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Antipolo Immaculate Conception School High School Department S.Y.

2011 2012

An Investigatory Project in Physics By:

Aldrin Rivera Allyssa Balueta Reinier Justin Esguerra Ken Estrada Submitted To: Ms. Criselda Mesa

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The study aims to produce a low-priced, high-quality candle by using used cooking oil as a major component. The following candle compositions were used: 100 percent paraffin wax; 90 percent paraffin and 10 percent oil; 80 percent paraffin and 20 percent oil; 70 percent paraffin and 30 percent oil; 60 percent paraffin and 40 percent oil; 50 percent paraffin and 50 percent oil. The firmness, texture, and light intensity of the candles were tested and compared. Results of the tests showed that the candle made from 100 percent paraffin wax had the lowest melting rate, lowest amount of melted candle, and a light intensity of 100 candelas (cd). The 90:10 preparations had the next lowest melting rate and amount of melted candle. The other preparations ranked according to the proportion of used cooking oil in the candle, with the 50:50 preparation performing least comparably with the 100 percent paraffin wax candle.

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We, the creators of this investigatory project, are in deep sincerity to thank the following that made this study a reality: Miss Criselda Mesa, our Physics teacher and our adviser at the same time, for encouraging us to push ourselves past our limits. Our section, IV St. Matthew, whom we shared thoughts and ideas to.

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Third, we were in deep gratitude for our parents, Mr. & Mrs. Balueta, Mr. & Mrs. Rivera, Mr. & Mrs. Esguerra and Mr. & Mrs. Estrada. They supported us all throughout the duration of this study. Lastly, we thank Mrs. Erliza Estrada for being a very cool parent and letting us do our wild acts. The Researchers

To our very supportive parents, Mrs. Mary Joy Esguerra, Mrs. Mary Jane Balueta,

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Mr. Ronaldo Estrada and Mrs. Angelita Nicolas. To our Friends and Classmates. Lastly, Our adviser, Miss Criselda Mesa

Aldrin. Justin. Allyssa. Ken.

Table of Contents Title Page.................................. ......................... 1

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Abstract.............................. ................................ 2 Acknowledgement....................... ...................... 3 Dedication............................ .............................. 4 Chapter I Introduction.......................... ............................. 6 Objectives............................ ............................... 7 Significance of Study................................. ........ 8 Scope & Limitations........................... ............... 9 Definition of Terms................................. .......... 10 Chapter II
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Review of Related Relations............................. . 11 Chapter III Methodology........................... ............................ 12 Methods............................... ............................... 13 Procedures............................ .............................. 14 Chapter IV Results and Discussion............................ .......... 15 Chapter V Conclusion............................ ............................. 16 Recommendation........................ ....................... 17
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Bibliography.......................... ............................. 18 Appendices...

Today, candles are made not only for lighting purposes but for many other uses such as home dcor, novelty collections, as fixtures for big occasions (weddings, baptismals, etc.), and as scented varieties for aromatherapy. Candles are made from different types of waxes and oils.

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Cooking oil is a major kitchen item in Filipino households. It is also used substantially in fast-food outlets, where it is used in different stages of food preparations. Ordinarily, used cooking oil is discarded. This waste oil pollutes and clogs canals and sewerage systems. The sound of cooking oil as the prime material for making candles may sound clich. Yet, in this investigatory project, we will prove that cooking oils can be made to candles.

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The study we made was not just made for the completion of our physics requirement but also to let everyone open their minds in the possibility of a greener nature. This is our objectives:

 The role of the consumer-producer relationship in maintaining a market for sustainable products.  The role of consumers attitudes toward eco-friendly goods.

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Significance of the Study

As for consumer attitude toward green purchasing, I believe the key issue is whether consumers get it. Do consumers who purchase sustainable products (like cooking oil made candles) do so because its hip to be green, because the candles are chic, because they feel pressured to turn over a new leaf by climate change headlines, or because they believe in the sustainability of sustainability? While any of these motives is better than none at all, its not necessarily true that more is better when it comes to sale of eco-products. Only a lasting change in mindset toward production and consumption not merely the sale of more products will establish sustainability for the long haul. This is the real light at the end of the tunnel sustainability proponents seek. While a company can do little to control its consumers mindsets, it can, market its approach clearly and convincingly, thereby changing perceptions over time.
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Scope and Limitation

The coverage of this investigatory project spans from the creation of the product to the connection of the finished product to the nature and environment. This is a combination of biological sciences and physics. This project was made from February 27 2012 to March 2 2012.

