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AllYouNeedToKnowAbout ACitizenofaStateWhoIsNotA CitizenOftheUnitedStates

2012DanGoodman SincetheFourteenthAmendmentandtheSlaughterhouseCases,thereisacitizen oftheUnitedStates,andacitizenofaStatewhoisnotacitizenoftheUnitedStates: WecometothecontentionthatthecitizenshipofEdwardswasnotaverredin thecomplaintorshownbytherecord,andhencejurisdictiondidnotappear. Inansweringthequestion,whethertheCircuitCourthadjurisdictionofthe controversy,wemustputourselvesintheplaceoftheCircuitCourtofAppeals,and decidethequestionwithreferencetothetranscriptofrecordinthatcourt. HadthetranscriptshownnothingmoreastothestatusofEdwardsthanthe avermentofthecomplaintthathewasaresidentoftheStateofDelaware,assuch anavermentwouldnotnecessarilyhaveimportedthatEdwardswasacitizenof Delaware,anegativeanswerwouldhavebeenimpelledbypriordecisions.Mexican CentralRy.Co.v.Duthie,189U.S.76;Hornev.GeorgeH.HammondCo.,155U.S.393; Dennyv.Pironi,141U.S.121;Robertsonv.Cease,97U.S.646.Thewholerecord, however,maybelookedto,forthepurposeofcuringadefectiveavermentof citizenship,wherejurisdictioninaFederalcourtisassertedtodependupon diversityofcitizenship,andiftherequisitecitizenship,isanywhereexpressly averredintherecord,orfactsarethereinstatedwhichinlegalintendment constitutesuchallegation,thatissufficient.Hornev.GeorgeH.HammondCo.,supra andcasescited. Asthisisanactionatlaw,weareboundtoassumethatthetestimonyofthe plaintiffcontainedinthecertificateoftheCircuitCourtofAppeals,andrecitedto havebeengivenonthetrial,waspreservedinabillofexceptions,whichformed partofthetranscriptofrecordfiledintheCircuitCourtofAppeals.Beingapartof therecord,andpropertoberesortedtoinsettlingaquestionofthecharacterof thatnowunderconsideration,Robertsonv.Cease,97U.S.648,wecometoascertain whatisestablishedbytheuncontradictedevidencereferredto. Inthefirstplace,itshowsthatEdwards,priortohisemploymentontheNew YorkSunandtheNewHavenPalladium,waslegallydomiciledintheStateof Delaware.Next,itdemonstratesthathehadnointentiontoabandonsuchdomicil, 1

forhetestifiedunderoathasfollows:OneofthereasonsIlefttheNewHaven Palladiumwas,itwastoofarawayfromhome.IlivedinDelaware,andIhadtogo backandforth.MyfamilyareoverinDelaware.Now,itiselementarythat,toeffect achangeofoneslegaldomicil,twothingsareindispensable:First,residenceina newdomicil,and,second,theintentiontoremainthere.Thechangecannotbe made,exceptfactoetanimo.Botharealikenecessary.Eitherwithouttheotheris insufficient.Mereabsencefromafixedhome,howeverlongcontinued,cannotwork thechange.Mitchellv.UnitedStates,21Wall.350. AsDelawaremust,then,beheldtohavebeenthelegaldomicilofEdwardsatthe timehecommencedthisaction,haditappearedthathewasacitizenofthe UnitedStates,itwouldhaveresulted,byoperationoftheFourteenth Amendment,thatEdwardswasalsoacitizenoftheStateofDelaware.Anderson v.Watt,138U.S.694.Bethisasitmay,however,Delawarebeingthelegaldomicilof Edwards,itwasimpossibleforhimtohavebeenacitizenofanotherState,District, orTerritory,andhemustthenhavebeeneitheracitizenofDelawareoracitizen orsubjectofaforeignState.Ineitherofthesecontingencies,theCircuitCourt wouldhavehadjurisdictionoverthecontroversy.But,inthelightofthetestimony, wearesatisfiedthattheavermentinthecomplaint,thatEdwardswasaresidentof theStateofDelaware,wasintendedtomean,and,reasonablyconstrued,mustbe interpretedasaverring,thattheplaintiffwasacitizenoftheStateofDelaware. Jonesv.Andrews,10Wall.327,331;ExpressCompanyv.Kountze,8Wall.342.Sun Printing&PublishingAssociationv.Edwards:194U.S.377,at381thru383(1904).
http://books.google.com/books?id=tekGAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA381#v=onepage&q&f=false

