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Chapter3 Fluid Dynamics

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FLOW DYNAMICS

The main problem of aero-hydrodynamics is to define motion of liquid

particles under action of the given external forces and to determine internal

forces in points within liquid volume at any moment of time. Therefore it is

necessary to obtain relations, which include forces, working on liquid when it

flows in addition to the developed kinematic dependences, i.e. to consider

questions of flow dynamics.

In many problems of aero-hydrodynamics it is allowed to neglect the

viscosity of liquid and therefore tangent stresses. The hypothetical liquid,

which has no viscosity, is called nonviscous liquid. Such liquid is simpler for

researching, than a real one because of the lack of tangent stresses.

As usual some volume of liquid closed by control surface is allocated

at some moment of time when solving problems of flow dynamics. With that

action of the environment should be replaced with proper surface forces.

Applying general laws of mechanics to the allocated liquid volume allows to

receive equations of flow dynamics in the integral form. Accomplishing

transition to limit (reducing the volume of the allocated liquid down to zero),

we receive relations, which can be presented as the differential equations of

liquid flow. It is necessary to take into account that the limit transition is valid

only in the event if all flow parameters change continuously.

3.1. Forces acting within liquid flow

In mechanics of solid body the concept of concentrated force is widely

used. But no any real solid could withstand the action of such force because

stress created by the force would be infinitely large. So for solid body

assuming these concentrated forces (that means they are applied to point)

is absolutely conditional. For liquid this method is inadmissible as it conflicts

to the nature of liquid. There cannot be any concentrated force within liquid

because of fluidity (the mobility of particles). There are only distributed

forces acting within liquid, which are divided into body (or volume) forces

and surface forces.

Body force is applied to each particle of the given volume and is

proportional to its mass. They are forces of gravity and inertia,

electromagnetic forces, etc.

Surface forces are continuously distributed through liquid surface.

These forces are caused by a direct interaction of adjacent volumes of liquid

or by action of another bodies (solid or gaseous) on the given liquid volume.

The nature of surface forces is concerned with elasticity, viscosity and

surface stress.

53

In general case surface force

R , which acts on area S , is

directed with some angle to the

surface. It can be split into normal

P and tangent T components

(fig. 3.1). The first component is

called pressure force, and the

second one is called friction force.

The liquid at rest has only the

normal component of surface force,

and the flowing liquid has normal

and tangent components.

Body and surface forces are usually considered as elementary forces,

which are concerned to proper parameters. Body forces concern to the unit

of mass, and surface to the unit of area.

As any body force is equal to the product of mass and acceleration,

thus the elementary body force numerically equals to corresponding

acceleration. Elementary surface force is called stress of surface force, and

its projections - normal and tangent stresses.

The normal stress, that is stress of pressure force, is called a hydro-

mechanical pressure, and in case of liquid at rest it is hydrostatic pressure.

Generally hydraulic mechanical pressure in the given point is

S 0

P

p lim

S

, (3.1)

where P is the normal component of pressure force acting on area S .

Tangent stress is a stress of the friction force, can be determined by

the formula

S 0

T

lim

S

. (3.2)

3.2. Property of hydrostatic pressure

Let's consider an equilibrium condition of elementary liquid volume

and show that pressure within liquid does not depend on orientation of area,

which is under action of it.

Fig. 3.1 Surface forces

54

Let's allocate in motionless liquid an elementary volume in the shape

of tetrahedron ABCD with edges dx ,

dy

, dz , which are parallel to proper

axes of rectangular coordinate

system

0xyz

(fig. 3.2). This volume

is in balance under action of body

and surface forces. We shall

designate the resultant of body

forces as dG. Projections of this

force onto coordinate axes are equal:

x x

1

dG F dxdydz

6

,

y y

1

dG F dxdydz

6

,

z z

1

dG F dxdydz

6

,

where

x

F

,

y

F

,

z

F

are the

components of elementary body force;

1

dxdydz

6

is the volume of

elementary tetrahedron ABCD.

Lets

x

p

,

y

p

,

z

p

are pressures on faces, perpendicular to axes 0x ,

0 y

, 0z properly, and

n

p

is pressure on face BCD.

Then pressure forces on these faces are equal:

x x

1

dP p dydz

2

;

y y

1

dP p dxdz

2

;

z z

1

dP p dxdy

2

;

n n n

dP p dS

,

where

n

dS

is area of face BCD.

The allocated volume of a liquid is in equilibrium. We shall write down

the equilibrium equation for this volume expressed in projections onto

coordinate axes:

x x n n

1 1

F dxdydz p dydz p dS cos( n, x ) 0

6 2

+ ;

y y n n

1 1

F dxdydz p dxdz p dS cos( n, y ) 0

6 2

+ ;

z z n n

1 1

F dxdydz p dxdy p dS cos( n, z ) 0

6 2

+ .

Fig. 3.2. To the development of property of

hydrostatic pressure

55

Taking into account, that

n x

1

dS cos( n, x ) dS dydz

2

;

n y

1

dS cos( n, y ) dS dxdz

2

;

n z

1

dS cos( n, z ) dS dxdy

2

,

and simplifying the corresponding sums of projections, we shall receive

x x n

1

F dx p p 0

3

+ ;

y y n

1

F dy p p 0

3

+ ;

z z n

1

F dz p p 0

3

+ .

In the limit if dx 0 ,

dy 0

, dz 0 we shall obtain

x n

p p 0

;

y n

p p 0

;

z n

p p 0

or

x y z n

p p p p

. (3.3)

Thus, as a result of a randomness of derivatives dx ,

dy

, anddz , we

shall come to the following conclusion: hydrostatic pressure at arbitrary point

within liquid does not depend on orientation in space of areas, passing

through this point. This property works for both liquid at rest and a flow of

nonviscous liquid.

As in real (viscous) mobile liquid tangent stresses appear, thus this

property is not true.

3.3. Differential equations of nonviscous liquid flow in

Euler's form

The development of the basic equations of the liquid flow is based on

laws of Newton and other theses of classical mechanics. At first its

necessary to make the differential equations of flow, and then integrate

them.

This method is concerned to great difficulties, which appear because

of the specific character of interaction between particles within liquid or

gaseous medium. In solid distance between any two points remains

constant when it is moving regardless the complexity of movement, but

distance between separate particles of liquid (or gas) changes all the time

56

because of its mobility. That considerably complicates the development of

the initial differential equations and their integration.

Let's receive the equations of flow, using the principle of DAlamber

which saying, that active forces and constraint reactions are

counterbalanced by forces of inertia.

Let's allocate some mass of liquid

within volume W , which is confined by

the closed surface S (fig. 3.3). There

are body and surface forces acting on

the allocated volume. Main vector of

body forces applied to volume W of

nonviscous liquid, can be expressed by

means of volume integral

W

F dW

r

,

where

F

r

is vector of elementary body

force.

According to the third Newtons law the interacting forces between

particles within the volume W are counterbalanced. Only forces acting on

particles located on the surface S are not counterbalanced. Analyzing the

flow of nonviscous liquid we take into account only pressure forces. As we

know, pressure force is a function of time and coordinates, which acts along

the direction of an internal normal to the surface S . Therefore the resultant

of the pressure forces acting on surface S , confining the volume W , equals

to the following surface integral

S

p n dS

r

,

where n

r

is an elementary vector of an external normal.