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Review of Related Literature

Candles used to be largely made up of solid combustible waxes of fatty substance formed around a wick. It is a source of light. Beeswax candles were used in Egypt and Crete as early as 3000 B.C. Much later, candles were made by pouring molten wax or tallow into molds, containing wicks. Next came the paraffin wax, which is crystallized
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from petroleum. Today, commercially available candles are approximately made up of 65 percent paraffin wax and 35 percent stearic acid. Waxes compromises a broad group of opaque, water repellent, essentially solid materials having varied chemical composition and many diverse applications. Its name applied originally to naturally occurring esters of fatty acids and monohydric alcohols but not refers to both natural and manufactured products resembling these esters. They soften gradually on heating, going through a soft, malleable state before ultimately forming a liquid. Oils are greasy, generally combustible liquid of vegetables, animals or mineral origin which is insoluble in alcohol and always in Ether. Oils are used as food, for lubricating, illuminating and as fuel. It is also used in the manufacture of soap, candles, cosmetics, perfumery, etc. Wick were made up of cotton or linen woven and braided in such a way that it will burn i n one direction, curling so as to texture its end into oxidizing
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zone of the candles flame for complete combustion.

This is the procedure I hope this will help you if ever youll also make our finished product. Make an oil-burning candle. This can be used to make any oil holder into a nice candle. If you are careful with the oil level, the wick will be consumed very slowly. Steps: 1. Assemble Parts - Use an all-cotton string for the candle wick. Synthetic fibers will not burn cleanly. I am using a kitchen string that is used to truss poultry and tie up roasts.Any kind of wire can be used for the wick support, but I had a spool of copper wire on hand. A large paperclip may also work.
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2. Begin winding wire - Loosely wind the wire around the matchstick. 3. Complete the wick holder - The coil should be made loose enough to slip off the matchstick. I use a fingernail to separate the turns of the wire slightly.If the wire is packed closely, it will wick enough oil to burn along the entire copper sleeve. 4. This is the finished wick holder Adjust the spiral base to place the coil in the center, slightly suspended. 5. Cut the wick - The length is not really important. Just so it is longer than the wire coil 6. Fill a container with oil - Adjust the wick so only an eighth of an inch projects past the copper coil. 7. Now use your match - The oil may be a little difficult to light, compared to a wax candle. 8. Using a candlestick to hold oil 9. The wick is not consumed - Unlike a wax candle, the wick of this oil candle
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is supplied with fuel as the oil level goes down. The flame remains constant until the last of the oil is burned.

Cooking oil Wick Container

Results and Discussion/ Findings/ Analysis of Data

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Currently, partially hydrogenated soywax (soft soywax) with a FA composition of 11% palmitate, 12% stearate, 54% oleate, and 22% linoleate is used in container- and pillar-type candles. Because of its low melting and re-solidifying points as observed by DSC (~20C melting onset, 39.0C melting peak, and 22.0C resolidification peak), soft soywax melted extensively, causing the wick to be drowned during the burning of container-type candles. For taper- and narrower pillar type candles, the liquid wax dripping from the candle did not solidify fast enough to prevent the liquid wax from running onto the bench. These problems stimulated us to evaluate fully hydrogenated soybean oil (referred to as hard soywax, ~0 IV) for candle application. These candles were hard and shiny with no surface greasiness at all. Furthermore, the melting and resolidification properties were improved. DSC analysis of hard soywax indicated two melting peaks at 52.8 and 63.0C, and a solidication peak at 46.5C. Compared to a commercial paraffin candle (with minor and major melting peaks at 40.6 and 59.0C, respectively, and a re-solidication peak at 49.7C), the melting and rePage 18

