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Prof.

Shi Qingqi China Federation of IT Protection, Committee on Green Economy and Informationization Liu Manhong, Mannie Professor, Renmin University Feb. 27, 2012, Manila
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Women Entrepreneurship in China


Brief History

China women entrepreneurs emerged during

1980s, right after Chinas economic reform started in 1979 They accounted less than 10% during 1980s China government established Socialist Market Economy as its basic economic development model in 1995, allowed private enterprises legally participate in the market, Chinas women entrepreneur started booming Increased to about 20% in 2000 Now increased to about 25%

Chinas Women Entrepreneur


Definition We do not have particular definition for women

entrepreneur We believe an entrepreneur who is a woman can be called : woman entrepreneur We use CWEr to represent China Women Entrepreneurs We use CWEs to represent China Womens enterprises

Chinas Women Enterprise


definition

Chinas women enterprise is defined as:


a company owned by a woman

entrepreneur In our 2011 survey: 74% of all women entrepreneurs own more than 51% of their enterprises. But we do not exclude those less than 51% ownership from women enterprise

CAWE: China Association of Women Entrepreneurs


CAWE: established in 1985 The only legitimate national women entrepreneurs

organization registered with the PRC Ministry of Civil Affairs as a non-business legal person Has 69 sub associations from provinces; cities; counties and other regions Members and associated members are close to 10,000

CAWE: global perspective


The CAWE regularly convenes the International

Forum for Outstanding Women Business Leaders and commend Outstanding Women Entrepreneurs and Outstanding Women in Business Creation, organize delegations to attend meetings of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, the UN NGO Annual Conference, the meeting of the UN Commission on the Status of Women and the Global Summit of Women.

China Association of Women Entrepreneurs


The Organization:

CAWE Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Electricity Member Associations

Individual members

Characteristics of China Women Enterprises: a Recent Survey


China Association of Woman Entrepreneurs did

some survey on Chinas entrepreneurs Next we would like to report some of the founding from the recent two surveys: Survey 2009: Sample size 500 survey 2011: Sample size 452 Note: We would like to do more comparison between male and female entrepreneurs, unfortunately, in 2001 survey, we did not collect male entrepreneurs data; we did some comparison based on 2009 data

CWEs: Trend
China Womens Enterprises are

continuously increasing China Womens enterprises accounted for 20% by the beginning of the century Now increased to about 25%, and continuously rising

CWEs: increasing in sizes,2011


CWEs: Sales
10 to 100 m.RMB above 100 m RMB yr 2011

36.50%

20%

yr 2009

36.00%

13%

yr 2006

36.50%

13.60%

yr 2000

21%

13%

China Women Entrepreneurs: Education Level: 2011


40%

38%
2011 2009

35% 31%

36%

35%

30%

25%

20%
20%

16%
15%

17%

10%

7%

5%

0%

High School

Junior College

Bachelor

Master or Above

China Women Entrepreneurs


Education Level, 2009
High School Junior College Bachelor Master or Above

35%
6% higher Than That of men

38%

45%

7% 20%

China Women Entrepreneurs


Education Level , 2011
High School Junior College Bachelor Master or Above

31% Higher than That of 2009 Especially for Master degree Or above 36%

53%

17% 16%

Educational Level: Male/Female


Entrepreneurs Comparison: 2009 data
male
40% 35% 35%

female
38%

21%

20%

7% 4%

High School

Junior College

Bachelor

Master or Above

CWEr: Age Distribution: 2011


50%

2011
45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

2009

45%

46%

34%
30%

22% 18%

3%

2%

<30

31-40

41-50

>50

Age Distribution:
Male/Female Entrepreneurs Comparison: 2009 data
male female
46% 40% 36% 30% 20% 22%

4%

2% 31-40 41-50 >50

<30

CWEr: become younger


2009
2%
22% 30% <30 31-40 41-50 18% <30 34% 3%

2011
2000, 28% (red) 53% (yellow)

>50
46%

31-40
41-50 >50

45%

Sources of (technological and economic) Information for CWEr


90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

78%
67%

2011

2009

63%
55%

61%
48%

48% 47%

45%
39%

49%

39%

Internet

Television

Newspaper

Industry Associaton

Exhibition

Technical Agency

CWEs: Export Proportion


52%

57%

28% 20% 25% 18%

<30%

31-70% 2011 2009

>70%

CWEs: Export Destinations


70% 60% 50%

57%
57% 54%

62%

2011

2009

51%

38% 29% 35%

40%
30% 20% 10%

0%

20 09

North America

Europe South East Asia Japan & Korea

20 11