Acceleration of the particle in the point with radius vector

r

r

at the time

t , equals to

dV

dt

r

. Adding force of inertia (with opposite sign) to the external

forces acting on liquid particles in compliance with the principle of

DAlember, the equation of flow for the point of time t can be written down

in the integral form:

W S W

dV

F dW p ndS dW 0

dt

r

r

r

.

Fig. 3.3. To the development of flow

equation

57

Let's notice, that this equation is true whether or no flow parameters

are continuous or discontinuous functions of coordinates. If flow parameters

and their first derivatives are continuous within volume W and on its border

S it is possible to use formula of Ostragradsky-Gauss:

S W

p n dS grad p dW

r

,

then the former equation will get the following form:

W

dV

F grad p dW 0

dt

_

,

r

r

.

It follows from the condition, that the written equality is true for any

arbitrary volume and that a subintegral function is continuous:

dV 1

F grad p 0

dt

_

,

r

r

or

dV 1

F grad p

dt

r

r

. (3.4)

Expression (3.4) represents the vector notation of the differential

equation of nonviscous liquid flow in Euler's form. In projections on

coordinates axes:

x

x

1 p dV

F

x dt

;

y

y

dV

1 p

F

y dt

; (3.5)

z

z

dV 1 p

F

z dt

.

Substituting the expressions (2.10) for acceleration projections into

equations (3.5), we will obtain

x x x x

x x y z

1 p V V V V

F V V V

x t x y z

+ + +

;

y y y y

y x y z

V V V V

1 p

F V V V

y t x y z

+ + +

; (3.6)

z z z z

z x y z

V V V V 1 p

F V V V

z t x y z

+ + +

.

For incompressible liquid (

const

) the equations (3.6) contain four

unknown functions

x

V

,

y

V

,

z

V

and

p

. Adding the continuity equation (2.26)

to them we shall receive the closed system of the differential equations of

non-viscous incompressible liquid flow.

58

For compressible fluid (

const

), there is another unknown function

of the state equation

p

RT

to the system of the equations (3.6) does not

close it, as there is one more unknown function temperature T . Therefore

to close the system it is necessary to add the sixth equation equation of

energy transfer.

But in many problems of aero-hydrodynamics the temperature T can

be excluded from the consideration, for example, when pressure

p

depends on density

gas), which has the following dependence of pressure as function of density

is named barotropic.

Lets notice that the flow of thermodynamic ideal gas can be

considered as barotropic if it is known the thermodynamic character of

changes of it state, for example:

for the isothermal process of gas T const

p

RT

, (3.7)

where R is universal gas constant;

for the isentropic process

p

C

, (3.8)

where

0

0

p

C

,

0

p

,

0

is the

adiabatic exponent; for air it equals

1.4

.

In general, Euler's equations (3.5) or (3.6) written down for

incompressible and compressible fluid, and also for steady and unsteady

motion have five unknown items:

p

,

,

x

V

,

y

V

,

z

V

. They are nonlinear

equations and the general solution is not found yet. They can be resolved

only for special cases.

For example, in case of the steady-state flow of incompressible liquid

items

x

V

t

,

y

V

t

,

z

V

t

liquid (when

x y z

V V V 0

) we shall receive the differential equation of

hydrostatics from the equations (3.5) (well consider this equation further).

59

3.4. Bernoulli equation for nonviscous liquid

Let's develop Bernoulli equation for steady flow of nonviscous liquid,

supposing, that body forces have potential. We shall multiply each of the

equations (3.5) by corresponding projections of elementary movement along

streamline, which equal

x

dx V dt

,

y

dy V dt

,

z

dz V dt

, and then sum the

obtained equations. We shall have

x y z

x x y y z z

1 p p p

F dx F dy F dz dx dy dz

x y z

V dV V dV V dV

_

+ + + +

,

+ + .

(3.9)

Taking into account, that expression in brackets is a total pressure

differential

p

, and also that

2

x

x x

V

V dV d

2

_

,

,

2

y

y y

V

V dV d

2

_

,

,

2

z

z z

V

V dV d

2

_

,

,

2 2 2

2

x y z

V V V

V

d d

2 2

_

_ + +

,

,

,

The equation (3.9) can be written down as follows:

2

x y z

1 V

F dx F dy F dz dp d

2

_

+ + +

,

. (3.10)

As body forces have potential the left part of the equation (3.10) is a

total differential of some function ( ) U x, y, z , which partial derivatives in

respect to coordinate axes will be equal

x

F

,

y

F

,

z

F

that is

x

U

F

x

y

U

F

y

z

U

F

z

.

Function U is named forcing function. This function is equal to the

potential of forces with opposite sign. Entering the function U , we shall have

2

1 V

dU dp d

2

_

+

,

. (3.11)

Integrating the equation (3.11), well get

2

dp V

U C

2

+ +

, (3.12)

60

where C is constant value along the given streamline, which changes with

transition from one streamline to another in general.

The expression (3.12) establishes bond between flow parameters

along flowline at the steady flow and is called the Bernoulli integral.

For incompressible liquid (

const

)

2

p V

U C

2

+ + . (3.13)

If we have only one body force the force of gravity (

x y

F F 0

,

z

F g

), then

dU gdz

or

U g z const +

.

Substituting this expression for U in the equation (3.13), we shall have

2

p V

gz C

2

+ + ,

or, having divided by

g

, we shall receive

2

p V

z H

g 2g

+ + . (3.14)

Thus, we get Bernoulli equation. Items of Bernoulli equation (3.14) are

measured in units of length and named as follows:

z

is leveling height, or geometrical head;

p

g

is piezometric height, or piezometric head;

2

V

2g

is velocity height, or dynamic head;

H is the sum of all counted heights, or gross head (hydraulic thrust

load).

Bernoulli equation, which has been written down for two arbitrary

chosen sections of flow filament, expresses the equality of gross head in

these sections, that is

2 2

1 1 2 2

1 2

p V p V

z z H

g 2g g 2g

+ + + + . (3.15)

For nonviscous liquid flow, the sum of these three heights is a

constant value along the flow filament. It is a so-called geometrical

interpretation of Bernoulli equation, which can be illustrated with the graph

shown in fig. 3.4.

61

Fig. 3.4. Geometrical interpretation of Bernoulli equation for nonviscous liquid

The line of change of piezometric heights is called piezometric line;

it can be considered as a geometrical level of liquid in piezometers.

Let's consider the interpretation of Bernoulli equation in respect to

energy. The hydraulic thrust load H can be considered as total specific

energy of the flow filament. For nonviscous liquid flow, the sum of specific

energy of positions, specific energy of pressure and kinetic energy is

constant along the flow filament. Ratio of energy to a unit of weight is called

as liquid specific energy:

z

is specific energy of position (as the particle of liquid with weight G

, being at height

z

, has the potential energy of position, which equals to

Gz

, thus energy on a unit of weight is

Gz

z

G

);

p

g

is specific pressure energy (particle of liquid with weight G

under pressure

p

is capable to rise up to the height

p

g

and get energy in

this way

p

G

g

p

g

);

2

V

2g

is specific kinetic energy (kinetic energy of the particle

2

mV

2

,

related to a unit of weight

G mg

, equals

2 2

mV V

2 mg 2g

);

H is total specific energy of liquid flow.

