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CHAPTER 3

FLOW DYNAMICS
The main problem of aero-hydrodynamics is to define motion of liquid
particles under action of the given external forces and to determine internal
forces in points within liquid volume at any moment of time. Therefore it is
necessary to obtain relations, which include forces, working on liquid when it
flows in addition to the developed kinematic dependences, i.e. to consider
questions of flow dynamics.
In many problems of aero-hydrodynamics it is allowed to neglect the
viscosity of liquid and therefore tangent stresses. The hypothetical liquid,
which has no viscosity, is called nonviscous liquid. Such liquid is simpler for
researching, than a real one because of the lack of tangent stresses.
As usual some volume of liquid closed by control surface is allocated
at some moment of time when solving problems of flow dynamics. With that
action of the environment should be replaced with proper surface forces.
Applying general laws of mechanics to the allocated liquid volume allows to
receive equations of flow dynamics in the integral form. Accomplishing
transition to limit (reducing the volume of the allocated liquid down to zero),
we receive relations, which can be presented as the differential equations of
liquid flow. It is necessary to take into account that the limit transition is valid
only in the event if all flow parameters change continuously.
3.1. Forces acting within liquid flow
In mechanics of solid body the concept of concentrated force is widely
used. But no any real solid could withstand the action of such force because
stress created by the force would be infinitely large. So for solid body
assuming these concentrated forces (that means they are applied to point)
is absolutely conditional. For liquid this method is inadmissible as it conflicts
to the nature of liquid. There cannot be any concentrated force within liquid
because of fluidity (the mobility of particles). There are only distributed
forces acting within liquid, which are divided into body (or volume) forces
and surface forces.
Body force is applied to each particle of the given volume and is
proportional to its mass. They are forces of gravity and inertia,
electromagnetic forces, etc.
Surface forces are continuously distributed through liquid surface.
These forces are caused by a direct interaction of adjacent volumes of liquid
or by action of another bodies (solid or gaseous) on the given liquid volume.
The nature of surface forces is concerned with elasticity, viscosity and
surface stress.
53
In general case surface force
R , which acts on area S , is
directed with some angle to the
surface. It can be split into normal
P and tangent T components
(fig. 3.1). The first component is
called pressure force, and the
second one is called friction force.
The liquid at rest has only the
normal component of surface force,
and the flowing liquid has normal
and tangent components.
Body and surface forces are usually considered as elementary forces,
which are concerned to proper parameters. Body forces concern to the unit
of mass, and surface to the unit of area.
As any body force is equal to the product of mass and acceleration,
thus the elementary body force numerically equals to corresponding
acceleration. Elementary surface force is called stress of surface force, and
its projections - normal and tangent stresses.
The normal stress, that is stress of pressure force, is called a hydro-
mechanical pressure, and in case of liquid at rest it is hydrostatic pressure.
Generally hydraulic mechanical pressure in the given point is
S 0
P
p lim
S

, (3.1)
where P is the normal component of pressure force acting on area S .
Tangent stress is a stress of the friction force, can be determined by
the formula
S 0
T
lim
S

. (3.2)
3.2. Property of hydrostatic pressure
Let's consider an equilibrium condition of elementary liquid volume
and show that pressure within liquid does not depend on orientation of area,
which is under action of it.
Fig. 3.1 Surface forces
54
Let's allocate in motionless liquid an elementary volume in the shape
of tetrahedron ABCD with edges dx ,
dy
, dz , which are parallel to proper
axes of rectangular coordinate
system
0xyz
(fig. 3.2). This volume
is in balance under action of body
and surface forces. We shall
designate the resultant of body
forces as dG. Projections of this
force onto coordinate axes are equal:
x x
1
dG F dxdydz
6
,
y y
1
dG F dxdydz
6
,
z z
1
dG F dxdydz
6

,
where
x
F
,
y
F
,
z
F
are the
components of elementary body force;
1
dxdydz
6
is the volume of
elementary tetrahedron ABCD.
Lets
x
p
,
y
p
,
z
p
are pressures on faces, perpendicular to axes 0x ,
0 y
, 0z properly, and
n
p
is pressure on face BCD.
Then pressure forces on these faces are equal:
x x
1
dP p dydz
2
;
y y
1
dP p dxdz
2
;
z z
1
dP p dxdy
2
;
n n n
dP p dS
,
where
n
dS
is area of face BCD.
The allocated volume of a liquid is in equilibrium. We shall write down
the equilibrium equation for this volume expressed in projections onto
coordinate axes:

x x n n
1 1
F dxdydz p dydz p dS cos( n, x ) 0
6 2
+ ;

y y n n
1 1
F dxdydz p dxdz p dS cos( n, y ) 0
6 2
+ ;

z z n n
1 1
F dxdydz p dxdy p dS cos( n, z ) 0
6 2
+ .
Fig. 3.2. To the development of property of
hydrostatic pressure
55
Taking into account, that

n x
1
dS cos( n, x ) dS dydz
2
;

n y
1
dS cos( n, y ) dS dxdz
2
;

n z
1
dS cos( n, z ) dS dxdy
2
,
and simplifying the corresponding sums of projections, we shall receive
x x n
1
F dx p p 0
3
+ ;
y y n
1
F dy p p 0
3
+ ;
z z n
1
F dz p p 0
3
+ .
In the limit if dx 0 ,
dy 0
, dz 0 we shall obtain
x n
p p 0
;
y n
p p 0
;
z n
p p 0
or
x y z n
p p p p
. (3.3)
Thus, as a result of a randomness of derivatives dx ,
dy
, anddz , we
shall come to the following conclusion: hydrostatic pressure at arbitrary point
within liquid does not depend on orientation in space of areas, passing
through this point. This property works for both liquid at rest and a flow of
nonviscous liquid.
As in real (viscous) mobile liquid tangent stresses appear, thus this
property is not true.
3.3. Differential equations of nonviscous liquid flow in
Euler's form
The development of the basic equations of the liquid flow is based on
laws of Newton and other theses of classical mechanics. At first its
necessary to make the differential equations of flow, and then integrate
them.
This method is concerned to great difficulties, which appear because
of the specific character of interaction between particles within liquid or
gaseous medium. In solid distance between any two points remains
constant when it is moving regardless the complexity of movement, but
distance between separate particles of liquid (or gas) changes all the time
56
because of its mobility. That considerably complicates the development of
the initial differential equations and their integration.
Let's receive the equations of flow, using the principle of DAlamber
which saying, that active forces and constraint reactions are
counterbalanced by forces of inertia.
Let's allocate some mass of liquid
within volume W , which is confined by
the closed surface S (fig. 3.3). There
are body and surface forces acting on
the allocated volume. Main vector of
body forces applied to volume W of
nonviscous liquid, can be expressed by
means of volume integral
W
F dW

r
,
where
F
r
is vector of elementary body
force.
According to the third Newtons law the interacting forces between
particles within the volume W are counterbalanced. Only forces acting on
particles located on the surface S are not counterbalanced. Analyzing the
flow of nonviscous liquid we take into account only pressure forces. As we
know, pressure force is a function of time and coordinates, which acts along
the direction of an internal normal to the surface S . Therefore the resultant
of the pressure forces acting on surface S , confining the volume W , equals
to the following surface integral
S
p n dS

r
,
where n
r
is an elementary vector of an external normal.
Acceleration of the particle in the point with radius vector
r
r
at the time
t , equals to
dV
dt
r
. Adding force of inertia (with opposite sign) to the external
forces acting on liquid particles in compliance with the principle of
DAlember, the equation of flow for the point of time t can be written down
in the integral form:
W S W
dV
F dW p ndS dW 0
dt


r
r
r
.
Fig. 3.3. To the development of flow
equation
57
Let's notice, that this equation is true whether or no flow parameters
are continuous or discontinuous functions of coordinates. If flow parameters
and their first derivatives are continuous within volume W and on its border
S it is possible to use formula of Ostragradsky-Gauss:
S W
p n dS grad p dW

r
,
then the former equation will get the following form:
W
dV
F grad p dW 0
dt

_



,

r
r
.
It follows from the condition, that the written equality is true for any
arbitrary volume and that a subintegral function is continuous:
dV 1
F grad p 0
dt
_



