in transfer stage above is already idiomatic. Sentence 4 Women, mostly young, and single told they preferred watching a soccer game with Obama Explanation: the replacement of the adjective unmarried using another adjective single is for the reason of vividness and naturalness. It is the normal and natural form. Sentence 5 Men, White, and Married, preferred watching with McCain Explanation: The omission of the noun skin is due to the fact that everyone

immediately acknowledges to whom the word white refers. Thus, it will be more normal and natural form. Sentence 6 Latest poll made by Gallup on Thursday also showed that the worsening economic situation in the US has made better position for Obama

Explanation: The use of phrase Latest poll is more idiomatic than newest survey and the verb done is better to be replaced by another verb made without changing the message. Sentence 7 Again Obama beat McCain 48: 44, his biggest victory for the last two week Explanation: The replacement of the noun win by the same meaning noun victory makes the form more natural. Sentence 8 Gallup explained Obama is regarded more capable than McCain to bring the US economy finding way out of the crises. Explanation: Without changing the meaning, the use of the phrase more capable sounds natural and clear than he is better in which still sounds vague. Sentence 9 On the other hand, McCain was much disgraced by the reality that he was very enthusiastic to support the deregulation in financial market Explanation: The use of transition word On the other hand is more relevant and off course natural than in other side. Also, the expression very enthusiastic to support is more appropriate than just the use of noun supporter that seems very general meaning. Sentence 10 However, the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers has made McCain changed and vowed to regulate financial transaction if he is elected Explanation: For economic term or context, the use of the word bankruptcy is natural rather than the utilization of fall (figurative) that again sounds very general meaning Sentence 11 McCain recently vowed the change

Explanation: The sentence above more explicit than previous one in the transfer stage. The word that (in the transfer stage) sounds vague and can constitute misinterpretation. The word that itself basically refers to the change. Meanwhile, the verb vow is better usage than tell. Sentence 12 As a matter of fact, that urge has been come into view but, it was not supported by McCain as senator Explanation: The verb Appear can be replaced by verb phrase come into view that is more idiomatic. The changing of form does not distort the intended meaning Sentence 13 According to the poll that was conducted by New York Times and CBS News 48 percent of respondent told Obama was their choice meanwhile, 43 percent told they chosen McCain Explanation: The use of verb conduct is more appropriate than do as well as again the noun poll is more contextual than survey Sentence 14 Obama Joe Bidens leading against McCain Sarah Palin was also indicated from the survey that was carried out by Press -TV Explanation: The use of the verb indicate sounds more normal usage than verb seem and the verb phrase carry out sounds very idiomatic than just the word do. All the replacements of form above still convey the same message of the source language Sentence 15 About 46 percent of 10,958 respondents were convinced Obama Biden would be better than McCain to run the Government

Explanation: The use of the verb Convince is more appropriate than sure. Also, the use of the verb run (figurative) is much more contextual and common use than manage. Sentence 16 It was only 17 percent of respondent who stated McCain Palin were the best choice for white house Explanation: The use of verb state sounds more appropriate and natural than the use of the verb say. Sentence 17 Economic issue has become determining factor in the US election Explanation: The use of noun issue is more natural and contextual than the noun problem. ( For complete idiomatic translation of article II see Appendices) 3.4 3.3.1 Examples of Translation Techniques Used on Articles Transposition

Source text ( See Sentence 12 on Article II ) Padahal, seruan itu sudah lama muncul, tetapi tidak didukung oleh McCain sebagai senator AS. Literal Translation As a matter of fact, that urge has been appeared but, it was not supported by McCain as senator. Idiomatic Translation As a matter of fact, that urge has been come into view but, it was not supported by McCain as senator Explanation: writer acknowledges that the verb muncul literally meaning appear is replaced by different grammatical class verb phrase, come into view without changing the meaning.