62

When nonviscous liquid flows one type of energy can transform into

another, but the total specific energy of the flow remains constant.

In problems of aerodynamics we can neglect the body forces, as they

are smaller then internal forces of pressure and forces of inertia. In this case

Bernoulli integral (3.12) will not include function U and the integral (the

mechanical form of the energy equation) looks like

2

dp V

C

2

+

. (3.16)

For incompressible liquid the equation (3.16) can be written down as

2

V

p C

2

+

, (3.17)

where

p

is static pressure;

2

V

2

If we should apply the equation

(3.17) to the central flow filament,

splitting in point A and covering the

streamlined body (fig. 3.5), having

taken section 1 1 on sufficiently

large distance from the body where

the flow is considered as steady (

1

V V

,

1

p p

section 2 2 will be taken in critical

point A, where speed

2

V 0

, and

pressure

2 0

p p

so we could write

2

0

V

p p

2

+

, (3.18)

where the second item of the right part is a dynamic pressure. The sum of

static and dynamic pressure gives us the full pressure

0

p

or pressure in the

stagnation point of the flow,

2

V 0

.

The equation (3.17) is usually used in aerodynamics. It is suitable only

for such speeds for which we can neglect the compressibility of liquid.

If the flow speeds are higher we must consider the gas as the

compressed medium, for which

const

. With that it is often enough that

we can consider gas flow as isentropic (reversible adiabatic process with

constant entropy).

Fig. 3.5. Body within liquid flow

63

For isentropic flow the following dependence between density and

pressure is true

p C

. (3.8)

Taking into account, that value of density

get after differentiation

1

dp C d

.

Let's calculate the integral:

1

2 1

1

dp C

d C d C C

1

.

If

1

1 p

C C

, then

1

dp p

C

1

. (3.19)

Substituting expression (3.19) into (3.16), well receive

2

p V

C

1 2

. (3.20)

Using the equation of state (3.7), we can write down Bernoulli equation

as follows:

2

V

RT C

1 2

(3.21)

or

2

p V RT

C

2 1

+ +

, (3.22)

dividing all components of the equation by

g

, we shall receive

2

p V RT

C

g 2g ( 1 )g

+ +

.

In this equation item

RT

( 1 )g

is called a thermal head. Thus, in

adiabatic flow of ideal gas the sum of piezometric head

p

g

, dynamic

head

2

V

2

and thermal head

RT

( 1 )g

is a constant value along the flow

filament.

64

3.5. The Bernoulli equation for viscous liquid flow

The Bernoulli equation for frictionless liquid (3.14) does not take into

account the viscosity effect. Passing from frictionless flow filament to

viscous liquid flow, bounded by the walls, it is necessary to take into account

a nonuniform velocity distribution over cross-section (see fig. 2.8) and

energy losses along the channel length. These two circumstances are the

consequences of viscous properties of liquid. When liquid flows along the

channel walls its viscosity, and also forces of the molecular cohesion

between the liquid and the wall result in deceleration of the flow; the liquid

velocity at the wall is equal to zero. The highest velocities occur in the

central part of the streamline.

In addition, the motion of viscous liquid is often accompanied with

rotation of particles and their movement between the liquid layers. Therefore

the full pressure will not remain constant value, as in case of nonviscous

liquid, but it will be permanently consumed to overcome the resistance and

as a result will decrease along the flow.

Due to nonuniform velocity distribution we shall bring into

consideration the liquid average velocity designated as

av

V

, and also

average value of liquid specific energy in each cross-section of streamline.

Within the considered flow cross-sections we shall assume the

following ratio as true

p

z const

g

+

.

It means that in flow of liquid separate filaments interact with the same

pressure, as in the immovable condition.

Let's consider the concept of power of flow.

Total energy, which is carried by the flow through the given cross-

section per unit of time we shall call rate of flow in the given cross-section.

As in different points of the flow cross-section liquid particles have different

energy, then at first we shall express an elementary power of filament in the

following form

2

p V

dN H gdQ g z VdS

g 2g

_

+ +

,

.

The power of the whole flow we can define as an integral of the former

expression over total area S , that is

65

2

S

p V

N g z VdS

g 2g

_

+ +

,

.

Taking into account, that flow is parallel, we shall receive

3

S S

p g

N g z VdS V dS

g 2g

_

+ +

,

.

Let's write down the average value of full specific energy over cross-

section area:

3

av

S

N p 1

H z V dS

gQ g 2gQ

+ +

,

Having multiplied and divided the last item by

2

av

V , we shall receive

3

2

S av

av

3

av

V dS

V p

H z

g 2g

V S

+ +

.

Having designated

3

S

3

av

V dS

V S

, (3.23)

well obtain an expression for average specific energy in any among the

chosen cross-sections:

2

av

av

V p

H z

g 2g

+ + , (3.24)

where

into account non-uniform velocity distribution.

If we should multiply and divide ratio (3.23) by

2

, we could notice

easily that the factor

energy of a flow in the specified cross-section to the kinetic energy of this

flow in this section, but under uniform velocity distribution.

For viscous liquids factor alpha exceeds one 1 > , for nonviscous

liquid (under uniform velocity distribution) 1 .

Expression (3.24) represents the value of the average specific energy

in one of the flow cross-sections. If we want to obtain the Bernoulli equation

for the whole flow, it is necessary to compare values of full pressure in two

66

various cross-sections. It is obvious, that average specific energy of a flow

for two various sections will be

av1 av2

H H >

(3.25)

on the value of losses of specific energy between cross-section 1 1 and

cross-section 2 2 (see fig. 2.8). If we should designate the total loss of

specific energy on segment 1 2 as

1 2

h

, then

av1 av2 1 2

H H h

+

, (3.26)

or in expanded form:

2 2

av1 av2 1 2

1 1 2 2 1 2

V V p p

z z h

g 2g g 2g

+ + + + +

. (3.27)

Expression (3.27) is Bernoulli equation for a flow of viscous

incompressible liquid. The obtained equation (3.27) differs from the Bernoulli

equation for nonviscous liquid (3.15) on item

1 2

h

account losses of liquid specific energy, and factor

of non-uniform velocity

distribution. Additionally, velocities included into the Bernoulli equations for

viscous liquid are average.

Geometrical interpretation of the Bernoulli equation is shown in fig. 3.6.

From the energy point of view the equation (3.27) represents the energy

balance equation taking into account losses.

Fig. 3.6. Geometrical interpretation of Bernoulli equation for viscous liquid

67

The energy lost by liquid on the specified channel segments does not

disappear completely, but it only transforms into other form thermal, that

results in some liquid temperature rise.

