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Smkhya as Smnyastra

Author(en): Torella, Raffaele Objekttyp: Article

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SMKHYA

AS SMNYASSTRA

Raffaele Torella, Roma

At the very outset of the Samkhya volume in the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, G. J. LARSON wrote:
Many years ago when I met the great Gopinath Kaviraj for the first time in Varanasi, he inquired about my work. I commented that I was working on one of the ancient systems of Indian philosophy, namely, the Smkhya. He impatiently waved his hand to interrupt me. "Smkhya" he said "is not one of the systems of Indian philosophy. Smkhya is the philosophy of India.".

only one darsana among other darsanas, and, in a sense, even one of the most generally criticized. However, this conflicts with other aspects. First of all, no other darsana has
In
its

classical formulation,

Smkhya

is

ever exported its doctrines

so
is

far and to spheres of Indian


is

civilization so

varied, and for


as,

so

long. It

Smkhya that

the source of paradigms such

spirit-consciousness-inactivity as opposed to matterunconsciousness-productivity, so widespread throughout Indian civilization; and, besides this doctrine, which is after all schematic and generic - and can be found in other cultures too -, there also are extremely specific doctrines, which, in spite of their specificity, imposed themselves and circulated to such an extent as to almost make us forget their origin, as in the case of the
for

example,

gunas. One might reply by saying that Smkhya represents the common sense, existence as commonly understood, and therefore it underlies (or lies
side by side) all the bolder and more personal speculative efforts. But it is

not so.

Smkhya has never been the philosophy of common sense, of vyavahra. On the contrary, one of its late interpreters, Vijfianabhiksu,

explicitly denies this


instead.1

and attributes this

qualification

to

Nyya-Vaisesika

Smkhyapravacanabhsya,

p. 2

nanu nyyavaisesikbhym apy etesv arthesu nyyah

tbhym asya gatrthatvam, saguna-nirgunatvdiviruddharpair tmasdhakatay tadyuktibhir atratyayuktinm virodhenobhayor api durghatam ca prmnyam iti / maivam, vyvahrika-pramrthikarpavisayabhedena gatrthatvavirodhayor abhvt. Cf. also Abhinavagupta's statement: naiyyikakramasyaiva mypade pramrthikatvam (Isvarapratyabhijhvimarsini vol.I p. 25). Again, in

pradarsita

iti

554

RAFFAELE TORELLA

As we said, Smkhya has been the object of many critical remarks, for example, those by Sankara, who proposes to demolish particularly one of

doctrines, that of pradhna, leaving, however, the impression that he does not want to deny the importance and coherence of a tradition as a whole but that he aims, through the criticism of it, at better defining his
own position. In fact, after about two centuries, we see Vcaspati Misra take up the issue again and try to integrate Smkhya into Vednta, just as Vijfianabhiksu is to do again some centuries later. Another meaningful

its main

characteristic, also deserving to be analysed, is the fact that old and new Smkhya texts continue being commented upon, even when, strictly speaking, Smkhya adepts - I mean followers of Smkhya as a school perhaps do not exist any longer. If the commentators are not Smkhyas proper, why should they take the trouble of commenting upon Snikhya texts? The answer is quite obvious. In all traditions, the commentary literature mainly follows two lines. On the one hand, a commentary is written with a view to making explicit the teachings of a text and defending them against the criticism of adversary schools. On the other, a commentary is written with an aim at attracting towards one's own orbit a text that is deemed to be important but at the same time ideologically somewhat distant from one's own position; thus a commentary is a device aimed at attempt

ing to appropriate the text. In the latter case, in other words, a prestigious work is mostly commented upon when one, at least prima facie, disagrees

with it. But this generally obtains for texts belonging to the same tradition as the commentator's. Why, then, comment upon a Smkhya text, if one is outside the Smkhya tradition? We may answer by putting one more question, which is, after all, the main subject of this paper: Is it really possible to be outside, totally outside, Smkhya? I should like to conclude these preliminary remarks by pointing out that Smkhya, although so strongly criticized by the Vedntins, is yet assigned, by the Vedntin Mdhava in the Sarvadarsanasamgraha, one of the absolutely highest ranks in the hierarchy of philosophical systems. Let us now try to go a bit deeper into the question by examining the role of Smkhya within one specific tradition, the Tantric one (admitting that we are allowed to speak of Tantrism as of a unitary phenomenon).
Tantrloka XIII.346cd lokdhytmtimrgdikarmayogavidhnatah, says: lokah srutismrtydih, adhytmam vedntdih, atimrgo laukikamrgtitam smkhyaptahjaldi...