Also: TheactwasconsideredinJohnsonv.UnitedStates,160U.S.546,andwethere heldthatapersonwhowasnotacitizenoftheUnitedStatesatthetimeofan allegedappropriationofhispropertybyatribeofIndianswasnotentitledto maintainanactionintheCourtofClaimsundertheactinquestion.Therewasnot inthatcase,however,anyassertionthattheclaimantwasacitizenofaStateas distinguishedfromacitizenoftheUnitedStates....[U]ndoubtedlyinapurely technicalandabstractsensecitizenshipofoneoftheStatesmaynotinclude citizenshipoftheUnitedStates...Unquestionably,inthegeneralandcommon acceptation,acitizenoftheStateisconsideredassynonymouswithcitizenofthe UnitedStates,andtheoneisthereforetreatedasexpressiveoftheother.This flowsfromthefactthattheoneisnormallyandusuallytheother,andwhere suchisnotthecase,itispurelyexceptionalanduncommon.UnitedStatesv. NorthwesternExpress,Stage&TransportationCompany:164U.S.686,688(1897). [Footnote1]
http://books.google.com/books?id=xOQGAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA688#v=onepage&q=&f=false

AcitizenoftheUnitedStatesisrecognizedinSection1,Clause1oftheFourteenth Amendment.AcitizenofaStatewhoisnotacitizenoftheUnitedStatesis recognizedatArticleIV,Section2,Clause1oftheConstitutionoftheUnitedStates ofAmerica: ...Thereisnoinherentrightinacitizentothussellintoxicatingliquorsby retail.ItisnotaprivilegeofacitizenoftheStateorofacitizenoftheUnited States.Crowleyv.Christensen:137U.S.86,at91(1890).[Footnote2]


http://books.google.com/books?id=htIGAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA91#v=onepage&q&f=false

Anotherobjectiontotheactisthatitisinviolationofsection2,art.4,ofthe constitutionoftheUnitedStates,andofthefourteenthamendment,inthatthisact discriminatesbothastopersonsandproducts.Section2,art.4,declaresthatthe citizensofeachstateshallbeentitledtoalltheprivilegesandimmunitiesofthe citizensoftheseveralstates;andthefourteenthamendmentdeclaresthatnostate shallmakeorenforceanylawwhichshallabridgetheprivilegesandimmunitiesof citizensoftheUnitedStates.Butwehaveseenthatthesupremecourt,inCrowleyv. Christensen,137U.S.91,11Sup.Ct.Rep.15,hasdeclaredthatthereisnoinherent rightinacitizentosellintoxicatingliquorsbyretail.Itisnotaprivilegeofacitizen ofastateorofacitizenoftheUnitedStates.Cantiniv.Tillman:54Fed.Rep.969, at973(1893).
http://books.google.com/books?id=Ehg4AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA973#v=onepage&q&f=false

PrivilegesandimmunitiesofacitizenoftheUnitedStatesarenotthesameas privilegesandimmunitiesofacitizenofaState: OftheprivilegesandimmunitiesofthecitizenoftheUnitedStates,andof theprivilegesandimmunitiesofthecitizenoftheState,andwhattheyrespective are,wewillpresentlyconsider;butwewishtostateherethatitisonlytheformer whichareplacedbythisclause(Section1,Clause2oftheFourteenthAmendment) undertheprotectionoftheFederalConstitution,andthatthelatter,whateverthey maybe,arenotintendedtohaveanyadditionalprotectionbythisparagraphofthe amendment.SlaughterhouseCases:83U.S.(16Wall.)36,at74(1873).[Footnote 3]


http://books.google.com/books?id=DkgFAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA74#v=onepage&q&f=false

AcitizenoftheUnitedStatescanbecomealsoacitizenofaState,underSection1, Clause1oftheFourteenthAmendment: Thequestionispresentedinthiscase,whether,sincetheadoptionofthe 3

fourteenthamendment,awoman,whoisacitizenoftheUnitedStatesANDtheState ofMissouri,isavoterinthatState,notwithstandingtheprovisionoftheconstitution andlawsoftheState,whichconfinetherightofsuffragetomenalone.... Thereisnodoubtthatwomenmaybecitizens.Theyarepersons,andbythe fourteenthamendmentallpersonsbornornaturalizedintheUnitedStatesand subjecttothejurisdictionthereofareexpresslydeclaredtobecitizensofthe UnitedStatesandoftheStatewhereintheyreside.Minorv.Happersett:88U.S. (21Wall.)162,at165(1874).