3.6. Differential equations of nonviscous liquid flow in

Gromekos form

The equations of nonviscous liquid flow in Gromekos form represent

the transformed equations of flow in Eulers form (3.6)

x x x x

x x y z

1 p V V V V

F V V V

x t x y z

+ + +

;

y y y y

y x y z

V V V V

1 p

F V V V

y t x y z

+ + +

;

z z z z

z x y z

V V V V 1 p

F V V V

z t x y z

+ + +

.

Let's transform the first Eulers equation. Lets add and subtract the

following values:

y

y

V

V

x

,

z

z

V

V

x

,

_

,

_

+

+

,

_

y

V

x

V

V

x

V

z

V

V

x

V

V

x

V

V

x

V

V

t

V

x

p

1

F

x

y

z

z x

y

z

z

y

y

x

x

x

x

(3.28)

There is a partial derivative with respect to

x

of half of squared velocity in

the equation (3.28) in the first parentheses

2 2 2

2

y x y z

z x

x y z

V V V V

V V V

V V V

x x x x 2 x 2

_

_ + +

+ +

,

,

;

the second and the third parentheses are the doubled angular rates

according to (2.34),

z x

y

V V

2

z x

;

y

x

z

V

V

2

x y

.

In that case after transformations the first Eulers equation and the

other two will be written down by analogy as the following

2

x

x z y y z

1 p V V

F 2(V V )

x x 2 t

_

+

,

;

68

2

y

y x z z x

V

1 p V

F 2(V V )

y y 2 t

+

,

; (3.29)

2

z

z y x x y

V 1 p V

F 2(V V )

z z 2 t

_

+

,

.

These equations are called the differential equations of nonviscous

liquid flow in Gromekos form. The advantage of these equations lies in an

explicit form of the items taking into account the vortex component of

motion.

3.7. Lagrange integral for vortex-free flow of nonviscous liquid

Stream flowing around streamlined body is unsteady at its accelerated

or decelerated motion within liquid, at its curvilinear motion and in a number

of other cases. In such cases the obtained Bernoulli integral (3.12) is

inapplicable, since the relation between pressure and velocity for unsteady

motion is different and more complex, than for steady-state.

With presence of potential U of body forces the equations of flow

(3.29) will be written down as following

2

x

z y y z

dp V V

U 2(V V )

x 2 t

_

+

,

;

2

y

x z z x

V

dp V

U 2(V V )

y 2 t

+

,

; (3.30)

2

z

y x x y

V dp V

U 2(V V )

z 2 t

_

+

,

.

Let's rewrite the equations (3.30) for vortex-free motion, when angular

velocities equals to zero

x y z

0

2

x

dp V V

U

x 2 t

_

,

;

2

y

V

dp V

U

y 2 t

_

; (3.31)

2

z

V dp V

U

z 2 t

_

,

.

69

Moreover linear velocities can be expressed through velocity potential

in vortex-free flow, lets represent the velocity derivatives with the help of

ratios (2.59):

x

V

t t x x t

_ _

, ,

,

y

V

t y t

,

,

z

V

t z t

_

,

.

Entering these substitutions into the right part of the equations (3.31)

and displacing them to the left part, we shall receive:

2

dp V

U 0

x 2 t

_

,

;

2

dp V

U 0

y 2 t

_

,

; (3.32)

2

dp V

U 0

z 2 t

_

,

.

There is the same quadrinomial in all these equations in brackets,

which partial derivatives with respect to coordinates

x

,

y

and

z

are equal

to zero. Hence, this quadrinomial does not depend on coordinates

x

,

y

,

z

and can be only the function of time t

2

dp V

U f ( t )

2 t

, (3.33)

where

f ( t )

is an arbitrary function of time t , identical for the whole stream.

The expression (3.33) is called the Lagrange integral.

If liquid flow is simultaneously vortex-free and steady, then for such

flow 0

t

f ( t )

becomes constant identical in all points

of the flow, and we shall receive a special case of integral (3.33) as

2

dp V

U C

2

. (3.34)

The integral form (3.34) is similar to the Bernoulli integral (3.12), but

differs from it by the constant in its right part, identical for all points of a flow

whereas in Bernoulli integral the constant has identical value only in the

points of the same streamline. Sometimes it is called Bernoulli-Euler

integral.

70

3.8. Differential Navier-Stokes equations of viscous gas flow

The viscosity results not only in occurrence of tangent stresses, but

also in change of normal stress in comparison with their values in

nonviscous liquid. It will considerably complicate the differential equations of

viscous gas flow in comparison with Euler equations.

Let's consider motion of gas

particle shaped as elementary

parallelepiped with edges dx ,

dy

,

dz and center in point C (fig. 3.7).

In this case not only normal

stresses, but also tangents stresses

act on the faces of the particle,

since surface forces in viscous gas

are not orthogonal to the

considered surface.

Lets accept the following

designations for each projection of

stress vector acting on the

considered face of the elementary

parallelepiped:

xx

p

,

xy

,

xz

are the

components of the surface stress, acting on the face, perpendicular to axis

x

;

yy

p

,

yx

,

yz

face, perpendicular to axis

y

;

zz

p

,

zx

,

zy

face, perpendicular to axis

z

;

Let's consider projections of the surface forces, acting on the specified

gas particle onto axis 0x :

xx

p dydz

,

xx

xx

p

p dx dydz

x

_

+

,

are the normal stresses acting on the

left and right faces respectively;

zx

dxdy

,

zx

zx

dxdy

z

_

+

,

are the tangent stresses acting on the

back and forward faces;

yx

dxdz

,

yx

yx

dxdz

y

_

+

,

are the tangent stresses acting on the

bottom and top faces.

Fig. 3.7. Surface forces acting on

elementary particle of viscous gas

71

Let's write down the total projection of the surface forces acting on all

faces of the parallelepiped onto axis 0x

yx

zx xx

p

dxdydz

x y z

_

+ +

,

.

Let's designate projections of the body forces divided by mass unit as

x

F

,

y

F

,

z

F

.

Then the projection of all forces onto axis 0x will be equal

yx

zx xx

x

1 p

X F dxdydz

x y z

1 _

+ + +

1

,

]

.

Using the DAlember principle, we shall receive

yx

zx x xx

x

dV 1 p

dxdydz F dxdydz 0

dt x y z

1 _

+ + + +

1

,

]

,

or

yx

zx xx x

x

1 p dV

F

x y z dt

_

+ + +

,

. (3.35)

Let's similarly write down the equations for projections of forces onto

axes

0 y

and 0z

xy yy zy y

y

p dV

1

F

x y z dt

_

+ + +

,

, (3.36)

yz

xz zz z

x

p dV 1

F

x y z dt

_

+ + +

,

. (3.37)

Among six tangent stresses which are included in the system of

equations (3.35), (3.36) and (3.37), only three are independent, and

xy yx

,

yz zy

,

zx xz

. Thus the system of equations contains six

stresses three normal

xx

p

,

yy

p

,

zz

p

and three tangent

xy yx

,

yz zy

,

zx xz

.

Let's represent normal stresses in the following form:

xx xx

p p +

,

yy yy

p p +

,

zz zz

p p +

, (3.38)

where

xx

,

yy

,

zz

viscosity. In nonviscous liquid

xx yy zz

0

.