commenting
Jayaratha

SMKHYA
Furthermore,

AS SMNYASSTRA

555

speaking of Tantrism means speaking not of a marginal element but of an essential and strongly characterizing component of the entire civilization of the subcontinent, from the medieval age onwards - in

religious, philosophical, and artistic spheres. We find Smkhya doctrines in the very core ofthe metaphysics, cosmology and psychology of Tantrism, and we are not talking of single details but of fully structured systems of beliefs - such as the tattva theory -, which are so perfectly integrated into the tantric speculation that, most likely, we would never have thought of a derivation, had we not been aware ofthe remote origin of Smkhya. This is particularly tme for the Saiva side of Tantrism. In addition to the doctrine of tattvas, or at least the first twenty-three or twenty-four in the Saiva outlook, we find the doctrine of bhvas and
the social,

the three of the obviously that opposition/ pratyayas, gunas, complementarity of the male and female principles in the Absolute, and all this does not concern only the speculative plane but is also firmly grounded in ritual (see for example the role of buddhi-bhvas in the mental constmction of the Siva throne,2 or the five mahbhtas as pervading the entire universe in the so-called pahcatattvadiks,3 and so on). Neither the tantras nor the commentaries and secondary works ever acknowledge these elements as "deriving" from Smkhya, to which, moreover, a somewhat ambiguous treatment is reserved: a certain basic respect, on the one hand,

Somasambhupaddhati I (BRUNNER 1963) p. 158 ff; Mrgendrgama, kriypda, III. 12 and Nryanakantha's Vrtti (cf. BRUNNER 1985: 46); Svacchandatantra 11.61 cd-62 and Ksemarja's Uddyota; Srdhatrisati-klottara V.2cd-3ab and Rmakantha's Vrtti. But cf. Rmakantha's remarks (Srdhatrisati-klottara-vrtti p. 49 dharmdayas tv ete 'nantasya smrthyavisesh yaih sarvam dhatte, jnti, na kenacid anurajyate, sarvesvaras ca bhavatiti / na tu buddhidharm iti maurkhyd vykhyeyam, tesm atra pragamsambhavt) and Ksemarja's (Svacchandatantrauddyota vol.I p. 45 Isvarasaktyadhisthne va etad esm ghatate).

Mahbhrata XII. 187.3-5 prthiv vyur ksam po jyotis ca pahcamam mahbhtni bhtnm sarvesm prabhavpyayau // tatah srstni tatraiva tni ynti punah punah / mahbhtni bhtesu sgarasyormayo yath // prasrya ca yathhgni krmah samharate punah / tadvad bhtni bhttm srstv samharate punah // mahbhtni pahcaiva sarvabhtesu bhtakrt / akarot tesu vaisamyam tat tu jlvo 'nu pasyati //. Srdhatrisati-klottara VIII. 1-2 atha diksm pravaksymi pahcatattvavyavasthitm /prthivy pas tath tejo vyur ksam eva ca // pancaitni ca tattvni yair vyptam akhilam jagat / sarvatattvni tatraiva drastavyni tu sdhakaih //. See also the kaldiks, where the five kals are related to the five mahbhtas, Mrgendrgama, kriypda, VIII. 154cd-155; Svacchandatantra V.12cd-13.

556

RAFFAELE TORELLA
a

strong criticism on specific points, on the other.4 The basic respect does not seem essentially different from that paid to other traditions, too. We may quote statements like this: "Smkhya, Yoga, Pficartra and Vedas cannot be despised, for they originated from Siva; all of them bestow the fruit of liberation" (Svacchandatantra V.44cd-45ab).5 In the hierarchies of
and

liberation they can attain, Smkhya mostly occupies an intermediate rank:6 its purusa, once liberated, is made to correspond approximately7 to the plane of vijnnkala "devoid of kal because of knowledge" or vijhnakevala "isolated because of knowledge" (cf. TORELLA 1994: 199-200), and it is added elsewhere that this plane can be fully reached only through the practice of the yoga (related to the Earth principle) according to the Siva doctrine (Tantrloka X. 170cd-171 dhartattvagatam yogam abhyasya sivavidyay // na tu psavasmkhyiyavaisnavdidvitdrs / aprptadhruvadhmno vijnnkalatjusah //). Sometimes, specific points are discussed, e. g. the theory of the single quality versus the theory of the accumulation of the qualities in the mahbhtas (cf. svarapratyabhijnvivrtivimarsin vol. Ill pp. 297-300).

philosophical-religious systems

and the levels of

Mrgendratantra, vidyapada, kranabuddhitah / akartrbhvd bhoktus


e.g.