,
r
r
or
dV 1
F grad p
dt

r
r
. (3.4)
Expression (3.4) represents the vector notation of the differential
equation of nonviscous liquid flow in Euler's form. In projections on
coordinates axes:
x
x
1 p dV
F
x dt



;
y
y
dV
1 p
F
y dt


; (3.5)
z
z
dV 1 p
F
z dt



.
Substituting the expressions (2.10) for acceleration projections into
equations (3.5), we will obtain
x x x x
x x y z
1 p V V V V
F V V V
x t x y z



+ + +

;
y y y y
y x y z
V V V V
1 p
F V V V
y t x y z



+ + +

; (3.6)
z z z z
z x y z
V V V V 1 p
F V V V
z t x y z



+ + +

.
For incompressible liquid (
const
) the equations (3.6) contain four
unknown functions
x
V
,
y
V
,
z
V
and
p
. Adding the continuity equation (2.26)
to them we shall receive the closed system of the differential equations of
non-viscous incompressible liquid flow.
58
For compressible fluid (
const
), there is another unknown function

in the equations of motion (3.6) and continuity equations (2.23) Addition


of the state equation
p
RT


to the system of the equations (3.6) does not
close it, as there is one more unknown function temperature T . Therefore
to close the system it is necessary to add the sixth equation equation of
energy transfer.
But in many problems of aero-hydrodynamics the temperature T can
be excluded from the consideration, for example, when pressure
p

depends on density

and doesnt depend on temperature. Thus a liquid (or


gas), which has the following dependence of pressure as function of density
is named barotropic.
Lets notice that the flow of thermodynamic ideal gas can be
considered as barotropic if it is known the thermodynamic character of
changes of it state, for example:
for the isothermal process of gas T const
p
RT


, (3.7)
where R is universal gas constant;
for the isentropic process
p
C


, (3.8)
where
0
0
p
C

,
0
p
,
0

are some fixed values of flow parameters,

is the
adiabatic exponent; for air it equals
1.4
.
In general, Euler's equations (3.5) or (3.6) written down for
incompressible and compressible fluid, and also for steady and unsteady
motion have five unknown items:
p
,

,
x
V
,
y
V
,
z
V
. They are nonlinear
equations and the general solution is not found yet. They can be resolved
only for special cases.
For example, in case of the steady-state flow of incompressible liquid
items
x
V
t

,
y
V
t

,
z
V
t

disappear from the equations (3.6). For motionless


liquid (when
x y z
V V V 0
) we shall receive the differential equation of
hydrostatics from the equations (3.5) (well consider this equation further).
59
3.4. Bernoulli equation for nonviscous liquid
Let's develop Bernoulli equation for steady flow of nonviscous liquid,
supposing, that body forces have potential. We shall multiply each of the
equations (3.5) by corresponding projections of elementary movement along
streamline, which equal
x
dx V dt
,
y
dy V dt
,
z
dz V dt
, and then sum the
obtained equations. We shall have

x y z
x x y y z z
1 p p p
F dx F dy F dz dx dy dz
x y z
V dV V dV V dV


_
+ + + +

,
+ + .
(3.9)
Taking into account, that expression in brackets is a total pressure
differential
p
, and also that
2
x
x x
V
V dV d
2
_



,
,
2
y
y y
V
V dV d
2
_


,
,
2
z
z z
V
V dV d
2
_


,
,
2 2 2
2
x y z
V V V
V
d d
2 2
_
_ + +




,
,
,
The equation (3.9) can be written down as follows:
2
x y z
1 V
F dx F dy F dz dp d
2
_
+ + +


,
. (3.10)
As body forces have potential the left part of the equation (3.10) is a
total differential of some function ( ) U x, y, z , which partial derivatives in
respect to coordinate axes will be equal
x
F
,
y
F
,
z
F
that is
x
U
F
x


y
U
F
y


z
U
F
z


.
Function U is named forcing function. This function is equal to the
potential of forces with opposite sign. Entering the function U , we shall have
2
1 V
dU dp d
2
_
+


,
. (3.11)
Integrating the equation (3.11), well get
2
dp V
U C
2
+ +

, (3.12)
60
where C is constant value along the given streamline, which changes with
transition from one streamline to another in general.
The expression (3.12) establishes bond between flow parameters
along flowline at the steady flow and is called the Bernoulli integral.
For incompressible liquid (
const
)
2
p V
U C
2
+ + . (3.13)
If we have only one body force the force of gravity (
x y
F F 0
,
z
F g
), then
dU gdz
or
U g z const +
.
Substituting this expression for U in the equation (3.13), we shall have
2
p V
gz C
2
+ + ,
or, having divided by
g
, we shall receive
2
p V
z H
g 2g
+ + . (3.14)
Thus, we get Bernoulli equation. Items of Bernoulli equation (3.14) are
measured in units of length and named as follows:
z
is leveling height, or geometrical head;
p
g
is piezometric height, or piezometric head;
2
V
2g
is velocity height, or dynamic head;
H is the sum of all counted heights, or gross head (hydraulic thrust
load).
Bernoulli equation, which has been written down for two arbitrary
chosen sections of flow filament, expresses the equality of gross head in
these sections, that is
2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
p V p V
z z H
g 2g g 2g
+ + + + . (3.15)
For nonviscous liquid flow, the sum of these three heights is a
constant value along the flow filament. It is a so-called geometrical
interpretation of Bernoulli equation, which can be illustrated with the graph
shown in fig. 3.4.
61
Fig. 3.4. Geometrical interpretation of Bernoulli equation for nonviscous liquid
The line of change of piezometric heights is called piezometric line;
it can be considered as a geometrical level of liquid in piezometers.
Let's consider the interpretation of Bernoulli equation in respect to
energy. The hydraulic thrust load H can be considered as total specific
energy of the flow filament. For nonviscous liquid flow, the sum of specific
energy of positions, specific energy of pressure and kinetic energy is
constant along the flow filament. Ratio of energy to a unit of weight is called
as liquid specific energy:
z
is specific energy of position (as the particle of liquid with weight G
, being at height
z
, has the potential energy of position, which equals to
Gz
, thus energy on a unit of weight is
Gz
z
G

);
p
g
is specific pressure energy (particle of liquid with weight G
under pressure
p
is capable to rise up to the height
p
g
and get energy in
this way
p
G
g

; after division by G well receive


p
g
);
2
V
2g
is specific kinetic energy (kinetic energy of the particle
2
mV
2

,
related to a unit of weight
G mg
, equals
2 2
mV V
2 mg 2g

);
H is total specific energy of liquid flow.
62
When nonviscous liquid flows one type of energy can transform into
another, but the total specific energy of the flow remains constant.
In problems of aerodynamics we can neglect the body forces, as they
are smaller then internal forces of pressure and forces of inertia. In this case
Bernoulli integral (3.12) will not include function U and the integral (the
mechanical form of the energy equation) looks like
2
dp V
C
2
+

. (3.16)
For incompressible liquid the equation (3.16) can be written down as
2
V
p C
2

+
, (3.17)
where
p
is static pressure;
2
V
2

is dynamic pressure (velocity pressure).