Source text ( See Sentence 9 on Article II ) Di sisi lain, McCain justru semakin tercoreng oleh realitas bahwa dia adalah pendukung deregulasi dalam pasar finansial Literal Translation In other side, McCain was much disgraced by the reality that he is supporter of deregulation in financial market Idiomatic Translation On the other hand, McCain was much disgraced by the reality that he was very enthusiastic to support the deregulation in financial market Explanation: As we can see, the noun supporter is replaced by the phrase enthusiastic to support. 3.3.2 Modulation

Source text ( See Sentence 2 on Article I ) Start dari urutan pertama, Stoner tidak tersusul pembalap lainya sampai masuk garis finis. Literal Translation Starting from the first position, Stoner could not be exceeded by other riders until he entered the finish line. Idiomatic Translation Starting from the pole position, Stoner was able to maintain his position until he finished the race. Explanation: Writer recognizes that the phrase tidak tersusul pembalap lain that means literally could not be exceeded by other riders (negative) is replaced idiomatically by able to maintain (positive). The idiomatic version gives different point of view of what is uttered in source text but basically has the same message. Source text ( See Sentence 4 on Article II ) Kelompok perempuan, minoritas muda, dan tidak menikah mengatakan lebih suka menonton sebuah pertandingan bola bersama Obama Literal Translation Women, mostly young, and unmarried told they prefer watching a soccer game with Obama Idiomatic Translation Women, mostly young, and single told they preferred watching a soccer game with Obama

Explanation: Writer sees that the negation tidak menikah literally meaning unmarried is replaced by differrent point of view single without changing the message.

3.3.3

Equivalence

Source text ( See Sentence 10 on Article II ) Namun, kejatuhan Lehman Brothers membuat McCain berubah dan menyuarakan akan mengatur transaksi keuangan jika terpilih. Literal Translation However, the fall of Lehman Brothersmade McCain changed and vowed to regulate financial transaction if he is elected Idiomatic Translation However, the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers has made McCain changed and vowed to regulate financial transaction if he is elected Explanation: writer acknowledges that the expression kejatuhan literally meaning the fall that is too general meaning is replaced by the closest equivalence fall. Source text ( See Title on Article I) Casey Stoner Juara di Assen Literal Translation Casey Stoner won in Assen Idiomatic Translation Casey Stoner claimed the first podium in Assen Explanation; Writer recognizes that the word menang literally meaning win is replaced by the phrase claim the first podium. As the writer sees, there is a replacement from word into equivalence phrase without changing the meaning.

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

4.1

Conclusion Having discussed about form and meaning, the nature of translation especially

the idiomatic method and the implementation of idiomatic method on Indonesian articles derived from local newspaper Kompas, the writer may finally go to the conclusion of this study. According to the statement of the problem having mentioned in the beginning chapter, he concludes the points as follows: 1. Indonesian language as source language has some distinct features that should be paid attention by translator. Firstly, the word formation in Indonesian uses explained explaining pattern meanwhile English employs explaining explained one. Secondly very noticeable from English, Indonesian grammar is relatively simple. This is because Indonesian does not require conjugation of verb tenses or participles, plural forms, articles and gender distinction for the third person pronouns. However, Indonesian does possess a complex system of affixations. Thus, the absence of tenses in the language is substituted through the use of many aspect particles and (as with any language) Indonesian grammar often presents an array of exceptions and inconsistencies. 2. The language function of articles in Kompas is informative. As the result of this, the content of the message remains objective. It is neither reader nor writer

centered. The result of translation should then preserve the function of the language in the articles. 3. Idiomatic method is the most natural and normal way to render the message from articles of Kompas as source text (ST) to acceptable English article as target text (TT). Furthermore, idiomatic translation is the translators goal. In doing so, the translator should find the closest natural grammatical and lexical choices of target language without changing the meaning. It is then the main consideration of implementing the method on articles of Kompas. 4. Practically, the idiomatic method implementing on articles of Kompas has such a procedure that translator should deal with to result the closest natural equivalence. The procedure comprises at least four steps. They are: a. Preparation includes the text to be translated (Articles of Kompas), the target (students majoring in English and native English speaker), the team (only the writer), and tools (Dictionaries and English articles) b. Analysis includes syntax analysis (form or the surface structure of the Indonesian articles in Kompas) and semantic analysis (meaning or deep structure of the Indonesian articles in Kompas). c. Transfer operates in translators mind. It is used to find the initial draft that for some reason can still be modified into idiomatic level as the final draft. d. Restructuring means translator should re- express the meaning of the articles of Kompas idiomatically into English. In doing so, translator can use some translation techniques by replacing or omitting the words sound unnatural in the initial draft.