72

According to a hypothesis about proportionality of stresses to

corresponding velocities of deformative motion, tangent stresses are

proportional to angle skewing velocities

y

x

xy yx

y

z

yz zy

z x

zx xz

V

V

;

y x

V

V

;

z y

V V

,

z x

_

+

,

_

+

;

,

_

+

,

(3.39)

and normal stresses are proportional to velocities of linear deformation (in

case of incompressible liquid) or to velocities of linear and volumetric

deformation (in case of compressible liquid)

x

xx

y

yy

z

zz

V

2 divV ;

x

V

2 divV ;

y

V

2 divV ,

z

+

+

;

r

%

r

%

r

%

(3.40)

where

%

is the value depending on the

factor

.

We can obtain the known Newtons law for two-dimensional flow of

viscous liquid from equations (3.39). If the liquid moves along axis 0x ,

velocities

y z

V V 0

. From the first equation (3.39) we receive

x

xy yx

V

y

or

x

dV

dy

, that corresponds to expression (1.6).

It follows from the equations (3.40), that in general

xx yy zz

, i.e.

normal stresses on three mutually orthogonal faces are different (

xx yy zz

p p p

). Therefore we shall accept the average value in the given

point of viscous medium as pressure in this point

xx yy zz

p p p

p

3

+ +

. (3.41)

After substitution expressions (3.38) and (3.40) into equation (3.41) we

shall get

( )

( ) xx yy zz

p p p

2 3 divV

p p

3 3

+ + +

+

r

%

.

73

In the incompressible medium equation (3.41) is identical as

divV 0

r

,

and for its validity in compressible medium the condition

2

3

%

should

be valid.

Taking into account the last condition and expressions (3.40) we shall

write down normal stresses (3.38) as follows:

x

xx

y

yy

z

zz

V 2

p p 2 divV ;

x 3

V

2

p p 2 divV ;

y 3

V 2

p p 2 divV .

z 3

+

+

;

r

r

r

(3.42)

Let's substitute expressions (3.42) and (3.39) into the equations (3.35),

(3.36) and (3.37) and represent full acceleration

x

dV

dt

,

y

dV

dt

,

z

dV

dt

in

expanded projections according to (2.10), we shall receive the equations of

motion of the viscous medium:

x x x x x

x y z x

y

z x x

x x x x x

x y z x

V V V V V 1 p 2

V V V F divV

t x y z x x x 3

V

V V V

;

y y x z x z

V V V V V 1 p 2

V V V F divV

t x y z x x x 3

1 _

+ + + + +

1

,

]

1 _ 1 _

+ + + +

1 1

, 1 ] ,

]

1 _

+ + + +

,

r

r

y

z x x

x x x x x

x y z x

y

z x x

V

V V V

;

y y x z x z

V V V V V 1 p 2

V V V F divV

t x y z x x x 3

V

V V V

;

y y x z x z

+

1

]

;

1 _ 1 _

+ + + +

1 1

, 1 ] ,

]

1 _

+ + + + +

1

,

]

1 _ 1 _

+ + + +

1 1

, 1 ] ,

]

r

(3.43)

The differential equations (3.43) are called the Navier-Stokes

equations. These equations contain six unknown magnitudes

x

V

,

y

V

,

z

V

,

p

,

, but the law is considered to be known.

74

Assuming, that dynamic viscosity factor is a constant (

const

) the

Navier-Stokes equation in the vector form looks like

dV 1

F grad p V grad( divV )

dt 3

+ +

r

r r r

, (3.44)

where

is the kinematic viscosity factor.

The Navier-Stokes equations (3.44) have two additional items in

comparison with Euler equations (3.4): the first item V

r

takes into

account the viscosity influence in incompressible medium (

divV 0

r

), the

second item grad( divV )

3

r

the additional influence viscosity due to

compressibility (

divV 0

r

).

3.9. Full system of flow equations. Initial and boundary

conditions

Let's consider system of equations of nonviscous gas flow. The

components of velocity

x

V

,

y

V

,

z

V

and the pressure

p

are unknown in this

case of the incompressible medium, full system of the equations consists of

Eulers equations (3.4) and the continuity equation (2.25)

dV 1

F grad p,

dt

div V 0 .

r

r

r

(3.45)

Taking into account the compressibility the full system of the equations

includes six independent equations for definition of six unknown

magnitudes: the components of velocity

x

V

,

y

V

,

z

V

, pressure

p

, density

and temperature T . The Euler (3.4) equations, the equation of continuity

(2.19), the gas law (3.7) and the equations of thermodynamic process

belong to these equations. Dependence between pressure and density for

isentropic flows is described by equation (3.8). In the differential form

equation (3.8) conformably to gas motion looks like

d p

0

dt

,

,

x y z

p p p p

V V V 0

t x y z

_ _ _ _

+ + +

, , , ,

or

75

p p

V grad 0

t

_ _

, ,

r

. (3.46)

Using equation (3.46), lets write down the full system of the equations

for motion of non-viscous compressible gas as folows

dV 1

F grad p ,

dt

div( V ) 0 ,

t

p

RT ,

p p

V grad 0 .

t

_ _

, ,

r

r

r

r

(3.47)

For viscous incompressible medium the components of velocity

x

V

,

y

V

,

z

V

and pressure

p

are unknown, and the full system of the equations

will consist of the Navier-Stokes equation (3.44) and the continuity equations

(2.25)

dV 1

F grad p V ,

dt

div V 0 .

+

;

r

r r

r

(3.48)

In general case of motion of viscous compressible medium the full

system of the equations contains the equations of motion of viscous

compressible gas (3.43), the equation of continuity (2.19), the gas law (3.7)

and the equation of energy for the viscous heat-conducting gas.

The solutions of system of the equations should satisfy the initial and

the boundary conditions. The initial conditions are necessary when solving

problem of unsteady motion and they define values of required functions at

some specified moment of time.

The boundary conditions are specified when solving problem of both

steady, and unsteady gas motion and should be true at each moment of

time. In undisturbed flow the following equations are used as boundary

conditions:

V V

r r

,

p p

,

T T

. (3.49)

When considering problem of streamlined body in nonviscous gas the

condition of flow without separation (a condition of leakproofness) should

76

be fulfilled on the surface of body S ( )

n

S

V 0

. If the surface is given by the

equation

f ( x, y, z ) 0

, then on the basis of condition of a flow without

separation vectors of velocity

V

r

and

grad f

in each point of the surface

should be orthogonal. In this case the condition of the flow without

separation ( )

n

S

V 0

can be represented as follows:

V grad f 0

r

or

x y z

f f f

V V V 0

x y z

+ +

. (3.50)

Hence, in case of a body motion within nonviscous gas it is necessary

to give boundary conditions at infinity (3.49) and condition of the equality to

zero of linear combination

x

V

,

y

V

,

z

V

with variable factors (3.50) over the

body surface.

When researching flow around body with a flow of viscous gas the

boundary condition of adhering of the viscous medium to the surface

( )

S

V 0

should be valid on the body surface. Moreover it is necessary to

specify the boundary conditions for gas temperature on the surface, which

should be formulated depending on task to be solved.