If we should apply the equation
(3.17) to the central flow filament,
splitting in point A and covering the
streamlined body (fig. 3.5), having
taken section 1 1 on sufficiently
large distance from the body where
the flow is considered as steady (
1
V V

,
1
p p

), and the second


section 2 2 will be taken in critical
point A, where speed
2
V 0
, and
pressure
2 0
p p
so we could write
2
0
V
p p
2

+
, (3.18)
where the second item of the right part is a dynamic pressure. The sum of
static and dynamic pressure gives us the full pressure
0
p
or pressure in the
stagnation point of the flow,
2
V 0
.
The equation (3.17) is usually used in aerodynamics. It is suitable only
for such speeds for which we can neglect the compressibility of liquid.
If the flow speeds are higher we must consider the gas as the
compressed medium, for which
const
. With that it is often enough that
we can consider gas flow as isentropic (reversible adiabatic process with
constant entropy).
Fig. 3.5. Body within liquid flow
63
For isentropic flow the following dependence between density and
pressure is true
p C

. (3.8)
Taking into account, that value of density

is variable quantity, well


get after differentiation
1
dp C d

.
Let's calculate the integral:
1
2 1
1
dp C
d C d C C
1


.
If
1
1 p
C C



, then
1
dp p
C
1

. (3.19)
Substituting expression (3.19) into (3.16), well receive
2
p V
C
1 2

. (3.20)
Using the equation of state (3.7), we can write down Bernoulli equation
as follows:
2
V
RT C
1 2

(3.21)
or
2
p V RT
C
2 1
+ +

, (3.22)
dividing all components of the equation by
g
, we shall receive
2
p V RT
C
g 2g ( 1 )g
+ +

.
In this equation item
RT
( 1 )g
is called a thermal head. Thus, in
adiabatic flow of ideal gas the sum of piezometric head
p
g
, dynamic
head
2
V
2
and thermal head
RT
( 1 )g
is a constant value along the flow
filament.
64
3.5. The Bernoulli equation for viscous liquid flow
The Bernoulli equation for frictionless liquid (3.14) does not take into
account the viscosity effect. Passing from frictionless flow filament to
viscous liquid flow, bounded by the walls, it is necessary to take into account
a nonuniform velocity distribution over cross-section (see fig. 2.8) and
energy losses along the channel length. These two circumstances are the
consequences of viscous properties of liquid. When liquid flows along the
channel walls its viscosity, and also forces of the molecular cohesion
between the liquid and the wall result in deceleration of the flow; the liquid
velocity at the wall is equal to zero. The highest velocities occur in the
central part of the streamline.
In addition, the motion of viscous liquid is often accompanied with
rotation of particles and their movement between the liquid layers. Therefore
the full pressure will not remain constant value, as in case of nonviscous
liquid, but it will be permanently consumed to overcome the resistance and
as a result will decrease along the flow.
Due to nonuniform velocity distribution we shall bring into
consideration the liquid average velocity designated as
av
V
, and also
average value of liquid specific energy in each cross-section of streamline.
Within the considered flow cross-sections we shall assume the
following ratio as true
p
z const
g
+
.
It means that in flow of liquid separate filaments interact with the same
pressure, as in the immovable condition.
Let's consider the concept of power of flow.
Total energy, which is carried by the flow through the given cross-
section per unit of time we shall call rate of flow in the given cross-section.
As in different points of the flow cross-section liquid particles have different
energy, then at first we shall express an elementary power of filament in the
following form
2
p V
dN H gdQ g z VdS
g 2g

_
+ +


,
.
The power of the whole flow we can define as an integral of the former
expression over total area S , that is
65
2
S
p V
N g z VdS
g 2g

_
+ +


,

.
Taking into account, that flow is parallel, we shall receive
3
S S
p g
N g z VdS V dS
g 2g

_
+ +

,

.
Let's write down the average value of full specific energy over cross-
section area:
3
av
S
N p 1
H z V dS
gQ g 2gQ
+ +

,
Having multiplied and divided the last item by
2
av
V , we shall receive
3
2
S av
av
3
av
V dS
V p
H z
g 2g
V S

+ +

.
Having designated
3
S
3
av
V dS
V S

, (3.23)
well obtain an expression for average specific energy in any among the
chosen cross-sections:
2
av
av
V p
H z
g 2g

+ + , (3.24)
where

is the factor of velocity non-uniformity; dimensionless factor taking


into account non-uniform velocity distribution.
If we should multiply and divide ratio (3.23) by
2

, we could notice
easily that the factor

represents the ratio of the proper actual kinetic


energy of a flow in the specified cross-section to the kinetic energy of this
flow in this section, but under uniform velocity distribution.
For viscous liquids factor alpha exceeds one 1 > , for nonviscous
liquid (under uniform velocity distribution) 1 .
Expression (3.24) represents the value of the average specific energy
in one of the flow cross-sections. If we want to obtain the Bernoulli equation
for the whole flow, it is necessary to compare values of full pressure in two
66
various cross-sections. It is obvious, that average specific energy of a flow
for two various sections will be

av1 av2
H H >
(3.25)
on the value of losses of specific energy between cross-section 1 1 and
cross-section 2 2 (see fig. 2.8). If we should designate the total loss of
specific energy on segment 1 2 as
1 2
h

, then
av1 av2 1 2
H H h

+

, (3.26)
or in expanded form:
2 2
av1 av2 1 2
1 1 2 2 1 2
V V p p
z z h
g 2g g 2g



+ + + + +

. (3.27)
Expression (3.27) is Bernoulli equation for a flow of viscous
incompressible liquid. The obtained equation (3.27) differs from the Bernoulli
equation for nonviscous liquid (3.15) on item
1 2
h

, which takes into


account losses of liquid specific energy, and factor

of non-uniform velocity
distribution. Additionally, velocities included into the Bernoulli equations for
viscous liquid are average.
Geometrical interpretation of the Bernoulli equation is shown in fig. 3.6.
From the energy point of view the equation (3.27) represents the energy
balance equation taking into account losses.
Fig. 3.6. Geometrical interpretation of Bernoulli equation for viscous liquid
67
The energy lost by liquid on the specified channel segments does not
disappear completely, but it only transforms into other form thermal, that
results in some liquid temperature rise.
3.6. Differential equations of nonviscous liquid flow in
Gromekos form
The equations of nonviscous liquid flow in Gromekos form represent
the transformed equations of flow in Eulers form (3.6)
x x x x
x x y z
1 p V V V V
F V V V
x t x y z