5. The message on articles of Kompas can be revealed by implementing the procedure of idiomatic method on each sentence as a unit of translation. 6. Some appropriate techniques used to result the English idiomatic translation in articles of Kompas are transposition (shifting of grammatical class), modulation (shifting of point of view), and equivalence (finding the equivalents of idiom, proverb, and lexical items)

4.2

Suggestion Translating idiomatically from mother tongue (Indonesian articles of Kompas)

into English is totally challenging. It is due to the fact that English is still a foreign language for people of Indonesia. As the matter of fact, since the key word of idiomatic translation is naturalness, translator should be able to discover the natural expressions of English so that the audience will exactly grasp the intended meaning of articles. In dong so, before start translating, the translator should read a lot the English articles dealing with the topic that will deliver to familiarize with the natural expression. Idiomatic translation method is basically meaning based translation. That is why the primary concern is the message or content of articles of Kompas. The form of the source text is important but not nearly as important as the meaning. It is strongly recommended that the translator can shift one grammatical form to another. However, the syntax adjustment made must not change the intended meaning of the source text.

As any newspaper articles, each article in Kompas has each context. In order to convey the message accurately one has to recognize the context in advance. It means that the translator should pay attention mainly to the total situation and environment in which the word uttered. For example, translator should recognize the natural term of sport, politics, economic, etc. Also, translating articles in Kompas idiomatically means transferring the meaning into natural English form. In doing

so, one should comprehend what kind of meaning used in the text whether it is primary or secondary. That is the translator should give different treatment for each meaning of the source text.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anoname.2008.Indonesian Languge. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 27, 2008, from http // en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Indonesian language. Arifin, E. Zaenal and S. Amran Tasai. 2006. Cermat Berbahasa Indonesia Untuk Perguruan Tinggi. Jakarta: Akademika Pressindo. Azar, Betty Schramfer. 1999. Understanding and Using English Grammar International Editon. New York: Pearson Education. Cholliludin. 2007. The Technique of Making Idiomatic Translation.Jakarta: Kesaint Blanc. Djuharie, O. Setiawan. Tehnik dan Panduan Menerjemahkan. Bandung: CV. Yrama Widya. Echols, John M and Hasan Shadily. 2005. An English Indonesian Dictionary. Jakarta: PT Gramedia. -----------------------------------------------. 2000. An Indonesian English Dictionary. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Hoed, Benny Hoedoro. 2006. Penerjemahan dan Kebudayaan. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya. I R. 2008. Moto GP: Casey Stoner Juara di Assen. Jakarta: Kompas June 29, 2008. Larson, Mildred L. 1984. Meaning Based Translation. Maryland: University Press of America. Machali, Rochayah. 2000. Pedoman Bagi Penerjemah. Jakarta: Grasindo. Molina, Luca and Hurtado Alvir, Amparo.2004. Translation Techniques Revisited: A Functional and Dynamic Approach. Mta, XLVII, 4, 2004, pp.498-512. Retrieved September 29, 2008, from http: // www. erudit. org/ revue/ meta/ 2002/ v47/ n4/008033ar.pdf. Mossop, Brian.1990. Translation Institution and Idiomatic Translation. Translation Institution Revised. Retrieved October 2, 2008, from http// www.geocities.com/brmossop/traslatinginstitution revised.htm

Newmark, Peter. 1981. Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press Newmark, Peter. 1991. About Translation. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Nida, Eugene A and Charles R Taber. 2003. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden, Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. Oki. 2008. Dampak Krisis: Obama Ungguli Lagi McCain. Jakarta: Kompas September 20, 2008 Ordudary, Mahmoud. Translation Procedures, Strategies and Methods. Translation Journal, Volume II No.3 July 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2008, from http: // translationjournal.net/journal/41culture.htm. Oxford. 2005. Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary New Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press Roth, Audrey J. 1982. The Research Paper: Process, Form, and Content. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Setiyadi, Ag. Bambang. 2006. Teaching English as Foreign Language. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu. Wishon, Goerge E and Julia M. Burks. 1980. Lets Write English. New York: Liton Educational Publishing International.