It is necessary to note, that in case of flow around body with a flow of

viscous gas full system of the equations is of the first order in relation to

pressure and density and of the second order concerning components of

velocity and temperature. Therefore it is enough to specify a condition at

infinity for definition of pressure and density, and two conditions at infinity

and on the body surface are necessary to define components of velocity and

temperature.

3.10. Momentum Equation for Steady Motion of Frictionless

Liquid

When defining the summary pressure forces of flow onto the

streamlined bodies or channel walls it is more suitable to use the general

theorems of mechanics, applying them to the final volumes of liquid, than to

receive these dependences by integration of the differential equations of

motion. With that a number of intermediate analytical operations is excluded

and the mechanical basis of research is more clearly shown.

One of such theorems is the theorem of change of momentum, or the

momentum equation.

Let's allocate within flow some arbitrary liquid volume W enclosed by

surface S , which contains streamlined body K . We shall designate the

momentum of the liquid mass contained in the volume W at some moment

of time t as

r

. At the moment of time t dt + this liquid mass will have

77

different momentum, which we shall designate as

r

. Thus, change of the

momentum of the allocated liquid mass for the infinitesimal time interval dt

will be d

r r r

.

The momentum of the allocated liquid mass at the moment of time t is

equal to the sum of momentum of liquid masses, enclosed in volumes I

and II (fig. 3.8). The momentum of the same liquid mass, but at the

moment of time t dt + , is equal to the sum of momentum of liquid masses,

which enclosed in volumes II and III . For steady motion the momentum

of liquid mass filling volume II common for both positions does not change.

It follows from this that change of the momentum of the allocated liquid

mass during time dt is defined by the expression

III I

d

r r r

, i.e. change

of momentum of the liquid allocated mass, which occupied the volume W

enclosed by surface S at the initial moment of time, is equal to difference of

momentums of liquid flowing out from the initial volume W through a part of

surface S during the time dt , and the momentum of the liquid flowing into

this volume for this time cell.

Let's calculate the value d

r

. Liquid mass equal to

n

V dtdS

will pass

through elementary area dS during time dt , where

n

V

is a component of

velocity normal to S . Momentum of this liquid mass will be

n

V dtdSV

r

. The

momentum of the liquid mass, which had flowed out from the initial volume

can be defined by the integral

2

n

S

dt V VdS

r

,

where

2

S

is the part of surface S ,

through which liquid flows out from the

volume W .

The momentum of the liquid mass,

which had flowed into the volume W is

defined by the similar integral

1

n

S

dt V VdS

r

,

where

1

S

is the part of surface S ,

through which liquid flows into volume W .

Change of the momentum of the

allocated liquid mass will be equal to the difference of these momentum:

Fig. 3.8. Development of the

momentum equation

78

2 1

n n

S S

d dt V VdS V VdS

1

1

1

]

r r

r

.

Let's designate the resultant force of the external forces applied to the

considered liquid mass as

F

r

. According to the theorem of momentum

change it is possible to write down

Fdt d

r

r

, or

2 1

n n

S S

F V VdS V VdS

r r r

. (3.51)

Expression (3.51) represents the equation of momentums for steady

motion of finite volume of frictionless liquid.

3.11. Drag of Bodies in Steady Vortex-free Flow of

Frictionless Incompressible Liquid

Let's apply the equation (3.51) to calculate the drag force of the body

having an arbitrary shape, located in steady vortex-free flow of frictionless

incompressible liquid.

Let's assume that the

considered flow is bounded from

outside with a rigid cylindrical

surface of infinite length. We shall

direct coordinate axis 0x parallel

to the surface generatrices

(fig. 3.9). We shall place the

streamlined body in the origin of

coordinates. Far from the body (

x t) the flow moves along axis

0x and has constant velocity

x

V V

,

y z

V V 0

.

Let's consider two cross-section of the flow 1 1 and 2 2 , located

infinitely far to the left and to the right from the origin of coordinates, and let's

apply the equation (3.51) to the liquid mass enclosed between these cross-

sections. For the incompressible liquid

const

, therefore

n

S

F V VdS

r r

.

On the cylindrical surface 1 2 and 2 1 normal velocity component

is equal to zero

n

V 0

, and in sections 1 1 and 2 2 V V

r r

and

Fig. 3.9. Calculation of drag force

79

n2 n1

V V V

, moreover the areas of these sections are equal

1 2

S S

,

therefore

2 1

F V V ( S S ) 0

r r

, (3.52)

i.e. the resultant of the external forces applied to the liquid enclosed

between sections 1 1 and 2 2 , is equal to zero. The projection of this

force to any coordinate axis will also be equal to zero.

Let's consider the projection of this force to axis 0x , i.e. the

component

x

F

will comprise, first, pressure forces of the external liquid,

applied to sections 1 1 and 2 2 . But in these sections the flow velocity s

are identical

2 1

V V V

, therefore pressures

1

p

and

2

p

will also be

identical as follows from the Bernoulli equation. So resultant pressure force

applied to these sections will be equal to zero.

The pressures of the cylindrical border of the flow onto the liquid are

normal to axis 0x and their projections onto this axis will also be equal to

zero.

It is necessary to consider the pressure of the streamlined body upon

the liquid. Let

Q

is the force of the flow pressure upon the body directed

along axis 0x and named drag force. Then the force of the body pressure

upon the liquid along the same axis will be equal to

Q

(minus Q). As in the

frictionless liquid there are no other forces, which could give projection onto

axis 0x , we are coming to the conclusion, that

x

F Q 0

. (3.53)

It follows from this equation directly, that the drag force of an arbitrary

shape body located within the steady vortex-free flow of frictionless

incompressible liquid is equal to zero.

This paradoxical result contradicting to daily experience has been

theoretically established by Euler for the first time and has been proved in

general view by DAlembert irrespective of Euler. It can be explained so that

the fact that the analysis did not take into account the tangent friction forces

caused by the viscosity of the real liquids on the surface of the streamlined

body.

3.12. Wing Lift Within Parallel Flow

This problem fundamental for aviation was resolved by

N. E. Zhukovsky for the case of infinitely long cylindrical wing with an

arbitrary cross-section and published in the article "About the attached wing

vortexes".

80

Let's consider steady vortex-

free flow of frictionless

incompressible liquid close to the

cylindrical wing with infinitely

length and arbitrary shape of

cross-section along the direction of

axis 0z (fig. 3.10). We shall

consider the flow as limited by two

parallel planes from above and

from below at distance

y h t

. Far

from the origin of coordinates at

x t the flow flows with velocity

x

V V

z

V 0

in a whole flow and in all planes parallel to the coordinate plane

x0 y

the

picture of the flow will be completely identical. Such flow can be named

parallel.

Let's allocate some liquid mass enclosed between parallel sections

1 1 and2 2 , and apply the equation (5.31) to it.