+ + +

;
y y y y
y x y z
V V V V
1 p
F V V V
y t x y z



+ + +

;
z z z z
z x y z
V V V V 1 p
F V V V
z t x y z



+ + +

.
Let's transform the first Eulers equation. Lets add and subtract the
following values:
y
y
V
V
x

,
z
z
V
V
x

from the right part, so we shall obtain

,
_


,
_

+
+

,
_

y
V
x
V
V
x
V
z
V
V
x
V
V
x
V
V
x
V
V
t
V
x
p

1
F
x
y
z
z x
y
z
z
y
y
x
x
x
x
(3.28)
There is a partial derivative with respect to
x
of half of squared velocity in
the equation (3.28) in the first parentheses
2 2 2
2
y x y z
z x
x y z
V V V V
V V V
V V V
x x x x 2 x 2
_
_ + +

+ +




,
,
;
the second and the third parentheses are the doubled angular rates
according to (2.34),
z x
y
V V
2
z x




;
y
x
z
V
V
2
x y




.
In that case after transformations the first Eulers equation and the
other two will be written down by analogy as the following
2
x
x z y y z
1 p V V
F 2(V V )
x x 2 t



_

+



,
;
68
2
y
y x z z x
V
1 p V
F 2(V V )
y y 2 t

+



,
; (3.29)
2
z
z y x x y
V 1 p V
F 2(V V )
z z 2 t



_

+



,
.
These equations are called the differential equations of nonviscous
liquid flow in Gromekos form. The advantage of these equations lies in an
explicit form of the items taking into account the vortex component of
motion.
3.7. Lagrange integral for vortex-free flow of nonviscous liquid
Stream flowing around streamlined body is unsteady at its accelerated
or decelerated motion within liquid, at its curvilinear motion and in a number
of other cases. In such cases the obtained Bernoulli integral (3.12) is
inapplicable, since the relation between pressure and velocity for unsteady
motion is different and more complex, than for steady-state.
With presence of potential U of body forces the equations of flow
(3.29) will be written down as following
2
x
z y y z
dp V V
U 2(V V )
x 2 t

_

+



,

;
2
y
x z z x
V
dp V
U 2(V V )
y 2 t

+



,

; (3.30)
2
z
y x x y
V dp V
U 2(V V )
z 2 t

_

+



,

.
Let's rewrite the equations (3.30) for vortex-free motion, when angular
velocities equals to zero
x y z
0
2
x
dp V V
U
x 2 t
_





,

;
2
y
V
dp V
U
y 2 t
_

; (3.31)
2
z
V dp V
U
z 2 t
_





,

.
69
Moreover linear velocities can be expressed through velocity potential

in vortex-free flow, lets represent the velocity derivatives with the help of
ratios (2.59):
x
V
t t x x t
_ _



, ,
,
y
V
t y t



,
,
z
V
t z t
_



,
.
Entering these substitutions into the right part of the equations (3.31)
and displacing them to the left part, we shall receive:
2
dp V
U 0
x 2 t

_





,

;
2
dp V
U 0
y 2 t

_





,

; (3.32)
2
dp V
U 0
z 2 t

_





,

.
There is the same quadrinomial in all these equations in brackets,
which partial derivatives with respect to coordinates
x
,
y
and
z
are equal
to zero. Hence, this quadrinomial does not depend on coordinates
x
,
y
,
z

and can be only the function of time t
2
dp V
U f ( t )
2 t

, (3.33)
where
f ( t )
is an arbitrary function of time t , identical for the whole stream.
The expression (3.33) is called the Lagrange integral.
If liquid flow is simultaneously vortex-free and steady, then for such
flow 0
t

, and the function


f ( t )
becomes constant identical in all points
of the flow, and we shall receive a special case of integral (3.33) as
2
dp V
U C
2

. (3.34)
The integral form (3.34) is similar to the Bernoulli integral (3.12), but
differs from it by the constant in its right part, identical for all points of a flow
whereas in Bernoulli integral the constant has identical value only in the
points of the same streamline. Sometimes it is called Bernoulli-Euler
integral.
70
3.8. Differential Navier-Stokes equations of viscous gas flow
The viscosity results not only in occurrence of tangent stresses, but
also in change of normal stress in comparison with their values in
nonviscous liquid. It will considerably complicate the differential equations of
viscous gas flow in comparison with Euler equations.
Let's consider motion of gas
particle shaped as elementary
parallelepiped with edges dx ,
dy
,
dz and center in point C (fig. 3.7).
In this case not only normal
stresses, but also tangents stresses
act on the faces of the particle,
since surface forces in viscous gas
are not orthogonal to the
considered surface.
Lets accept the following
designations for each projection of
stress vector acting on the
considered face of the elementary
parallelepiped:
xx
p
,
xy

,
xz

are the
components of the surface stress, acting on the face, perpendicular to axis
x
;
yy
p
,
yx

,
yz

are the components of the surface stress, acting on the


face, perpendicular to axis
y
;
zz
p
,
zx

,
zy

are the components of the surface stress, acting on the


face, perpendicular to axis
z
;
Let's consider projections of the surface forces, acting on the specified
gas particle onto axis 0x :
xx
p dydz
,
xx
xx
p
p dx dydz
x
_
+

,
are the normal stresses acting on the
left and right faces respectively;
zx
dxdy
,
zx
zx
dxdy
z

_
+

,
are the tangent stresses acting on the
back and forward faces;
yx
dxdz
,
yx
yx
dxdz
y

_
+

,
are the tangent stresses acting on the
bottom and top faces.
Fig. 3.7. Surface forces acting on
elementary particle of viscous gas
71
Let's write down the total projection of the surface forces acting on all
faces of the parallelepiped onto axis 0x
yx
zx xx
p
dxdydz
x y z


_
+ +


,
.
Let's designate projections of the body forces divided by mass unit as
x
F
,
y
F
,
z
F
.
Then the projection of all forces onto axis 0x will be equal
yx
zx xx
x
1 p
X F dxdydz
x y z

1 _
+ + +
1

,
]
.
Using the DAlember principle, we shall receive
yx
zx x xx
x
dV 1 p
dxdydz F dxdydz 0
dt x y z

1 _
+ + + +
1

,
]
,
or
yx
zx xx x
x
1 p dV
F
x y z dt

_
+ + +


,
. (3.35)
Let's similarly write down the equations for projections of forces onto
axes
0 y
and 0z
xy yy zy y
y
p dV
1
F
x y z dt

_
+ + +


,
, (3.36)
yz
xz zz z
x
p dV 1
F
x y z dt

_
+ + +


,
. (3.37)
Among six tangent stresses which are included in the system of
equations (3.35), (3.36) and (3.37), only three are independent, and
xy yx

,
yz zy

,
zx xz

. Thus the system of equations contains six
stresses three normal
xx
p
,
yy
p
,
zz
p
and three tangent
xy yx

,
yz zy

,
zx xz

.
Let's represent normal stresses in the following form:
xx xx
p p +
,
yy yy
p p +
,
zz zz
p p +
, (3.38)
where
xx