CURRICULUM VITAE
A. PERSONALITY ____________________________________________________________________ SRN Name Place and Date of Birth Address Telephone : 31050602 : Bowo Setyawan : Jakarta, April 29th, 1981 : Pedongkelan RT 05/RW 13 No 33 Cengkareng Jakarta - Barat 11720 : 021-54397036 / 081314303807

B. EDUCATION ____________________________________________________________________ Elementary School SD Negeri 09 Pagi Jakarta Junior High School SLTP Negeri 100 Jakarta Senior High School SMU Negeri 1 Kesamben Blitar Jawa Timur Academy The Academy of Foreign Language Bina Sarana Informatika 1987-1994 1994-1997 1997-1999 2005 - present

C. WORK OR ORGANIZATION EXPERIENCE ____________________________________________________________________ The Chief of OSIS SMUN 1 Kesamben, Blitar, East Java The Official of Saka Bayangkara, a Boy Scout organization in Blitar The Official of English Club SMUN 1 Kesamben Blitar Security Department of PT Bank Universal Tbk Security Supervisor of PT Bank Permata Tbk Part Time English Teacher of CST English Course Jakarta Part Time English Teacher of Bimbingan Belajar HRM Jakarta 1997- 1998 1997 -1998 1996- 1998 1999- 2001 2001- present 2007- present 2008- present

Jakarta, November 8, 2008 The Writer,

( Bowo Setyawan)

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

Abstract: a member of a category of semantic elements found in all languages and which refer to qualities or quantities which are properties of an object or event, but which can be conceptually separated from the elements whose properties they are. Many languages have one or two grammatical classes which typically represent abstract, i.e. ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS; others represent some abstract by special class of verbs (e.g. be red). Some languages which have adjectives and adverbs can also represent abstracts by nouns derived from them, i.e. abstract nouns (length, redness) Abstract noun: in some languages, a kind of noun, usually derived from an adjective or a verb, which refers not to an object but to an event (repentance, faith) or to an abstract (redness, liberty) Active voice: in many languages, the grammatical form of a verb and or clause in which the grammatical SUBJECT represents the semantic AGENT; opposed to PASSIVE
VOICE.

Adjective: in some languages, a word of grammatical class which typically modifies a noun. Typically, adjectives represent certain kinds of ABSTRACTS (red, tall, funny). Adverb: in some languages, a word of a grammatical classes which typically modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Normally, an adverb represents a semantic ABSTRACT (fast, soon, greedily). Affix: a morpheme which cannot stand by it self, bur which is added to a word, either to change its grammatical class (i.e. derivation), to serve as a grammatical MARKER, or to add an element of meaning. An affix can come before the root word (i.e. prefix), in the middle (i.e. an infix) or at the end (i.e. a suffix). Agent: the object which accomplishes the action designated by an event, or which causes or initiates the event, or which is affected by a process event; not to be confused with a grammatical SUBJECT, which is the presentation of the agent in the KERNEL and in the ACTIVE VOICE. Ambiguous: having more than one meaning; ambiguity. Ambivalent: same as AMBIGOUS; ambivalence. Analysis: the first of the three stages of TRANSLATION ; the set of procedures, including BACK TRANSFORMATION and COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS, which aim at discovering the KERNELS underlying the source text and the clearest understanding of the meaning, in preparation for the transfer