As in sections 1 1 and 2 2 the liquid flow velocity

x

V V

, i.e. is

identical, then pressures will also be identical according to the Bernoulli

theorem, as a result we shall come, as well as in the former section, to the

conclusion, that resultant

F

r

of all external forces applied to the allocated

liquid mass will be equal to zero. Its projection to axis

0 y

will also be equal

to zero, i.e. we shall receive:

y

F 0

. (3.54)

If we neglect the body forces then only wing pressure forces upon the

liquid and the pressure forces of the planes limiting the flow from above and

from below will give the projection to axis

0 y

. Let Y be the wing lift, then

the wing pressure force upon the liquid will be equal to Y along axis

0 y

.

The final pressure force of the boundary planes upon the liquid in

projection onto axis

0 y

can be expressed by the integral

( p p )dx

+

,

where

p

,

p

are the liquid pressure upon the bottom and top surface.

As a result we shall have:

Fig. 3.10. Calculation of wing lift within

parallel flow

81

y

F Y ( p p )dx 0

+

,

whence we can determine the lift, falling on a unit of the wing span:

Y ( p p )dx

+

. (3.55)

For steady vortex-free flow of frictionless incompressible liquid

according to the Bernoulli equation (3.17) we have:

2

V

p

2

;

2

V

p

2

,

therefore

( ) ( ) ( )

2 2

2 2

V V

p p V V V V V V

2 2 2 2

+

. (3.56)

Let's represent velocity s on the top and bottom boundary planes in

the following form:

V V V ;

V V V ,

+

;

+

(3.57)

where

V

velocity s of disturbances caused by the wing presence in the flow.

From (3.57) we obtain:

V V 2V V V

+ + +

;

V V V V

,

that allows to write down the equality (3.56) in the following form:

( )

,

_

V V

p -

p

2 2

2

.

At this substitution the formula (3.55) for lift will be written down as:

( ) ( )

2 2

Y V V V dx V V dx

2

+ +

+

. (3.58)

Let's calculate the velocity circulation around the wing. As outside

the wing the flow is vortex-free then the velocity circulation over any closed

contour covering the wing will be equal to the circulation over the wing

section contour. Therefore, let's carry out the calculation of the velocity

circulation over the contour 1 2 2 1 limiting the allocated liquid mass

82

from the external part on plane

x0 y

. We shall accept clockwise motion

around the contour as positive direction of motion.

In the sections 1 1 and 2 2 the velocity tangent to these sections is

equal to zero, therefore the velocity circulation over these sections will be

equal to zero too. In virtue of it the calculation of the circulation will be

reduced to its determination on lines 1 2 and 2 1 only, bounding the flow

from above and from below in

x0 y

plane. Making this calculation and taking

into account the equalities (3.57) we shall receive:

( ) ( )

V V dx V V dx

+ +

. (3.59)

As we see, the velocity circulation is equal to the first integral in the

formula (3.58).

Now we shall increase the flow height 2h infinitely, then at h (h

is tend to infinity) additional velocity

and

integral (3.59) equal to the velocity circulation around the wing will remain

be of the finite type.

Let's consider the second integral of the formula (3.58) under the

same condition, i.e. at h . It is easy to see that subintegral expression in

it is the magnitude of the second infinitesimal order in comparison with the

subintegral expression of the first integral. Therefore this integral will aspire

to zero at h

( )

2 2

h

lim V V dx 0

+

. (3.60)

Taking into account the equalities (3.59) and (3.60) for the lift (3.58)

we shall receive the following expression at h :

Y V

. (3.61)

It is the formula received by N. E. Zhukovsky. The result expressed by

it is usually formulated as the theorem of Zhukovsky: the lift, falling on a unit

of wing span in the steady-state vortex-free parallel flow of frictionless

incompressible liquid is equal to the multiplication of the liquid density,

velocity of a undisturbed flow and the velocity circulation around the wing.

The Zhukovsky theorem has been proved for an incompressible liquid,

however it is also true for the subsonic flows of frictionless gas.

Let's pay attention to the following condition rather important in the

wing theory: according to the formula (3.61) there should be the velocity

circulation not equal to zero around of a wing for presence of the lift on the

83

wing. But from the vortex theory it is known that the velocity circulation not

equal to zero over the closed contour can be caused by the vortexes, which

pass inside the contour.

Therefore, the wing itself, causing the circulation in the flow, is

equivalent to some system of the vortexes located inside the wing, and can

be replaced by this system during the researches. Such fictitious vortexes

replacing the wing Zhukovsky has named the adjacent vortexes. If the

system of the adjacent vortexes equivalent to the wing is found, then the

further studying of the liquid flow around to wing does not have any basic

difficulties any more, as we can calculate the flow velocities and pressure at

any point of the flow including the wing surface using specified system of

vortexes.

3.13. Thomson Theorem about Circulation Constancy

Let's allocate closed contour L (see fig. 2.17) within frictionless liquid,

which movement can be considered as barotropic. The contour L consists

of the same liquid particles. Such liquid contour moves together with the

liquid and changes its shape together with the liquid.

Let's take arch AB of finite size on the contour. Velocity circulation

over arch AB can be represented as (2.48)

( )

x y z

AB

V dx V dy V dz + +

. (3.62)

Let's determine

d

dt

. Differentiating equation (3.62), we find

( ) ( )

x y z x y z

AB AB

d d d

V dx V dy V dz V dx V dy V dz

dt dt dt

+ + + +

.

Carrying out the differentiation of the subintegral expression and

taking into account that the contour is liquid, we shall have

( ) ( )

x x

x x x x

dV dV d d

V dx dx V dx dx V dV

dt dt dt dt

+ + ;

( )

( )

y y

y y y y

dV dV

d d

V dy dy V dy dy V dV

dt dt dt dt

+ +

;

( ) ( )

z z

z z z z

dV dV d d

V dz dz V dz dz V dV

dt dt dt dt

+ + .

Let's substitute the found values with derivatives under the integral:

84

( )

y

z x

x x y y z z

AB

dV

dV d dV

dx dy dz V dV V dV V dV

dt dt dt dt

1

_

+ + + + +

1

,

]

.

Expression in the last brackets represents itself

2

V

d

2

_

,

.

Considering that body forces have potential, and the liquid is barotropic, we

shall write down the Eulers equations (3.5) in the following form:

x

dU dP dV

dx dx dt

;

y

dV

dU dP

dy dy dt

; (3.63)

z

dV dU dP

dz dz dt

.

Replacing the projections of the total acceleration

x

dV

dt

,

y

dV

dt

,

z

dV

dt

with

their values from the differential equations of motion (3.63), we shall have

2

AB

d V

dU dP d

dt 2

1

_

+ 1

1

,

]

or

2

AB

d V

d U P

dt 2

1

+

1

1

]

,

from here

2 2

B A

d V V

U P U P

dt 2 2

_ _

+ +

, ,

. (3.64)

As the values in brackets, i.e. U , P and V , are single-valued

functions, then for closed contour, i.e. when points A and B coincide, the

expression

d

0

dt

or const .

Thus, the velocity circulation will not depend on time. This result

received by Thomson can be formulated in the form of the following

theorem: the velocity circulation over the closed contour, which passes

through the same particles of frictionless liquid does not change in time, with

presence of the body forces possessing the single-valued potential and

barotropy.