solidification properties of hard soywax were highly acceptable. However, the candles had an unacceptably brittle texture and they did not fully meltacross the candle surface; therefore, they were not fully consumed during combustion (even with taper candles). To improve melting and crystallization properties and to avoid brittleness of fully hydrogenated vegetable waxes, a fractionated blend of hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oils (high trans content) was considered for the study. Such product was commercially available as KLX, which was a byproduct (hardest fraction) in the production of fractionated hard butter for confectionery applications and highstability cooking oils (10). Preliminary tests indicated that KLX was suitable for candle applications. Temperature distribution on candle surfaces. Typical thermograms (top view) from the surfaces of the three different candle types are shown in Figures 1AC. The plots of temperature abundance (i.e, the area percentage) for 240 datapoints (0.42C temperature increments) over a range of 20 to 120C are shown in Figure 1D. Graphical presentations of this type are referred to as thermal histo dles, the Tmax
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(the temperature associated with the largest surface area on the candle) in the melted zone is lower than those of beeswax and paraffin, but in the unmelted zone, the Tmax is higher than that of beeswax and similar to that of paraffin. The colder liquid wax, in the case of burning KLX candles,may be desirable for safety considerations. The effects of FFA, paraffin, and HPO on the thermal profiles of candle surfaces were examined. Figures 2A and 2B,respectively, illustrate the changes in peak temperature and the surface thermal area% of the unmelted and melted zones of the candles with different FFA, paraffin, and HPO contents. With the addition of soft paraffin to KLX candles, the peak temperatures in both melted and unmelted zones increased (more in the melted zone). However, with increased HPO and FFA levels, these changes were minimal. A large portion (~6085%) of the surface thermal areas of all candles was located on the solid (unmelted) zone (Fig. 2B). With added paraffin, the surface thermal area% of the melted zone decreased; however, with added HPO, this effect was opposite and a desirable increase in the area% of the melted zone was observed. A
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slight decrease in the area% of liquid zone was observed with added FFA. These changes may be related to the burning and melting properties and to heat conductivity of different waxes as well as chemical and/or physical interactions among the wax components. Surface imaging analysis is a useful means to quantify the changes in the surface temperature profile upon the addition of various wax components. Melting and re-solidifying properties. Typical DSC profiles for pure KLX and KLX with different FFA levels are shown in Figure 3A. Although the melting properties of KLX alone may be acceptable (peak at ~48C), the low solidification points (~30 and 23C) render KLX unusable as a candlewax for taper- or narrow (5.1-cm diameter) pillar-type candles due to excessive dripping of the liquid wax. KLX candles grams.