,
yy

,
zz

are the additional normal stresses depending on


viscosity. In nonviscous liquid
xx yy zz
0
.
72
According to a hypothesis about proportionality of stresses to
corresponding velocities of deformative motion, tangent stresses are
proportional to angle skewing velocities
y
x
xy yx
y
z
yz zy
z x
zx xz
V
V
;
y x
V
V
;
z y
V V
,
z x



_

+


,

_

+
;

,

_
+



,

(3.39)
and normal stresses are proportional to velocities of linear deformation (in
case of incompressible liquid) or to velocities of linear and volumetric
deformation (in case of compressible liquid)
x
xx
y
yy
z
zz
V
2 divV ;
x
V
2 divV ;
y
V
2 divV ,
z




+


+
;


r
%
r
%
r
%
(3.40)
where

is the dynamic viscosity factor,


%
is the value depending on the
factor

.
We can obtain the known Newtons law for two-dimensional flow of
viscous liquid from equations (3.39). If the liquid moves along axis 0x ,
velocities
y z
V V 0
. From the first equation (3.39) we receive
x
xy yx
V
y


or
x
dV
dy

, that corresponds to expression (1.6).
It follows from the equations (3.40), that in general
xx yy zz

, i.e.
normal stresses on three mutually orthogonal faces are different (
xx yy zz
p p p
). Therefore we shall accept the average value in the given
point of viscous medium as pressure in this point
xx yy zz
p p p
p
3
+ +
. (3.41)
After substitution expressions (3.38) and (3.40) into equation (3.41) we
shall get
( )
( ) xx yy zz
p p p
2 3 divV
p p
3 3


+ + +
+

r
%
.
73
In the incompressible medium equation (3.41) is identical as
divV 0
r
,
and for its validity in compressible medium the condition
2
3

%
should
be valid.
Taking into account the last condition and expressions (3.40) we shall
write down normal stresses (3.38) as follows:
x
xx
y
yy
z
zz
V 2
p p 2 divV ;
x 3
V
2
p p 2 divV ;
y 3
V 2
p p 2 divV .
z 3




+


+
;


r
r
r
(3.42)
Let's substitute expressions (3.42) and (3.39) into the equations (3.35),
(3.36) and (3.37) and represent full acceleration
x
dV
dt
,
y
dV
dt
,
z
dV
dt
in
expanded projections according to (2.10), we shall receive the equations of
motion of the viscous medium:
x x x x x
x y z x
y
z x x
x x x x x
x y z x
V V V V V 1 p 2
V V V F divV
t x y z x x x 3
V
V V V
;
y y x z x z
V V V V V 1 p 2
V V V F divV
t x y z x x x 3


1 _
+ + + + +
1

,
]
1 _ 1 _
+ + + +
1 1

, 1 ] ,
]
1 _
+ + + +


,

r
r
y
z x x
x x x x x
x y z x
y
z x x
V
V V V
;
y y x z x z
V V V V V 1 p 2
V V V F divV
t x y z x x x 3
V
V V V
;
y y x z x z

+
1
]
;
1 _ 1 _
+ + + +
1 1

, 1 ] ,
]
1 _
+ + + + +
1

,
]
1 _ 1 _
+ + + +
1 1

, 1 ] ,
]
r

(3.43)
The differential equations (3.43) are called the Navier-Stokes
equations. These equations contain six unknown magnitudes
x
V
,
y
V
,
z
V
,
p
,

and T . The dynamic viscosity factor

also depends on temperature T


, but the law is considered to be known.
74
Assuming, that dynamic viscosity factor is a constant (
const
) the
Navier-Stokes equation in the vector form looks like
dV 1
F grad p V grad( divV )
dt 3

+ +
r
r r r
, (3.44)
where

is the kinematic viscosity factor.
The Navier-Stokes equations (3.44) have two additional items in
comparison with Euler equations (3.4): the first item V
r
takes into
account the viscosity influence in incompressible medium (
divV 0
r
), the
second item grad( divV )
3

r
the additional influence viscosity due to
compressibility (
divV 0
r
).
3.9. Full system of flow equations. Initial and boundary
conditions
Let's consider system of equations of nonviscous gas flow. The
components of velocity
x
V
,
y
V
,
z
V
and the pressure
p
are unknown in this
case of the incompressible medium, full system of the equations consists of
Eulers equations (3.4) and the continuity equation (2.25)
dV 1
F grad p,
dt
div V 0 .


r
r
r
(3.45)
Taking into account the compressibility the full system of the equations
includes six independent equations for definition of six unknown
magnitudes: the components of velocity
x
V
,
y
V
,
z
V
, pressure
p
, density


and temperature T . The Euler (3.4) equations, the equation of continuity
(2.19), the gas law (3.7) and the equations of thermodynamic process
belong to these equations. Dependence between pressure and density for
isentropic flows is described by equation (3.8). In the differential form
equation (3.8) conformably to gas motion looks like
d p
0
dt


,
,
x y z
p p p p
V V V 0
t x y z


_ _ _ _

+ + +


, , , ,
or
75
p p
V grad 0
t


_ _

, ,
r
. (3.46)
Using equation (3.46), lets write down the full system of the equations
for motion of non-viscous compressible gas as folows
dV 1
F grad p ,
dt
div( V ) 0 ,
t
p
RT ,
p p
V grad 0 .
t

_ _

, ,

r
r
r
r
(3.47)
For viscous incompressible medium the components of velocity
x
V
,
y
V
,
z
V
and pressure
p
are unknown, and the full system of the equations
will consist of the Navier-Stokes equation (3.44) and the continuity equations
(2.25)
dV 1
F grad p V ,
dt
div V 0 .

+

;


r
r r
r
(3.48)
In general case of motion of viscous compressible medium the full
system of the equations contains the equations of motion of viscous
compressible gas (3.43), the equation of continuity (2.19), the gas law (3.7)
and the equation of energy for the viscous heat-conducting gas.
The solutions of system of the equations should satisfy the initial and
the boundary conditions. The initial conditions are necessary when solving
problem of unsteady motion and they define values of required functions at
some specified moment of time.
The boundary conditions are specified when solving problem of both
steady, and unsteady gas motion and should be true at each moment of
time. In undisturbed flow the following equations are used as boundary
conditions:
V V

r r
,
p p

,
T T

. (3.49)
When considering problem of streamlined body in nonviscous gas the
condition of flow without separation (a condition of leakproofness) should
76
be fulfilled on the surface of body S ( )
n
S
V 0
. If the surface is given by the
equation
f ( x, y, z ) 0
, then on the basis of condition of a flow without
separation vectors of velocity
V
r
and
grad f
in each point of the surface
should be orthogonal. In this case the condition of the flow without
separation ( )
n
S
V 0
can be represented as follows:
V grad f 0
r
or
x y z
f f f
V V V 0
x y z