See

11.15

ca

smkhyajhne 'pi mithyatvam svtantryd apy acittvatah //.

karye

Pncartra's position on the matter as expounded in a passage cited by Ymuncrya in the gamaprmnya (pp. 61-62) purnais caiva vedais ca pahcartrais tathaiva ca / dhyyanti yogino nityam kratubhis ca yajanti tam // evam ekam snkhyayogam vedranyakam eva ca /parasparngny etani pahcartram ca sattama //. After quoting and commenting upon the latter verse in the rbhasya (vol.11 p. 561, on Brahmastra II.2.42), Rmnuja refers to one more verse: smkhyam yogah pancartram vedh psupatam tath / tmapramnny etani na hantavyni hetubhih //.
Cf.
the

quoted by Rmakantha in his Praksa on Sadyojyotis's Naresvarapariks (p. 207, on III.80) yac chryate - buddhitattve sthit bauddh gunesu tv rhath sthith / gunamrdhni sthith smkhya avyakte phcartrikh sthit vedavidah pumsi. A very similar passage (but omitting the reference to the
See
e.

g.

the

passage

quoted in Pratyabhijhhrdaya and in many other Saiva texts.

Smkhyas)

is

p.

18,

Tantrlokavrttika vol. IV

p.

131,

Isvarapratyabhijhkrikvrtti p. 68 (on III.2.7) te ca smkhyapurusapry vijhnakevala ity ucyante; Pratyabhijhhrdaya p. 18 smkhydayas tu vijhnkalaprym bhmim avalambante. The reason of this imperfect equivalence is thoroughly explained by Abhinavagupta in Isvarapratyabhijnvivrtivimarsini III p. 322, where he concludes his argumentation by saying, once again: tatah smkhyaih purusair yat sdrsyam, tad tyantikam tajjtiyatparyantam na bhavati - iti pryikam sdrsyam
Cf.

yuktam.

SMKHYA

AS SMNYASSTRA

557

Generally, preference is given to the latter, but mainly on the basis of the observation of Saiva ritual, which mostly presupposes it.8 Sometimes, this is also accompanied by a certain annoyance at entering into the play of the rival positions within the Smkhya schools (Isvarapratyabhijnvimarsin vol.11 pp. 213-214 tatraikaikagunam ksdi, ekaikavrddhagunam v - iti darsanabhedah - iti na vivecito 'nupayogtf. In order to attempt an overall evaluation of the Saiva position towards Smkhya, I will focus on a specific point: the doctrine of bhvas and pratyayas, i.e. the basic components of intellectual and psychological life of the individual. This doctrine, or perhaps two distinct doctrines belonging to distinct phases in the evolution of Smkhya,10 has been the object of different interpretations and formulations." The Mrgendratantra basically presents this doctrine in the terms in which it occurs in the Smkhyakrik, and the commentator Nryanakantha remains on the same lines. Only, they solve the question of the relationship between bhvas and pratyayas - a question that the Smkhya texts essentially leave unanswered - in terms of genetic connection: bhvas are explicitly made to be the causes of pratyayas (Mrgendrgama, vidypda, X.25a pratyayas tadupdns; Vrtti, KSTS ed., p. 220 ...utpattihetur yesm or the latter the gross form, or actualization, ofthe former (Aghorasiva's Tika on Bhogakrik 60, p. 217, ta eva [bhvah] prakarsvasthm prpth sthlena rpena bhogyadasm

diksklena ca visuddham prvam tattvam dharm apsu uttaratra yojariiyam iti [...] tatra krane kryasya pravilayo yojanam ca / 'yuktah iti sa eva ayam bahutargamnugrhitah paksah iti yvat. Also the yoga practice named dhran - in this case a practice shared both by Saivas and Smkhyas - is in accordance with the accumulation theory (ibid, nanu kimartham saivasmkhydaya ittham huh
p.