Animate: belonging to a semantic category of objects which are conceived to be alive; opposed to INANIMATE; frequently represented by obligatory marking in the grammar. Article: in some languages, a kind of DETERMINER which typically specifies whether the referent on the noun phrase has been previously referred to in a discourse. The definite article indicates that it has been, the indefinite that it has not. Back transformation: a grammatical process by which the SURFACE STRUCTURE of a discourse is analyzed, by the application of rigorous rules, into its underlying KERNELS in the same language; Opposed to TRANSFORMATION. Category: a set of semantic elements which share some high-level COMMON COMPONENT, e.g. object, animate. Class (Grammatical): a SET of words which fulfill essentially the same kinds of grammatical functions, and which in some languages are also distinguished morphologically, e.g. verb, noun, and adjective. Clause: a grammatical construction typically composed of a SUBJECT and a PREDICATE. An independent clause is one which is capable of standing by it self and constituting a SENTENCE. Collocation: a structured combination of words with COMPATIBLE semantic components. Compatible (meanings): which can be combined into an acceptable expression (COLLOCATION) because the sharing of common components, i.e. which belong the same domain and/ or category. Complement: a word or phrase which grammatically completes another word or phrase by being subordinate to it; in a broad sense, includes direct object and indirect object; in narrow sense, used only of by expression which functions as adverbs, e.g. to specify time, place, manner, means, etc. Complex sentence: two clauses connected by subordinate conjunction. One clause is dependent and another is independent. Compound sentence: two independent clauses connected by coordinate conjunction. Conjunction: in many languages, a word of a grammatical class which joins words, phrase, clauses, or sentences. Conjunctions may coordinate or subordinate the present
RELATIONS.

Connotation, connotative meaning: the aspect of meaning which concerns the emotional attitude of the author and emotional RESPONSE of the receptor. Context: the total setting in which a word is used, including the CULTURAL CONTEXT and the linguistic context, which in turn consist of the SYNTACTIC CONTEXT and the SEMOTACTIC CONTEXT. Contextual conditioning: the placing in the context of information which is needed to make the meaning clear to the receptor. Contextual consistency: the quality which result from translating a source language word by that expression in the receptor language which best fits each context rather than by the same expression in all context. Coordination: the joining of grammatical elements of the same sort, as by a conjunction. Cultural context: the part of the CONTEXT which includes both the total culture within which a communication takes place and specific nonlinguistic circumstances of the communication. Cultural translation: a translation in which the content of the message is changed to conform to the receptor culture in some way, and/or in which information is introduced which is not linguistically implicit in the original. Decoding: that operation by which a receptor interprets a discourse and understands it message; opposed to ENCODING. Denotation, Denotative Meaning: Referential meaning. Determiner: a grammatical element accompanying a noun to help specify its reference, e.g. demonstrative, possessive, indefinite, article, etc. Domain: a definable area of cultural experience covered by a set of related terms; the defining features of the domain are represented by the COMMON COMPONENTS of the meaning of the term in the domain; also called semantic field. Dynamic equivalence: quality of translation in which the message of the original text has been so transported into the receptor language that the RESPONSE of the RECEPTOR is essentially like that of the original. Encoding: that operation by which a sender plans a message and composes a discourse to convey it; opposed to DECODING. Equivalence: a very close similarity in meaning, as opposed to similarity in form ; see DYNAMIC EQUIVALENCE and FORMAL CORRESPONDENCE.

Event: a category of semantic elements in all languages which refers to actions, processes, etc., in which objects can participate (run, fall, grow, think). Figurative Meaning: which is used in place of another meaning or expression which is not its synonym but with which it has an association of ideas often mediated through SUPLEMENTARY COMPONENT; e.g. a METAPHOR. Form: the overt structure of a discourse in terms of its words, grammatical classes, and syntactic and stylistic patterns; the vehicle by which the message is conveyed. Formal Correspondence: quality of translation in which the features of the form of the source text have been mechanically reproduced in the receptor language. Genius (of a language): the unique qualities at all level of a language which distinguish it from other languages. Grammar: that part of the structure of a language which specifies the structure of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. Idiom: an expression consisting of several words and whose meaning can not be derived from the meaning of the individual words, e.g. kick the bucket for die. Idiomatic: natural; characterized by the use of grammatical constructions and combinations of words which do not violate the ordinary patterns of language. Kernel: a SENTENCE pattern which is basic to the structure of language, and which is characterized by (a) the simplest possible form, in which OBJECTS are represented by NOUNS, EVENTS by VERBS, and ABSTRACT by ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, or special verbs (according to the GENIUS of the language), (b) the least ambiguous expression of all RELATIONS and (c) the EXPLICIT inclusion of all INFORMATION. Each language has only 6-12 types of kernels. Kernels are discovered in a SURFACE STRUCTURE by BACK TRANSFORMATION; they are converted into a surface structure by
TRANSFORMATION.