+ +

. (3.50)
Hence, in case of a body motion within nonviscous gas it is necessary
to give boundary conditions at infinity (3.49) and condition of the equality to
zero of linear combination
x
V
,
y
V
,
z
V
with variable factors (3.50) over the
body surface.
When researching flow around body with a flow of viscous gas the
boundary condition of adhering of the viscous medium to the surface
( )
S
V 0
should be valid on the body surface. Moreover it is necessary to
specify the boundary conditions for gas temperature on the surface, which
should be formulated depending on task to be solved.
It is necessary to note, that in case of flow around body with a flow of
viscous gas full system of the equations is of the first order in relation to
pressure and density and of the second order concerning components of
velocity and temperature. Therefore it is enough to specify a condition at
infinity for definition of pressure and density, and two conditions at infinity
and on the body surface are necessary to define components of velocity and
temperature.
3.10. Momentum Equation for Steady Motion of Frictionless
Liquid
When defining the summary pressure forces of flow onto the
streamlined bodies or channel walls it is more suitable to use the general
theorems of mechanics, applying them to the final volumes of liquid, than to
receive these dependences by integration of the differential equations of
motion. With that a number of intermediate analytical operations is excluded
and the mechanical basis of research is more clearly shown.
One of such theorems is the theorem of change of momentum, or the
momentum equation.
Let's allocate within flow some arbitrary liquid volume W enclosed by
surface S , which contains streamlined body K . We shall designate the
momentum of the liquid mass contained in the volume W at some moment
of time t as
r
. At the moment of time t dt + this liquid mass will have
77
different momentum, which we shall designate as

r
. Thus, change of the
momentum of the allocated liquid mass for the infinitesimal time interval dt
will be d


r r r
.
The momentum of the allocated liquid mass at the moment of time t is
equal to the sum of momentum of liquid masses, enclosed in volumes I
and II (fig. 3.8). The momentum of the same liquid mass, but at the
moment of time t dt + , is equal to the sum of momentum of liquid masses,
which enclosed in volumes II and III . For steady motion the momentum
of liquid mass filling volume II common for both positions does not change.
It follows from this that change of the momentum of the allocated liquid
mass during time dt is defined by the expression
III I
d
r r r
, i.e. change
of momentum of the liquid allocated mass, which occupied the volume W
enclosed by surface S at the initial moment of time, is equal to difference of
momentums of liquid flowing out from the initial volume W through a part of
surface S during the time dt , and the momentum of the liquid flowing into
this volume for this time cell.
Let's calculate the value d
r
. Liquid mass equal to
n
V dtdS
will pass
through elementary area dS during time dt , where
n
V
is a component of
velocity normal to S . Momentum of this liquid mass will be
n
V dtdSV
r
. The
momentum of the liquid mass, which had flowed out from the initial volume
can be defined by the integral
2
n
S
dt V VdS

r
,
where
2
S
is the part of surface S ,
through which liquid flows out from the
volume W .
The momentum of the liquid mass,
which had flowed into the volume W is
defined by the similar integral
1
n
S
dt V VdS

r
,
where
1
S
is the part of surface S ,
through which liquid flows into volume W .
Change of the momentum of the
allocated liquid mass will be equal to the difference of these momentum:
Fig. 3.8. Development of the
momentum equation
78
2 1
n n
S S
d dt V VdS V VdS
1
1

1
]

r r
r
.
Let's designate the resultant force of the external forces applied to the
considered liquid mass as
F
r
. According to the theorem of momentum
change it is possible to write down
Fdt d
r
r
, or
2 1
n n
S S
F V VdS V VdS

r r r
. (3.51)
Expression (3.51) represents the equation of momentums for steady
motion of finite volume of frictionless liquid.
3.11. Drag of Bodies in Steady Vortex-free Flow of
Frictionless Incompressible Liquid
Let's apply the equation (3.51) to calculate the drag force of the body
having an arbitrary shape, located in steady vortex-free flow of frictionless
incompressible liquid.
Let's assume that the
considered flow is bounded from
outside with a rigid cylindrical
surface of infinite length. We shall
direct coordinate axis 0x parallel
to the surface generatrices
(fig. 3.9). We shall place the
streamlined body in the origin of
coordinates. Far from the body (
x t) the flow moves along axis
0x and has constant velocity
x
V V

,
y z
V V 0
.
Let's consider two cross-section of the flow 1 1 and 2 2 , located
infinitely far to the left and to the right from the origin of coordinates, and let's
apply the equation (3.51) to the liquid mass enclosed between these cross-
sections. For the incompressible liquid
const
, therefore
n
S
F V VdS

r r
.
On the cylindrical surface 1 2 and 2 1 normal velocity component
is equal to zero
n
V 0
, and in sections 1 1 and 2 2 V V

r r
and
Fig. 3.9. Calculation of drag force
79
n2 n1
V V V


, moreover the areas of these sections are equal
1 2
S S
,
therefore
2 1
F V V ( S S ) 0


r r
, (3.52)
i.e. the resultant of the external forces applied to the liquid enclosed
between sections 1 1 and 2 2 , is equal to zero. The projection of this
force to any coordinate axis will also be equal to zero.
Let's consider the projection of this force to axis 0x , i.e. the
component
x
F
will comprise, first, pressure forces of the external liquid,
applied to sections 1 1 and 2 2 . But in these sections the flow velocity s
are identical
2 1
V V V


, therefore pressures
1
p
and
2
p
will also be
identical as follows from the Bernoulli equation. So resultant pressure force
applied to these sections will be equal to zero.
The pressures of the cylindrical border of the flow onto the liquid are
normal to axis 0x and their projections onto this axis will also be equal to
zero.
It is necessary to consider the pressure of the streamlined body upon
the liquid. Let
Q
is the force of the flow pressure upon the body directed
along axis 0x and named drag force. Then the force of the body pressure
upon the liquid along the same axis will be equal to
Q
(minus Q). As in the
frictionless liquid there are no other forces, which could give projection onto
axis 0x , we are coming to the conclusion, that
x
F Q 0
. (3.53)
It follows from this equation directly, that the drag force of an arbitrary
shape body located within the steady vortex-free flow of frictionless
incompressible liquid is equal to zero.
This paradoxical result contradicting to daily experience has been
theoretically established by Euler for the first time and has been proved in
general view by DAlembert irrespective of Euler. It can be explained so that
the fact that the analysis did not take into account the tangent friction forces
caused by the viscosity of the real liquids on the surface of the streamlined
body.
3.12. Wing Lift Within Parallel Flow
This problem fundamental for aviation was resolved by
N. E. Zhukovsky for the case of infinitely long cylindrical wing with an
arbitrary cross-section and published in the article "About the attached wing
vortexes".
80
Let's consider steady vortex-
free flow of frictionless
incompressible liquid close to the
cylindrical wing with infinitely
length and arbitrary shape of
cross-section along the direction of
axis 0z (fig. 3.10). We shall
consider the flow as limited by two
parallel planes from above and
from below at distance
y h t
. Far
from the origin of coordinates at
x t the flow flows with velocity
x
V V

along axis 0x . Due to the wing cylindrical shape the velocity


z
V 0

in a whole flow and in all planes parallel to the coordinate plane
x0 y
the
picture of the flow will be completely identical. Such flow can be named
parallel.
Let's allocate some liquid mass enclosed between parallel sections
1 1 and2 2 , and apply the equation (5.31) to it.
As in sections 1 1 and 2 2 the liquid flow velocity
x
V V