Isvarapratyabhijhvivriivimarsini III
'

299

However, a fairly detailed discussion of the issue can Tantrasra VIII.


This
is the

be

found

in

Tantrloka IX and

10
11

opinion of FRAUWALLNER 1973:1,268.


:

We may start from the derogatory remarks of GARBE 1917: 341 "In der Beschreibung dieser Zustnde zeigt sich die Klassifizierungssucht der Smkhya-Philosophie im hellsten Lichte; ihre Zahlenmanie nimmt geradezu den Charakter des Albernen an. Der
ganze Gegenstand darf als die schwache Seite des Systems bezeichnet werden." On bhvas see e.g. Garbe 1917: 339-340, van Buitenen 1956: 153-157, Larson-

BHATTACHARYA

1987:

53-54;

on

pratyayas

see,

besides

Garbe 1917: 340-345, Oberhammer 1961, Oberhammer BHATTACHARYA 1987: 56-59, 631-634. A detailed treatment ofthe bhva-pratyaya doctrine can be found in Yuktidipik pp. 230-253.

FRAUWALLNER 1973, 1977: 17-57, Larson-

558

RAFFAELE TORELLA

The latter passage pannh samsrinm pratyyantpratyayh kathyante also contains an etymological explanation of the term pratyaya, derived from Nryanakantha (Mrgendravrtti p. 220 te dharmdaya updnam

samsrynoh pratyyant pratyay isth), who also quotes ibid. an anonymous verse with an etymological explanation of bhva (bhvayanty tmano Ungarn tena bhv iti smrth ).12 Neither of these two etymological explanations belongs to the Smkhya tradition.13 After

utpattihetur yesm

te

Mrgendra and Nryankantha's discourse about the fifty pratyayas with no objection, the sub-commentator Aghorasiva rather unexpectedly remarks that this is not the final assessment of the question both as regards the features and number of the pratyayas - which instead is to be found in the Saiva tradition and, particularly, in the Matangapramesvaratantra (Mrgendravrtti-dipk p. 282 te ca siddhydayah pancsat pratyayh smkhyasiddh evtra darsith / natu siddhntasiddhh srimatangdv anyathaiva tallaksanasya tatsamkhyys cbhidhnt). In fact, if we look into the vidypda of this Agama (patata XVII), we find a

following

the

12

still cryptic explanation (but cf. also Matahgapramesvaravrtti, vidypda, 389: bhvayanti adhivsayanti buddhim yato dharmdayo 'nusthith, tato bhvah p. kathyante) is party elucidated by Aghoraiva in his Dipik on the Mrgendravrtti
(p. 280 buddhau vsantvena sthit

This

dharmdayo 'stau bhv ity arthah / ete cetydi sttvikasuddh /read sttviko suddh] matih pravrtt yasya pumsah tasya dharmdayas catvro bhv bhavantiti bhvah). I am very grateful to Professor Alexis Sanderson for providing me with a copy of this rare text. The editor of the Dipik traces the verse explaning the term pratyaya to the Pauskargama. In fact, in patala VI of the vidypda of the edited Pauskara we can find not only the same explanation of pratyaya (VI.124ab pratyyayanti ksetrajham tena te pratyayh smrth) but also that of bhva (VI.50cd-51a ete dharmdayas cstau bhvayanti yatas tatah // lihgabhvt /read Ungarn bhvah] samuddistfh]). However, it seems very unlikely that such a late (and southern) compilation as the edited Pauskargama can represent the source of this old doctrine, and all the more so if we consider that this text shows at many points its endebtment to the Matanga, probably read in the light of Rmakantha's vrtti. In the latter work (p. 389), both verses are quoted, while Rmakantha comments upon vidypda, XVII.26cd-27ab pratyayo 'ksrthayogotthah pumsah pratyayakrt sad // bhvantah smrto bhvo vsyate yena pudgalah /.
13

Yuktidipik p. 239 (on Smkhyakrik 46ab): pratyayasarga iti pratyayh padrtho laksanam itiparyyh / [...] athav pratyayo buddhih niscayo 'dhyavasya iti paryyh / tasya sargo 'yam, atah pratyayas ar gah pratyayakryam pratyayavypra ity arthah / athav pratyayaprvakah sargah pratyayasargah / buddhiprvaka ity uktah.
See e.g.