(5.1- or 8.9-cm diameter) in pillar forms cracked during the cool-down period in the molds and channeled during combustion resulting in liquid melt flowing from the candles. Channeling is the formation of a hole or a pathway in the wall through which
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melted liquid wax flows. This defect was attributed to weak structures resulting from non-uniform solidication of the wax during candle manufacturing. The solidification peaks of KLX candles shifted to higher temperatures with FFA addition (Fig. 3A), which was partly due to the inherent FFA peak. The melting and solidification peaks of pure FFA were 59 and 49C, respectively. KLX with 60% FFA solidified at 46C, which was considerably higher than that of pure KLX (30C). Such a change in the solidification of the wax is desirable and can reduce problems associated with wax dripping. On the other hand, the slightly earlier melting of the wax due to the decrease in the m.p. from 48C in pure KLX to 46C in 60%-FFA KLX did not cause any problems since the wax could still maintain its nongreasy appearance. The effects of paraffin and HPO additions were also examined. The soft paraffin had a wide melting range of 2580C. Adding soft paraffin at 5, 10, and 20% to KLX resulted in a shift in the melting and solidifying points (Fig. 3B). Slight increases in both melting and solidifying points were observed with the addition of 5% paraffin. However, more paraffin addition shifted them back to lower
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temperatures. Therefore, additions on the texture of candles were evaluated using hardness and compression analyses, which were obtained by integrating the force used on a penetration needle and a compression platen, respectively (Fig. 4). The addition of FFA up to 25% did not significantly affect candle hardness. However, candles with 40 and 60% FFA were significantly (P < 0.05) harder compared to those with 25% FFA content. Compression, however, did not change significantly (P > 0.05) with re, there were no advantages in the use of paraffin to modify the melting and solidifying properties of KLX efore,. This along with the increased cracking associated with paraffin addition makes such modication undesirable. The addition of paraffin to hard soywax was desirable for taper candles. A decline in the melting and solidifying points was observed as the HPO content was increased (Fig. 3B), which makes the new compositions less desirable for pillar candles. The DSC thermogram of HPO indicated a major melting peak in the 2540C range, which was far below that of KLX (~48C). Hardness and compression forces. Yang and Taranto (7) and Antoniou et al. (8) used cohesiveness as a parameter to characterize the textural properties of cheese, which were measured by applying two
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consecutive compressions on samples at 80% of their heights and dividing the total area (force distance) for the second compression by the total area of the rst compression. However, in this study, due to the crumbliness of KLX waxes, only the rst compression at 80% of the height was used and the total area for such compression was also reported as compression. Furthermore, for paraffin and beeswax, which were used as references, no compression measurements were possible since the samples were so hard and highly cohesive that the Texture Analyser was not able to deform these samples to the dimensions of compressed KLX waxes. Therefore, to compare KLX-based waxes with the references, needle penetration was used to measure hardness. The effects of FFA (5, 10, 25, 40, and 60%, w/w), paraffin (5, 10, and 20%, w/w), and HPO (5, 10, 20, and 40%, w/w) FFA addition (Fig. 4B). Compared to the variations in hardness, variations in compression were somewhat higher (12.9 vs. 5.6% relative SD), which was related to texture inconsistency within the candles as well as possible variations in the dimensions of the cubes used for compression measurements. Although adding FFA reduced the greasy texture of KLX candles, the appearances of candles with 40 and 60% FFA
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were not as desirable as those of the candles with 25% FFA. because the wax became more powdery. On the other hand,candles with 25% FFA did not release well from the molds. Both 40%- and 60%-FFA candles separated from their molds during cooling. In fact, candles with 60% FFA had greater shrinkage (i.e., better separation) than those made with 40% FFA. In practice, a compromise between these two properties needs to be made to achieve certain textural and burning properties.Figures 4A and 4B also show the changes in the hardness and compressibility of KLX waxes with the addition of parafn. Although with an increase in paraffin content the hardness was reduced, the products were more cohesive. Furthermore, wax shrinkage during solidication was improved and the candles were released easily from the mold. However, the candles developed two or three cracks radiating from the candle center to the circumference in the order 10% > 20% > 5% (beginning with the most severe). Although these cracks did not interfere with candle structure, their presence was an apparent defect. The changes in the hardness and compressibility of KLX waxes with added HPO are also shown in Figure 4. As HPO content increased, both hardness (Fig. 4A) and compressibility (Fig. 4B)
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decreased, which were consistent with the more greasy appearance and softer structure of the higher-HPO candles. When making candles, none of the KLX candles with added HPO released easily from the molds and candle release had to be aided by heating the molds under hot water. HPO candles were very soft and greasy. Error mean square (EMS) and least signicant difference (LSD) values for mean comparisons are shown in Table 1. Burning characteristics. Changes in burn rate and liquid pool size were observed with the addition of FFA, paraffin, and HPO (Figs. 5A,B). As FFA content increased, both burn rate and pool size decreased. Changes in the burn rates are shown over a 67 h burning period. Although the candles made of pure KLX burned at 4.6 0.4 g/h, the candles with 60% FFA burned at 2.8 0.1 g/h, which was signicantly different. Similarly, flame size decreased with added FFA. The mean flame size of pure KLX candles was almost five times that of candles containing 60% FFA. The mean burn rate of paraffin candles (i.e., 50:50 mixture of soft and hard waxes) was 5.0 0.5 g/h, which was similar to that of KLX candles; however, the mean burn rate of beeswax candles was 2.7 0.8 g/h. Ooi and Ong (11) reported 8% greater candle life (i.e.,a decrease in the burn
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rate) along with a smaller flame size when 70% palm FA were added to paraffin candles. Changes in the mean pool diameters for KLX candles with different FFA levels are shown in Figure 5B. Candles made of pure KLX developed a 6.7 0.3 cm (diameter) liquid pool after 5h of burning, whereas those made from KLX containing 60%FFA created 3.9 0.2 cm (diameter) liquid pools, which is not desirable for pillar candles. This formulation, however,may be better for narrower candles.The effects of adding paraffin (5, 10, and 20%) on the burning rate and the pool size of KLX candles are also shown in Figures 5A and 5B. Burning rate was not significantly affected by adding paraffin (P > 0.05). Adding soft paraffin to KLX (up to 20%) increased the flame size by approximately 2030%, which was consistent with the changes in the burn rate. As was the case with adding FFA to KLX, soft paraffin additions to KLX decreased the melt size (Fig. 5B). KLX had a somewhat narrow melting peak, about 48C (Fig. 3A).However, soft paraffin had a wide melting range (beginning at ~25C and increasing to as high as 80C), and as paraffin content was increased, less wax was melted and a smaller liquid melt was obtained.