, i.e. is
identical, then pressures will also be identical according to the Bernoulli
theorem, as a result we shall come, as well as in the former section, to the
conclusion, that resultant
F
r
of all external forces applied to the allocated
liquid mass will be equal to zero. Its projection to axis
0 y
will also be equal
to zero, i.e. we shall receive:
y
F 0
. (3.54)
If we neglect the body forces then only wing pressure forces upon the
liquid and the pressure forces of the planes limiting the flow from above and
from below will give the projection to axis
0 y
. Let Y be the wing lift, then
the wing pressure force upon the liquid will be equal to Y along axis
0 y
.
The final pressure force of the boundary planes upon the liquid in
projection onto axis
0 y
can be expressed by the integral

( p p )dx
+

,
where

p
,

p
are the liquid pressure upon the bottom and top surface.
As a result we shall have:
Fig. 3.10. Calculation of wing lift within
parallel flow
81
y
F Y ( p p )dx 0
+

,
whence we can determine the lift, falling on a unit of the wing span:

Y ( p p )dx
+

. (3.55)
For steady vortex-free flow of frictionless incompressible liquid
according to the Bernoulli equation (3.17) we have:
2

V
p
2


;
2

V
p
2


,
therefore
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2

V V
p p V V V V V V
2 2 2 2

+
. (3.56)
Let's represent velocity s on the top and bottom boundary planes in
the following form:



V V V ;
V V V ,

+
;

+

(3.57)
where
V

is the velocity of undisturbed flow;

are the additional


velocity s of disturbances caused by the wing presence in the flow.
From (3.57) we obtain:

V V 2V V V


+ + +
;

V V V V


,
that allows to write down the equality (3.56) in the following form:
( )
,
_

V V

p -

p
2 2
2

.
At this substitution the formula (3.55) for lift will be written down as:
( ) ( )
2 2

Y V V V dx V V dx
2

+ +



+

. (3.58)
Let's calculate the velocity circulation around the wing. As outside
the wing the flow is vortex-free then the velocity circulation over any closed
contour covering the wing will be equal to the circulation over the wing
section contour. Therefore, let's carry out the calculation of the velocity
circulation over the contour 1 2 2 1 limiting the allocated liquid mass
82
from the external part on plane
x0 y
. We shall accept clockwise motion
around the contour as positive direction of motion.
In the sections 1 1 and 2 2 the velocity tangent to these sections is
equal to zero, therefore the velocity circulation over these sections will be
equal to zero too. In virtue of it the calculation of the circulation will be
reduced to its determination on lines 1 2 and 2 1 only, bounding the flow
from above and from below in
x0 y
plane. Making this calculation and taking
into account the equalities (3.57) we shall receive:
( ) ( )
V V dx V V dx
+ +




. (3.59)
As we see, the velocity circulation is equal to the first integral in the
formula (3.58).
Now we shall increase the flow height 2h infinitely, then at h (h
is tend to infinity) additional velocity

and

will tends to zero, but the


integral (3.59) equal to the velocity circulation around the wing will remain
be of the finite type.
Let's consider the second integral of the formula (3.58) under the
same condition, i.e. at h . It is easy to see that subintegral expression in
it is the magnitude of the second infinitesimal order in comparison with the
subintegral expression of the first integral. Therefore this integral will aspire
to zero at h
( )
2 2

h
lim V V dx 0
+

. (3.60)
Taking into account the equalities (3.59) and (3.60) for the lift (3.58)
we shall receive the following expression at h :
Y V

. (3.61)
It is the formula received by N. E. Zhukovsky. The result expressed by
it is usually formulated as the theorem of Zhukovsky: the lift, falling on a unit
of wing span in the steady-state vortex-free parallel flow of frictionless
incompressible liquid is equal to the multiplication of the liquid density,
velocity of a undisturbed flow and the velocity circulation around the wing.
The Zhukovsky theorem has been proved for an incompressible liquid,
however it is also true for the subsonic flows of frictionless gas.
Let's pay attention to the following condition rather important in the
wing theory: according to the formula (3.61) there should be the velocity
circulation not equal to zero around of a wing for presence of the lift on the
83
wing. But from the vortex theory it is known that the velocity circulation not
equal to zero over the closed contour can be caused by the vortexes, which
pass inside the contour.
Therefore, the wing itself, causing the circulation in the flow, is
equivalent to some system of the vortexes located inside the wing, and can
be replaced by this system during the researches. Such fictitious vortexes
replacing the wing Zhukovsky has named the adjacent vortexes. If the
system of the adjacent vortexes equivalent to the wing is found, then the
further studying of the liquid flow around to wing does not have any basic
difficulties any more, as we can calculate the flow velocities and pressure at
any point of the flow including the wing surface using specified system of
vortexes.
3.13. Thomson Theorem about Circulation Constancy
Let's allocate closed contour L (see fig. 2.17) within frictionless liquid,
which movement can be considered as barotropic. The contour L consists
of the same liquid particles. Such liquid contour moves together with the
liquid and changes its shape together with the liquid.
Let's take arch AB of finite size on the contour. Velocity circulation
over arch AB can be represented as (2.48)
( )
x y z
AB
V dx V dy V dz + +
. (3.62)
Let's determine
d
dt
. Differentiating equation (3.62), we find
( ) ( )
x y z x y z
AB AB
d d d
V dx V dy V dz V dx V dy V dz
dt dt dt
+ + + +

.
Carrying out the differentiation of the subintegral expression and
taking into account that the contour is liquid, we shall have
( ) ( )
x x
x x x x
dV dV d d
V dx dx V dx dx V dV
dt dt dt dt
+ + ;
( )
( )
y y
y y y y
dV dV
d d
V dy dy V dy dy V dV
dt dt dt dt
+ +
;
( ) ( )
z z
z z z z
dV dV d d
V dz dz V dz dz V dV
dt dt dt dt
+ + .
Let's substitute the found values with derivatives under the integral:
84
( )
y
z x
x x y y z z
AB
dV
dV d dV
dx dy dz V dV V dV V dV
dt dt dt dt
1
_
+ + + + +
1
,
]

.
Expression in the last brackets represents itself
2
V
d
2
_


,
.
Considering that body forces have potential, and the liquid is barotropic, we
shall write down the Eulers equations (3.5) in the following form:
x
dU dP dV
dx dx dt
;
y
dV
dU dP
dy dy dt
; (3.63)
z
dV dU dP
dz dz dt
.
Replacing the projections of the total acceleration
x
dV
dt
,
y
dV
dt
,
z
dV
dt
with
their values from the differential equations of motion (3.63), we shall have
2
AB
d V
dU dP d
dt 2
1
_
+ 1

1
,
]

or
2
AB
d V
d U P
dt 2
1
+
1
1
]