SMKHYA

AS SMNYASSTRA

559

conception that is essentially new with respect to Smkhya.14 Not only does this scripture view the pratyayas as the direct outcome of the eight bhvas, as also the Mrgendra does, but also amplifies their number and in many a case modifies their meanings and functions. Without going into details, we can limit ourselves to saying that 5 yamas and 5 niyamas derive from dharma; 8 siddhis, multiplied by 10 different philosophical viewpoints, derive from jnna; 10 tustis, also multiplied by 10 different philosophical viewpoints, derive from vairgya; 10 aisvaryas (the usual list animdi) multiplied by 8 different ways of existence derive from aisvarya, 10 opposites to yamas and niyamas derive from adharma, 5 viparyayas (i.e. the usual Smkhya list: tamas, moha, etc.) derive from ajnna; 10 atustis derive from avairgya; and 21 asaktis derive from anaisvarya}5 Thus the number of pratyayas raises to three hundred. But the Saiva elaboration of the bhva-pratyaya doctrine does not stop here. In the Pauskargama, mentioned above, the pratyayas are further multiplied: now they are six hundred twelve (vidypda, VI.127ab sambhya vrttayo buddheh sat satam dvdasdhikam). This handling of Smkhya concepts and doctrines by Saiva tantras as they were their own, that is, tantric Saiva doctrines - particularly in the case of a doctrine so typically Smkhya, with all the peculiarity of its often abstruse and archaic terminology - the familiarity that these tantras and their commentators show in modifying and integrate them, all this suggests a tentative conclusion. There is not one Smkhya but, as it were, two Smkhyas. One is a relatively coherent complex of doctrines and beliefs which has become, subliminally as it were, an integral part of Indian

14

As is often the case in Tantrism (cf. the attitude of most of tantric literature towards vedic sruti), the relationship between the two conceptions is assumed to be that of

smnya/visesa (see Mrgendravrttidipik p. 291, on XI. 1, astau navetydin samksepena srnkhysritapancsatpratyayasamkhyy darsitatvt siddhydinm svarpalaksanam api tad uktam eveti [...] visesalaksanam asmbhih prvaprakarana
eva
15

darsitam).
couple of verses
by

Rmakantha himself aptly summarize the entire doctrine (Matangapramesvaravrtti, vidypda, p. 417, ad XVII.157cd): dharmdayo eva bhvah kramena pratyayarpatm prpt iti /evam satatrayasamkhytra darsit /na tu smkhyair iva pancsad ity uktam anyatra - dharmo dasabhir bhedair jrinam

asity satena vairgyam / aisvaryam catussasty dasabhir adharmas tadardhato 'jhnam // dasabhir avairgyam cnaisvaryam bhinnam ekavimsaty / bhvapratyayabhedah samksepoktah satatrayenyam //.

560

RAFFAELE TORELLA

tradition,16 impelled by its intrinsic power and prestige deriving above all from its being the first bold and consistent systemization of the scattered patrimony of upanisadic speculations. The other is the Smkhya as a darsana trying to put in order or develop, in some way or other, these doctrines, which are perceived as a timeless legacy even by those that are not their direct upholders. One wonders whether this could be an acceptable explanation of the sentence, apparently so incongruous, pronounced by Aghorasiva in the Mrgendravrttidipik: Also the followers of Smkhya ["also", that is, in addition to us Saivas] admit of 24 tattvas ...17

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abhinavagupta, Isvarapratyabhijnvivrtivimarsini, edited by Madhusdan Kaul SHASTRI, LXII LXV, Bombay 1938-43.

vols. I-III, KSTS LX

Abhinavagupta, Isvarapratyabhijhvimarsini, edited by Mukund Rm SHASTRI, vols. KSTS XXII XXXIII, Bombay 1918-1921.

I-II,

Abhinavagupta, Tantrasra, edited by Mukunda Ram SHASTRI, KSTS, XVII, Srinagar 1918. Abhinavagupta, Tantrloka with Commentary by Rjnaka Jayaratha, edited with notes by Madhusdan Kaul SHASTRI, vols. I-XII, KSTS XXIII, XXVIII, XXX, XXXVI, XXXV, XXIX, XLI, XL VII,, LIX LII, LVII, LVIII, Allahbad-Srinagar-Bombay 19181938.