Message: the total meaning or content of a discourse; the concepts and feelings which the author intends the reader to understand and receive. Metaphor: a FIGURATIVE expression used instead of another to make an implicit comparison between the items referred to by the two expressions, often based upon SUPPLEMENTARY COMPONENTS. An expression in every way similar except that comparison is explicit is a smile. Noun: in most languages, a grammatical class of words which can function as subject, direct object, or indirect object of a verb.

Noun Phrase: a phrase that which functions grammatically as a NOUN. Object: a member of a semantic category which in all languages refers to persons, animals, places, things, etc., man, horse, mountain, table, spirit. Participant: an object in its relation to an event, e.g. agent, goal, instrument. Particle: a small word which does not change its form, e.g. a preposition, a conjunction. Passive voice: in some languages, that grammatical form of a verb and/or a clause in which the grammatical subject expresses the semantic goal and the semantic agent is expressed either by agent complement or by nothing. Phrase: a grammatical construction such that the entire phrase can typically fulfill the same functions in a clause as the principal word or words. Predicate: one of the divisions of a CLAUSE, the other being the SUBJECT. Typically, the principal part of predicate is a verb phrase. Preposition: in some languages, one of a grammatical class of words which join two nouns, two verbs, or a noun and a verb. Prepositional phrase: a phrase introduced by a preposition and typically functioning as an adverbial complement of a verb or as the genitive complement of a noun. Receptor language: the language into which message translated from the original or
SOURCE LANGUAGE.

Referential meaning: that aspect of the meaning of a term which most closely relates the term to the portion of the nonlinguistic world it symbolizes and also can be defined as denotation meaning. Response (of the receptor): the sum of the reactions of a receptor to a message in terms of understanding (or lack of it), emotional attitude, decision, and action. Restructure: to change the form of a discourse without changing the content of the message; specifically, to transform the raw result of the transfer process into a stylistic form appropriate to the receptor language and to the intended receptors. Semantics: the part of the structure of the language which deals with the meanings of words and expressions and also with the meaningful structure of discourse.

Semotactic context: that aspect of the LINGUSTIC CONTEXT which pertains to the meaning of terms surrounding a given term. Sentence: a grammatical construction composed of one or more CLAUSES arranged according to prescribe pattern, and capable of standing by it self as a complete unit. Source language: the language in which the original author of message formulated it, and the point of departure for translation. Specific meaning: opposed to generic meaning. Subject: one of the major divisions of a CLAUSE, typically the subject is noun phrase. Surface structure: the grammatical form of a discourse as it is actually spoken or written. Syntax: see grammar. Syntactic context: that aspect of the linguistic context which contains to the grammatical setting in which term used. Transfer: the second stage of translation, in which the message is actually reproduced in the receptor language. Transformation: a grammatical process by which kernels are restructured into a surface structure of appropriate style. Verb: in most languages, a word of grammatical class which function most typically as the principal word of a predicate. Verbal consistency, Verbal concordance: quality resulting from the effort to translate a given word from the original consistently by a single word in the receptor language. Verb Phrase: a phrase which functions grammatically like a simple verb, and which a verb is the principal word. It is the principal part of predicate.