,
from here
2 2
B A
d V V
U P U P
dt 2 2
_ _
+ +


, ,
. (3.64)
As the values in brackets, i.e. U , P and V , are single-valued
functions, then for closed contour, i.e. when points A and B coincide, the
expression
d
0
dt
or const .
Thus, the velocity circulation will not depend on time. This result
received by Thomson can be formulated in the form of the following
theorem: the velocity circulation over the closed contour, which passes
through the same particles of frictionless liquid does not change in time, with
presence of the body forces possessing the single-valued potential and
barotropy.
85
It follows from the Thomson theorem, that if frictionless liquid starts
moving from quiesant state and is continuous, then the velocity circulation
over arbitrary closed contour within flow will be equal to zero because at the
initial moment of time it was equal to zero. Such flow, as follows from the
Stokes theorem, will be vortex-free, and the field of velocities will be
potential.
Hence, the velocity circulation can appear in a flow of frictionless liquid
under condition of the potentiality of the body forces and presence of
barotropy, as it follows from equality (3.64) only when either function of
pressure P , or flow velocity
V
r
has a jump on some surfaces, and due to
this reason the difference (3.64) differs from zero.
Let's consider an arbitrary wing airfoil as an example. At the initial
moment of movement the liquid is motionless and the velocity circulation at
this moment on any closed contour drawn within liquid, is equal to zero,
including the liquid contour
0
C
covering the airfoil (fig. 3.11,).
With the increasing of the movement the liquid flows, passing around
the wing, start to come down from its trailing edge. If the velocity of the flow
coming down on this edge will have finite size and not equal to zero, then
liquid contour
0
C
will start to stretch and drift into the flow by one part, as it
is shown in fig. 3.11,b.
a b
Fig. 3.11. Occurrence of the circulation around the wing airfoil:
a the liquid is motionless along the airfoil; b the liquid moves along the airfoil
Let's cut the stretched contour
0
C
at the airfoil trailing edge into two
parts: contour C , covering the airfoil, and contour
1
C
, came down from the
airfoil. According to the theorem of velocity circulation change over the
closed liquid contour proved earlier we shall have during all time of
movement
0 1
0 +
,
where is the velocity circulation over contour ;
1

is the velocity
circulation over contour
1
C
.
86
It follows from here, that at any moment of time
1

.
Thus, the velocity circulation over contour , i.e. over the airfoil
contour will always be equal to the velocity circulation taken with the
opposite sign over contour
1

, came down from the airfoil to the flow after


the beginning of the movement.
Let's notice, that the velocity circulation over contour
1
C
will differ from
zero only in case when tangent velocities have a jump on this contour when
transitioning one contour side to opposite one along the normal. Such jump
of tangent velocities behind the airfoil placed in frictionless liquid can be
created if the airfoil trailing edge is sharp. Then, with increasing of the
movement, the flows moving from below of the wing will approach to the aft
edge with the smaller velocity, rather than the flows moving from above, this
is the reason of jump of tangent velocities created at the junction of flows.
Increasing of circulation on the airfoil will continue with the
increasing movement of the flow incoming the airfoil. The line of the jumps
of velocities created during this time is curling up into a spiral behind the
airfoil. This vortex spiral is carried away by the flow far from the airfoil, after
that the motion near the airfoil becomes steady.
When movement of the flow near the airfoil became steady, the lift will
be defined using circulation according to the Zhukovsky theorem.
Let's notice in addition, that formation of vortexes behind the airfoil
occurs not only with appearance of the circulation on the airfoil , but also
with its disappearance, but in the last case the vortex of an opposite sign will
be created behind the airfoil.
3.14. Concept of Flow Similarity. Similarity Parameters
The theory of flow similarity plays especially important role in
aerodynamics as it establishes possibility to transfer the experimental data
received during investigation of model onto natural object. In order to make
possible to transfer the results of the experiments onto real object, it is
necessary to keep the similarity of the studied phenomena.
Let's consider two flows, flowing round two bodies having similar
geometrical shape - a real object and its model (fig. 3.12). We can consider
pictures of flow around both bodies as similar if in the homologic points A
and A
, B and B
, C and C
, etc. velocities of the flow and forces affecting
the homologic elements will be proportional.
87
Fig. 3.12. Pictures of flow around geometrically similar bodies
Two flows are called similar if in arbitrary homologic points and at
arbitrary homologic moments of time the proportionality of the unequivocal
values characterizing these flows remains constant. Similarity of the flows
assumes the presence of the geometrical, kinematic and dynamic similarity.
The kinematic similarity means, that in the homologic points of the
geometrically similar flows at the homologic moments of time the ratio of
velocities
2
V
1
V
K
V

is identical. For geometrical and kinematic similarity the
ratio of the accelerations of motions in the homologic points
2
w
1
w
K
w

is also
identical.
Flows are called dynamically similar if the forces affecting the similar
elements in the homologic moments of time are proportional.
Let's consider the conditions of the dynamic similarity for flow around
bodies with flow of viscous compressed gas. For this purpose we shall make
the system of the equations consisting of the Navier-Stokes equation and
the continuity equation, and also using corresponding boundary and initial
conditions in the dimensionless form.
Let's accept some linear value l as for characteristic length. Other
characteristic magnitudes are the parameters of undisturbed flow: velocity
V

, pressure
p

, density

, temperature
T

, kinematic viscosity

;
characteristic time of process
l
t
V

.
Let's enter the following dimensionless magnitudes:
x
x
l


,
y
y
l

,
z
z
l

,
V
V
V


r
r
,
p
p
p


,
T
T
T


,
F
F
g


r
r
.
Let's transform the Navier-Stokes equation (3.44) and the continuity
equation (2.19). Expressing all dimensional magnitudes via dimensionless
values in them, we shall receive:
88
2
x y z
2
V V V V V V
V V V
t t l x y z
p V 1
gF grad p V grad ( div V ) ;
l 3
l

_



+ + +




,

1

+ +
1

]
r r r r
r r r
(3.65)
V
div ( V ) 0
t t l

r
. (3.66)
Here symbols div
,
grad

and
mean that differentiation is made in
dimensionless coordinates.
Let's divide both parts of the Navier-Stokes equation (3.65) by the
value
2
V
l

, and the continuity equation (3.66) by


V
l


x y z
2 2
l V V V V
V V V
V t t x y z
p gl 1 1
F grad p V grad ( div V ) ;
V l 3
V V









+ + +

1

+ +
1

]
r r r r
r r r
(3.67)
l
div ( V ) 0
V t t

r
. (3.68)
These equations contain some dimensionless parameters: Sh
V t
l


is the Strouhal number; Fr
2
V
gl

is the Froude number;


Re
V l

is the
Reynolds number;
2
M
2
2 2
p 1 a 1 1 1
V V


,
M
V
=
a

is the Mach number.


The Reynolds number Re characterizes the ratio of the inertial forces
and the viscosity forces and represents the criterion of viscosity.
The Mach number

M
is the criterion of compressibility,
characterizing the ratio of the inertial force to the pressure force and is equal
to the ratio of velocity of flow to velocity of sound.
The Froude number Fr defines the ratio of the inertial force to gravity
and is the criterion of similarity, which takes into account the influence of
gravity of gas. In the majority of aerodynamics problems the number Fr has
no essential meaning.
The Strouhal number Sh characterizes the ratio of the convective
acceleration of particle motion to the local acceleration and takes into
account the non-stationary movements.
89
Using the dimensionless numbers Re ,

M
, Fr , Sh lets rewrite the
equations (3.67) and (3.68) as follows:
( )
1
]
1

+ +



+


+


+

V v di d gra
3
v
V v
1
p d gra

1 1

1
F
1
z
V
V
y
V
V
x
V
V
t
V 1
z y x


Re M Fr
Sh
2
; (3.69)
( ) 0 V v di
t
1
+



Sh
(3.70)
90