http://books.google.com/books?id=IEsGAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA165#v=onepage&q&f=false

TheFourteenthAmendmentdeclaresthatcitizensoftheUnitedStatesare citizensofthestatewithintheyreside;thereforetheplaintiffwasatthetimeof makingherapplication,acitizenoftheUnitedStatesANDacitizenoftheStateof Illinois. Wedonotheremeantosaythattheremaynotbeatemporaryresidenceinone State,withintenttoreturntoanother,whichwillnotcreatecitizenshipinthe former.Buttheplaintiffstatesnothingtotakehercaseoutofthedefinitionof citizenshipofaStateasdefinedbythefirstsectionofthefourteenthamendment. Bradwellv.theStateofIllinois:83U.S.130,at138(1873).[Footnote4]


http://books.google.com/books?id=DkgFAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA138#v=onepage&q=&f=false

Thus,acitizenoftheUnitedStateswouldbealsoacitizenofaState,andwould haveprivilegesandimmunitiesofacitizenoftheUnitedStatesANDprivilegesand immunitiesofacitizenofaState. Therefore,inanyStateoftheUnion,therearetwoStatecitizens,acitizenofa State,underArticleIV,Section2,Clause1oftheConstitution,andalsoacitizenofa State(andacitizenoftheUnitedStates),underSection1,Clause1oftheFourteenth Amendment.[Footnote5] AcitizenoftheUnitedStatesistoidentifiedhiscitizenshipinafederalcourtbyaverring thatheorsheisacitizenoftheUnitedStatesANDacitizenofaStateoftheUnion: ThecourtsoftheUnitedStateshavenotjurisdictionincasesbetweencitizens oftheUnitedStates,unlesstherecordexpresslystatesthemtobecitizensof differentstates.Woodv.Wagon:6U.S.(2Cranch)1(1804).
http://books.google.com/books?id=qzkFAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA9#v=onepage&q&f=false

ThereasonforthisisthatacitizenoftheUnitedStatescanbeacitizenoftheUnitedStates withoutbeingacitizenofaState,asinthecaseoflivingoverseas(aboard). AcitizenofaStateistoaverthatheorsheisacitizenofaStateoftheUnion: ThebillfiledintheCircuitCourtbytheplaintiff,McQuesten,allegedhertobe acitizenoftheUnitedStatesandoftheStateofMassachusetts,andresidingat TurnerFallsinsaidState,whilethedefendantsSteiglederandwifewerealleged tobecitizensoftheStateofWashington,andresidingatthecityofSeattleinsaid State.StatementoftheCase,Steigleiderv.McQuesten:198U.S.141(1905). TheavermentinthebillthatthepartieswerecitizensofdifferentStates wassufficienttomakeaprimafaciecaseofjurisdictionsofarasitdependedon citizenship.Opinion,Steigleiderv.McQuesten:198U.S.141,at142(1905). [Footnote6]
http://books.google.com/books?id=ceIGAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA141#v=onepage&q&f=false

Thus,acitizenofaState,sincetheadoptionoftheFourteenthAmendmentandthe SlaughterhouseCases,canbealitigantinfederalcourt. AcitizenofaState,sincetheadoptionoftheFourteenthAmendmentandthe SlaughterhouseCases,canpursueacauseofactionagainstanothercitizenofa differentState: TheappellantsbroughtsuitintheUnitedStatesDistrictCourtfortheSouthern DistrictofNewYorkforthepurposeofrecoveringfromtheTrusteeaninterestina trustestatewhichhadbeensold,transferredandassignedbyConradMorrisBraker, thebeneficiary.ThecomplainantswerecitizensandresidentsofPennsylvania. BothdefendantswerecitizensandresidentsofNewYork.Notwithstandingthe diversityofcitizenship,thecourtdismissedthebillonthegroundthat,asthe assignorBraker,acitizenofNewYork,couldnotintheUnitedStatesDistrictCourt, havesuedFletcher,TrusteeandcitizenofthesameState,neithercouldthe Complainants,hisassignees,suetherein,eventhoughtheywereresidentsofthe StateofPennsylvania. Theappealfromthatdecisioninvolvesaconstructionof24oftheJudicialCode, whichlimitsthejurisdictionoftheUnitedStatesDistrictCourtwhensuitisbrought therein...torecoveruponanypromissorynoteorotherchoseinactioninfavor ofanyassignee.....Brownv.Flectcher:235U.S.589,at594thru595(1914).
http://books.google.com/books?id=44GAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA594#v=onepage&q&f=false