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To understand how adding a low-melting component affects the textural and burning properties of KLX candles, 0,5, 10, 20, and 40% HPO addition was examined. No significant changes (P > 0.05) in the burn rate were observed when increasing the HPO content (Fig. 5A). However, a slight increase in the melt size was observed as HPO content increased from 10 to 20%, which was consistent with the melting properties of HPO (a wide peak at 2040C). EMS and LSD values are shown in Table 1. Effects of candle diameter and wick size. The effects of candle diameter on surface temperature profiles and burn rates were investigated by using 5.1- and 8.9-cm diameter candles with 60% FFA in KLX. Surface temperatures of the liquid zones in the 5.1-cm candles ranged from 67 to 90C and comprised 49% of the candle surface while those of the 8.9cm candles ranged from 66 to 84C and comprised only 21% of the total candle top surface. Tmax values for the solid and liquid zones of the 5.1-cm candles were 53 and 74C, and those of the 8.9-cm candles were 38 and 72C, respectively. Because of the lack of wax beyond the candle area of 5.1-cm candles, the heat remained around the candle center, which indicated that the overall candle surface considerably influenced the heat dissipation profiles. A
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hotter liquid wax, such as those of the 5.1-cm candles, can be consumed easier during the burning process, which was consistent with the burn rates. The mean burning rates of the 5.1- and 8.9-cm diameter candles made with 60%-FFA were 3.17 0.23 and 2.79 0.07, respectively. To evaluate wick size effects, 25%-FFA KLX candles with two different wick sizes were used. When Ooi and Ong (11) studied the wick size effect, they used multiple wick strings to increase the wick size. However, in this study, two wicks of cotton strips having different thicknesses were used and their masses for the unit length were used for specification (7.84 mg/cm for thin wick and 14.78 mg/cm for thick wick). There were major differences in the surface areas and Tmax values for the melted and unmelted zones of the two types of candles. The surface areas of the unmelted zone for the candles with the thinner wick were larger (77%), for which a lower Tmax value (31C) was obtained. For the candles made with the thicker wick, these values were 71% and 36C, respectively. Compared to candles made with the thicker wick, smaller surface areas were obtained for the melted zone in candles made with the thinner wick (17 vs. 25%). The Tmax values for this zone were not different (72C). At 25% FFA, the burn
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rate of candles made with the thicker wick

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was signicantly (P < 0.05) higher than

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that of the candles made with the thinner wick (3.55 0.30 vs. 2.29 0.11 g/h). Since the consumption of wax was not limited by the supply of liquid wax (i.e., more liquid wax was available than the amount consumed), a larger amount of wax

was withdrawn from the liq uid pool when a thicker wick was selected. The melted pool size of the candles with thinner wicks after 5 h of burning was smaller than those
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of candles with the thicker wicks (4.0 0.2 vs. 5.5 0.4 cm). F

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Its true that you could really make a candle out of cooking oils. We showed to all of you the scientific explanation in which we featured 3 levels of cooking oil added in the mixture of the candle. This could produce a healthy and natural way of producing something that could help us.

We recommend our readers to like us, experiment on this things, not only because it helps your mind be trained on the things we could probably do in the future. As for the topic, we also recommend to the manufacturers of the candle-making industry to tie-up with those companies who use cooking oils as part of their own industries to
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produce a nature protecting device for a better world we could live in.


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