85

It follows from the Thomson theorem, that if frictionless liquid starts

moving from quiesant state and is continuous, then the velocity circulation

over arbitrary closed contour within flow will be equal to zero because at the

initial moment of time it was equal to zero. Such flow, as follows from the

Stokes theorem, will be vortex-free, and the field of velocities will be

potential.

Hence, the velocity circulation can appear in a flow of frictionless liquid

under condition of the potentiality of the body forces and presence of

barotropy, as it follows from equality (3.64) only when either function of

pressure P , or flow velocity

V

r

has a jump on some surfaces, and due to

this reason the difference (3.64) differs from zero.

Let's consider an arbitrary wing airfoil as an example. At the initial

moment of movement the liquid is motionless and the velocity circulation at

this moment on any closed contour drawn within liquid, is equal to zero,

including the liquid contour

0

C

covering the airfoil (fig. 3.11,).

With the increasing of the movement the liquid flows, passing around

the wing, start to come down from its trailing edge. If the velocity of the flow

coming down on this edge will have finite size and not equal to zero, then

liquid contour

0

C

will start to stretch and drift into the flow by one part, as it

is shown in fig. 3.11,b.

a b

Fig. 3.11. Occurrence of the circulation around the wing airfoil:

a the liquid is motionless along the airfoil; b the liquid moves along the airfoil

Let's cut the stretched contour

0

C

at the airfoil trailing edge into two

parts: contour C , covering the airfoil, and contour

1

C

, came down from the

airfoil. According to the theorem of velocity circulation change over the

closed liquid contour proved earlier we shall have during all time of

movement

0 1

0 +

,

where is the velocity circulation over contour ;

1

is the velocity

circulation over contour

1

C

.

86

It follows from here, that at any moment of time

1

.

Thus, the velocity circulation over contour , i.e. over the airfoil

contour will always be equal to the velocity circulation taken with the

opposite sign over contour

1

the beginning of the movement.

Let's notice, that the velocity circulation over contour

1

C

will differ from

zero only in case when tangent velocities have a jump on this contour when

transitioning one contour side to opposite one along the normal. Such jump

of tangent velocities behind the airfoil placed in frictionless liquid can be

created if the airfoil trailing edge is sharp. Then, with increasing of the

movement, the flows moving from below of the wing will approach to the aft

edge with the smaller velocity, rather than the flows moving from above, this

is the reason of jump of tangent velocities created at the junction of flows.

Increasing of circulation on the airfoil will continue with the

increasing movement of the flow incoming the airfoil. The line of the jumps

of velocities created during this time is curling up into a spiral behind the

airfoil. This vortex spiral is carried away by the flow far from the airfoil, after

that the motion near the airfoil becomes steady.

When movement of the flow near the airfoil became steady, the lift will

be defined using circulation according to the Zhukovsky theorem.

Let's notice in addition, that formation of vortexes behind the airfoil

occurs not only with appearance of the circulation on the airfoil , but also

with its disappearance, but in the last case the vortex of an opposite sign will

be created behind the airfoil.

3.14. Concept of Flow Similarity. Similarity Parameters

The theory of flow similarity plays especially important role in

aerodynamics as it establishes possibility to transfer the experimental data

received during investigation of model onto natural object. In order to make

possible to transfer the results of the experiments onto real object, it is

necessary to keep the similarity of the studied phenomena.

Let's consider two flows, flowing round two bodies having similar

geometrical shape - a real object and its model (fig. 3.12). We can consider

pictures of flow around both bodies as similar if in the homologic points A

and A

, B and B

, C and C

, etc. velocities of the flow and forces affecting

the homologic elements will be proportional.

87

Fig. 3.12. Pictures of flow around geometrically similar bodies

Two flows are called similar if in arbitrary homologic points and at

arbitrary homologic moments of time the proportionality of the unequivocal

values characterizing these flows remains constant. Similarity of the flows

assumes the presence of the geometrical, kinematic and dynamic similarity.

The kinematic similarity means, that in the homologic points of the

geometrically similar flows at the homologic moments of time the ratio of

velocities

2

V

1

V

K

V

is identical. For geometrical and kinematic similarity the

ratio of the accelerations of motions in the homologic points

2

w

1

w

K

w

is also

identical.

Flows are called dynamically similar if the forces affecting the similar

elements in the homologic moments of time are proportional.

Let's consider the conditions of the dynamic similarity for flow around

bodies with flow of viscous compressed gas. For this purpose we shall make

the system of the equations consisting of the Navier-Stokes equation and

the continuity equation, and also using corresponding boundary and initial

conditions in the dimensionless form.

Let's accept some linear value l as for characteristic length. Other

characteristic magnitudes are the parameters of undisturbed flow: velocity

V

, pressure

p

, density

, temperature

T

, kinematic viscosity

;

characteristic time of process

l

t

V

.

Let's enter the following dimensionless magnitudes:

x

x

l

,

y

y

l

,

z

z

l

,

V

V

V

r

r

,

p

p

p

,

T

T

T

,

F

F

g

r

r

.

Let's transform the Navier-Stokes equation (3.44) and the continuity

equation (2.19). Expressing all dimensional magnitudes via dimensionless

values in them, we shall receive:

88

2

x y z

2

V V V V V V

V V V

t t l x y z

p V 1

gF grad p V grad ( div V ) ;

l 3

l

_

+ + +

,

1

+ +

1

]

r r r r

r r r

(3.65)

V

div ( V ) 0

t t l

r

. (3.66)

Here symbols div

,

grad

and

mean that differentiation is made in

dimensionless coordinates.

Let's divide both parts of the Navier-Stokes equation (3.65) by the

value

2

V

l

V

l

x y z

2 2

l V V V V

V V V

V t t x y z

p gl 1 1

F grad p V grad ( div V ) ;

V l 3

V V

+ + +

1

+ +

1

]

r r r r

r r r

(3.67)

l

div ( V ) 0

V t t

r

. (3.68)

These equations contain some dimensionless parameters: Sh

V t

l

is the Strouhal number; Fr

2

V

gl

Re

V l

is the

Reynolds number;

2

M

2

2 2

p 1 a 1 1 1

V V

,

M

V

=

a

The Reynolds number Re characterizes the ratio of the inertial forces

and the viscosity forces and represents the criterion of viscosity.

The Mach number

M

is the criterion of compressibility,

characterizing the ratio of the inertial force to the pressure force and is equal

to the ratio of velocity of flow to velocity of sound.

The Froude number Fr defines the ratio of the inertial force to gravity

and is the criterion of similarity, which takes into account the influence of

gravity of gas. In the majority of aerodynamics problems the number Fr has

no essential meaning.

The Strouhal number Sh characterizes the ratio of the convective

acceleration of particle motion to the local acceleration and takes into

account the non-stationary movements.

89

Using the dimensionless numbers Re ,

M

, Fr , Sh lets rewrite the

equations (3.67) and (3.68) as follows:

( )

1

]

1

+ +

+

+

+

V v di d gra

3

v

V v

1

p d gra

1 1

1

F

1

z

V

V

y

V

V

x

V

V

t

V 1

z y x

Re M Fr

Sh

2

; (3.69)

( ) 0 V v di

t

1

+

Sh

(3.70)

90

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