AcitizenofaState,sincetheadoptionoftheFourteenthAmendment,canbe pursuedinacauseofactionagainstacitizenofaforeignState: BytheConstitution,thejudicialpoweroftheUnitedStatesextendsto controversiesbetweencitizensofaState,andforeignStates,citizensorsubjects. Andbystatute,CircuitCourtsoftheUnitedStateshaveoriginalcognizanceofall suitsofacivilnature,atcommonlaworinequity,inwhichthereisacontroversy betweencitizensofaStateandforeignStates,citizens,orsubjects.25Stat.433,c. 866..... AscomplainantswerecitizensofaforeignStateanddefendantwasacitizen ofNebraska,asaffirmativelyappearedfromthepleadings,noissueoffact arisinginthatregard,theCircuitCourthadjurisdiction.Hennessyv. RichardsonDrugCompany:189U.S.25,at34(1903).[Foonote6]
http://books.google.com/books?id=KWoUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA34#v=onepage&q&f=false

Therefore,acitizenofaState,underArticleIV,Section2,Clause1oftheConstitutioncan bealitigantinfederalcourt. ________________________ Footnotes: 1.Andthereisthis: AsamanmaybeacitizenofaStatewithoutbeingacitizenoftheUnitedStates, andasSection1428,RevisedStatutes,requiresallofficersofallUnitedStates vesselstobecitizensoftheUnitedStates,allofficersoftheNavalMilitiamustbe malecitizensoftheUnitedStatesaswellasoftherespectiveStates,Territories,of theDistrictofColumbia,ofmorethan18andlessthan45yearsofage.General OrdersofNavyDepartment(Seriesof1913);Ordersremaininginforceupto January29,1918;GeneralOrderNo.153,Page17,Para73.
http://books.google.com/books?id=zYEtAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA17#v=onepage&q&f=false

Too: "ResidentAliens.(a)Forpurposesofanyprovisionofthiscodethatrequiresan applicantforalicenseorpermittobeaUnitedStatescitizenORTexascitizen, regardlessofwhetheritappliestoanindividual,apercentageofstockholdersofa 6

corporation,ormembersofapartnership,firm,orassociation,anindividualwhois notaUnitedStatescitizenbutwholegallyresidesinthestateistreatedasaUnited StatescitizenANDacitizenofTexas.(AddedbyActs1979,66thLeg.,p.1971,ch. 777,Sec.18,eff.Aug.27,1979.) Source:TexasAlcoholicBeverageCode;Title1,Chapter1,Section1.07


http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/ http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/AL/htm/AL.1.htm#1.07

2....IntheConstitutionandlawsoftheUnitedStates,thewordcitizenis generally,ifnotalways,usedinapoliticalsensetodesignateonewhohastherights andprivilegesofacitizenofaStateoroftheUnitedStates.Baldwinv.Franks: 120U.S.678,at690(1887).


http://books.google.com/books?id=c04GAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA690#v=onepage&q&f=false

3.ItistobenotedthatprivilegesandimmunitiesofacitizenofaStateareinthe constitutionandlawsofaparticularState: ...Whatevermaybethescopeofsection2ofarticleIVandweneednot,in thiscaseenteruponaconsiderationofthegeneralquestiontheConstitutionof theUnitedStatesdoesnotmaketheprivilegesandimmunitiesenjoyedbythe citizensofoneStateundertheconstitutionandlawsofthatState,themeasureofthe privilegesandimmunitiestobeenjoyed,asofright,byacitizenofanotherState underitsconstitutionandlaws.McKanev.Durston:153U.S.684,at687(1894).


http://books.google.com/books?id=mmkUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA687#v=onepage&q=&f=false

4.AcitizenofaStatewhoisnotacitizenoftheUnitedStatesisalsoacitizenofthe severalStatesunderArticleIV,Section2,Clause1oftheConstitution.Seemywork YesacitizenofaStateisalsoacitizenoftheseveralStatesundertheConstitution. 5.TheConstitutionforbidstheabridgingoftheprivilegesofacitizenoftheUnited States,butdoesnotforbidthestatefromabridgingtheprivilegesofitsowncitizens. TherightswhichapersonhasasacitizenoftheUnitedStatesarethosewhichthe ConstitutionandlawsoftheUnitedStatesconferuponacitizenasacitizenofthe 7