Aghorasiva, Bhogakrik-tik (see Astaprakaranarri)

Aghorasiva, Mrgendravrttidipik (see Srimrgendram

Astaprakaranam, edited by Vrajavallabha DVIVEDi, Yogatantra-Granthaml 1988.

12,

Varanasi

16

For example, it even seems that Smkhya was one of the subjects taught in Buddhist universities. Hsuan-Tsang's report refers to Nland: "The priests, belonging to the

convent, or strangers (residing therein) always reach the number of 10,000, who all study the Great Vehicle, and also (works belonging to) the eighteen sects, and not only so, but even ordinary works, such as the Vedas and other books, the Hetuvidy, Sabdavidy, Chikitsvidy, the works on Magic (Atharvaveda), the Smkhya;" (Beal
1911: 112)
17

"prakrter mahms tato 'hamkras tasmd gunas [read sodasakt pahcabhyah pahcabhtni [Smkhyakrik ganas] ca sodasakah 22]"; see also p. 237 smkhyair api gaunam caturvimsatitattvtmakam isyate, etc.
P.

276 smkhyair apy uktam

/ tasmt

SMKHYA

AS SMNYASSTRA

561

Ksemarja, Pratyabhijhhrdayam, edited by Mukunda Ram SHASTRI, KSTS III, Srinagar 1918.

Matahgapramesvargama (Vidypda), avec


dition critique par N.R. BHATT, Publications Pondichry 1977.
by Madhusdan Kaul

le
de

commentaire

de

Bhatta Rmakantha,

l'Institut Franais d'Indologie No.56,

Mrgendratantra (vidypda and yogapda) with commentary of Nryanakantha, edited

Shastri, KSTS
et

L,

Bombay 1930.

Mrgendrgama, Kriypda

Carypda, avec le commentaire de Bhatta Rmakantha, dition critique par N.R. BHATT, Publications de l'Institut Franais d'Indologie No.23, Pondichry 1962.

Srmrgendram, kmikopgamam, vidyyogapdadvayamilitam sribhattanryanakanthaviracitay vrtty tadvykhyayghorasivcryaviracitay dipikay clahkrtam, [...] n. krsnasstrin [...] ke. em. subrahmanyaastrin ca [...] samsodhya, Sivgamasiddhntapariplansamghapraksyasamkhy 12, Devakottai 1928.
Nryanakantha, Mrgendravrtti (see Mrgendratantra)

Pauskargama, edited by

K.

Ramachandra SARMA, Adyar Library Bulletin, 58, 1994.

Rmnuja, Eribhsyam, with the commentary Bhsyrthadarpana by [...] Sri Uttamur T. Viraraghavacharya, 2 parts, Ubhaya Vednta Granthaml, Madras 1964.
Ram SHASTRI, KSTS

Sadyojyotis, Naresvarapariks with Commentary XLV, Srinagar 1926.

by

Rmakantha, edited by Mukunda

Smkhyadarsanam, maharsi-srikapila-pranitam, vijhnabhiksu-viracita-pravacanabhsya, [...] pandita-srisubodha-vidybhsana-pandita-srinityabodha-vidyratabhym samskrtam praksitan ca, Calcutta 1936.

Srdhatrisatiklottargama, avec
par N.R.

Bhatt, Publications

de

Bhatta Rmakantha, dition critique l'Institut Franais d'Indologie No.61, Pondichry 1979.
le

commentaire

de

Somasambhupaddhati

(see BRUNNER

1963-1977)
edited
by

Svacchandatantra, with commentary "Uddyota " by Ksemarjcrya, DVIVEDI, Vols. I-II, Parimal Sanskrit Series No. 16, Delhi 1985.

V.V.

Vijfianabhiksu, Smkhyapravacanabhsya

(see

Smkhyadarsanam)

Ymuna, gamaprmnya (see BUITENEN 1971)

Yuktidipik, critically edited by A. WEZLER and Sh. MOTEGI, vol.1, Alt- und Neu-Indische Studien herausgegeben vom Institut fr Kultur und Geschichte Indiens und Tibets an der Universitt Hamburg, 44, Stuttgart 1998.

562

RAFFAELE TORELLA

TRANSLATIONS AND STUDIES


(1911) The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an Account of the Works of I-Tsing, with a Preface by L. Cranmer-Byng.

Beal,

S.

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