FIGURATIVE SENSES Metonymy It means the figurative sense involving association. For Examples; 1. The kettle is boiling. In this case, word kettle does not mean the kitchen utensil used for boiling water but rather refers to water which is in the kettle. 2. He has a good head. The word head is used in figurative way to refer to the brain. 3. The response of the floor was positive. The word floor can be rendered literally but it will figuratively refer to people. Synecdoche Figurative senses are based on part whole relationships. For examples; 1. I am not going to let him come under my roof. In this case, the word roof which is a part of the house is substituted for house. 2. His word can be trusted. The sentence actually means what he says can be trusted. Idioms Expressions of at least two words cannot be understood literally and function as a unit semantically. For examples; 1. He has a hard heart means he is indifferent to the needs of others. 2. It's raining cats and dogs means the rain is very heavy. 3. Take a seat means sitting down on the chair or something. Euphemism It is used to soften the expression or to avoid offensive expression that is socially unacceptable. For examples; 1. Suzzana, Indonesian famous horror movie artist, had passed away three moths a go. Pass away has the primary meaning of die. 2. Mr. George is senior citizen. Senior citizen means old people. Hyperbole A metonymy or synecdoche is said more than the writer intended. The exaggeration is used for effect and is not to be understood as if it were literal description. For examples; 1. I am starving means I am hungry. 2. I am frozen to death means I am very cold.

Casey Stoner claimed the first podium in Assen


The Australian rider, Casey Stoner, was unavoidable to be the fastest one on the Dutch MotoGP held in Assen. Starting from the pole position, Stoner was able to maintain his position until he finished the race. Finishing 26 laps, he booked 42 minutes and 12.337 seconds. Spanish, Dani Pedrosa, left 11.310 seconds behind Stoner was in second place meanwhile the third place belonged to American, Colin Edward. Being a winner in Dutch Grand Prix, Stoners position is going up the best three in the standing. I was nervous at the beginning start, but everything was just fine Stoner who has succeeded for twenty times said. The points leader until ninth race from which 18 must be finished, now is handed by Dani Pedrosa by collecting 171 points. Pedrosa successfully stole first position from Italian rider, Valentino Rossi who was just finished in eleventh place. Rossi who was slipped at the beginning of race, in the temporary standing is on second position by collecting the points of 167. Even though Rossi had been crashed into fourteenth place in yesterday race, he successfully improved position and sat in the eleventh place. For the category of 250 cc, title was taken by the Spanish rider, Alvaro Bautista followed by Thomas Luthi from Spain and Marco Simoncelli (Italy) on second and third place. For category of 125 cc, the winner was Gabor Talmacsci from Hungary, the Spanish rider, Johan Olive, successfully finished second and Simone Corsi from Italy was in the third place.

Once More, Obama Beat McCain


Some latest polls have proven the popularity of democratic presidential candidate, Barrack Obama, is going up now The result of latest poll done by Associated Press and Yahoo News that was announced Friday September 19th showed Obama won slightly from his rival, republican presidential candidate, Jhon McCain, 50 percent : 47 percent The result reflected generally each strength and weakness Women, minority young and single told they preferred watching a soccer game with Obama Men, White, and Married, preferred watching with McCain Latest poll made by Gallup on Thursday also showed that the worsening economic situation in the US has made better position for Obama Again Obama beat McCain 48: 44, his biggest victory for the last two week Gallup explained Obama is regarded more capable than McCain to bring the US economy finding way out of the crises. On the other hand, McCain was much disgraced by the reality that he was very enthusiastic to support the deregulation in financial market However, the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers has made McCain changed and vowed to regulate financial transaction if he is elected McCain recently vowed the change As a matter of fact, that urge has been come into view but, it was not supported by McCain as senator According to the poll that was conducted by New York Times and CBS News 48 percent of respondent told Obama was their choice meanwhile, 43 percent told they chosen McCain Obama Joe Bidens leading against McCain Sarah Palin was also indicated from the survey that was carried out by Press TV

About 46 percent of 10,958 respondents were convinced Obama Biden would be better than McCain to run the Government It was only 17 percent of respondent who stated McCain Palin were the best choice for white house Economic issue has become determining factor in the US election