UnitedStates.Forinstance,amanisacitizenofastatebyvirtueofhisbeing residentthere;but,ifhemovesintoanotherstate,hebecomesatonceacitizen therebyoperationoftheConstitution(Section1,Clause1oftheFourteenth Amendment)makinghimacitizenthere;andneedsnospecialnaturalization,which, butfortheConstitution,hewouldneed. Ontheotherhand,therightsandprivilegeswhichacitizenofastatehasare thosewhichpertaintohimasamemberofsociety,andwhichwouldbehisifhis statewerenotamemberoftheUnion.Overthesethestateshavetheusualpower belongingtogovernment,subjecttotheprovisothattheyshallnotdenytoany personwithinthejurisdiction(i.e.,totheirowncitizens,thecitizensofotherstates, oraliens)theequalprotectionofthelaws.Thesepowersextendtoallobjects, which,intheordinarycourseofaffairs,concernthelives,liberties,privileges,and propertiesofpeople,andoftheinternalorder,improvement,andprosperityofthe state.Federalist,No.45Hopkinsv.CityofRichmond:86S.E.Rep.139,at145;117 Va.692;Ann.Cas.1917D,1114(1915),citingtheentireopinionofTownofAshland v.Coleman,initsopinion(percuriam);overruledonothergrounds,Irvinev.Cityof CliftonForge:97S.E.Rep.310,310;124Va.781(1918),citingtheSupremeCourtof theUnitedStatescaseofBuchananv.Warley,245U.S.60;38Sup.Ct.16,62L.Ed. 149.
http://books.google.com/books?id=oDY8AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA145#v=onepage&q&f=false

TownofAshlandv.Coleman:
http://books.google.com/books?id=1SoZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA427#v=onepage&q&f=false

...Itiscontendedthatthe1stsectionoftheFourteenthAmendmenthasbeen violated?ThatsectiondeclaresthatallpersonsbornintheUnitedStatesare citizensoftheUnitedStatesandtheStatewhereintheyreside,andprovidesthat noStateshallmakeorenforceanylawwhichshallabridgetheprivilegesorcitizens oftheUnitedStates,nordenytoanypersonwithinitsjurisdictiontheequal protectionofthelaws.Thissection,afterdeclaringthatallpersonsborninthe UnitedStatesshallbecitizens(1)oftheUnitedStatesand(2)oftheStatewherein theyreside,goesoninthesamesentencetoprovidethatnoStateshallabridgethe privilegesofcitizensoftheUnitedStates;butdoesnotgoontoforbidaStatefrom abridgingtheprivilegesofitsowncitizens.Leavingthematterofabridgingthe privilegesofitsowncitizenstothediscretionofeachState,thesectionproceeds,in regardtothelatter,onlytoprovidethatnoStateshalldenytoanypersonwithinits jurisdictiontheequalprotectionofthelaws.... 8

TherightswhichapersonhasacitizenofaStatearethosewhichpertaintohim asamemberofsociety,andwhichwouldbelongtohimifhisStatewerenota memberoftheAmericanUnion.OverthesetheStateshavetheusualpowers belongingtogovernment,andthesepowersextendtoallobjects,which,inthe ordinarycourseofaffairs,concernthelives,liberties,(privileges),andpropertiesof people;andoftheinternalorder,improvement,andprosperityoftheState. Federalist,No.45.... Ontheotherhand,therightswhichapersonhasasacitizenoftheUnitedStates aresuchashehasbyvirtueofhisStatebeingamemberoftheAmericanUnion undertheprovisionsofourNationalConstitution.Forinstance,amanisacitizenof aStatebyvirtueofhisbeingnativeandresidentthere;but,ifheemigratesinto anotherStatehebecomesatonceacitizentherebyoperationoftheprovisionofthe Constitution(Section1,Clause1oftheFourteenthAmendment)makinghima citizenthere;andneedsnospecialnaturalization,which,butfortheConstitution,he wouldneedtobecomeacitizen.ExParteEdmundKinney:3Hughes9,at12thru 14(1879)[4thcirctVa.].
http://books.google.com/books?id=pB0TAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA12#v=onepage&q&f=false

6.ToseethatacitizenofaStatewhoisnotacitizenoftheUnitedStatescanpursue anactioninadiversityofcitizenshipremovedtoafederalcourt,seemywork DiversityofCitizenshipincludesaCitizenofaStatewhoisnotaCitizenofthe UnitedStates. 9