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Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Read and study the following: 1.0 Fluid Power


1.1 Introduction
Commercially, there are three main means of transmitting power from one point to another. Mechanical transmission is through shafts, gears, chains, belts, etc. Electrical is through wires, transformers, etc. Fluid power is through liquids or gas in a pipe. Some applications are best suited to one of these methods, other applications to another method. For example, fluid power is better than mechanical transmission on those applications for transmitting power to moderate distances or to inaccessible and out-of-the-way places, and better than mechanical or electrical, where a fine degree of control, including reversibility and infinite speed variations are an important requirement. Fluid power is the term used that relates to both hydraulic and pneumatically operated machines or equipment. A fluid power system is one that transmits and controls energy through the use of pressurised liquids or gas (It may also use vacuum to transmit power) Hydraulics deals with using liquids under pressure to do work. An example of this would be the braking system of a car. Pneumatics deals with using gases (namely air) under pressure to work. An example of this would be the braking system on the trailer section of a semi-trailer.

1.2 Fluid power: History


The use of gases and liquids as a means of transmitting power can be traced back a long way. It could be consider that the early hunters were using fluid power as a means of transmitting useful energy with the development of the blowgun Using their lungs with capacities of about 1.68 l/s (6000in 3/min), they could develop pressures of 1to 3psi. Mans lungs were a poor compressor for creating a large useful working force. The first recorded use of compressed air was by a Greek named Ktesibios. He developed a compressed air cannon more than 2000 years ago. The term pneuma is derived from the ancient Greek, and means breath of wind. The word hydraulic is also derived from the Greek word hydro and means water. This is because the first hydraulic fluid was mainly water. Traditionally, the use of water or air to produce power depended on the movement of vast quantities of fluid at relatively low pressures. Nature supplied this pressure. However, it is only during the past 200 hundred years that more powerful and efficient means of mechanically compressing gases and pumping fluids have been developed. Fluid power technology began in 1650 with discovery of Pascals law. Simply stated, this law says that pressure in a fluid at rest is transmitted equally in all directions. During the development of fluid power as a means of transmitting energy there were some notable successes and failures, particularly in the development of compressed air.

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems


During the early 1800s an attempt was made to power a mill with compressed generated from a compressor located at a waterfall 900metres away from the plant site. The emerging and not fully understood, technology stumbled here. Clay pipe was used to connect the compressor to the remote plant and while fine for transporting water, is not airtight. The resultant pressure was insufficient to turn the mill.

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By the beginning of the industrial age in Europe, fluid power became prominent as the means of powering presses, cranes, winches and extruding machines. In 1849, the first real application of modern pneumatics was implemented by using pneumatic power tools to cut coal in a coalmine, the major advantage being that air is inherently explosion proof. This success led to compressed air being used on a large scale to dig a tunnel through the French Alps. Using pneumatic rock drills, operating from over 4miles of airlines, the tunnel was successfully completed in 14 years (using manual drilling methods, the 13.7km tunnel would have taken 30 years to complete) Air as an energy transmission came of age when a central plant was built in Paris to supply all of its industries. In 888, Paris installed a 65Hp (48kw) compressor feeding 4 miles of mains and 30 miles of branches (a converted sewer system) delivering 90psi (approximately 6 bar). By 1891, the capacity was increased to 25,00 Hp (18,642Kw). Hydraulics followed a similar development, listed below are some important dates regarding the development of hydraulic fluid power: 1650 1750 1790 1850 1860 1906 1926 Discovery of Pascals law (Pascal was 27 years old) Bernoulli developed a law concerning the conservation of energy in a flowing fluid Joseph Bramah developed the first hydraulic powered press using water as the means for transmitting power Fluid power (water) became prominent in industry (England) Both London and Manchester had central industrial hydraulic distribution systems (water) Oil was replacing water as the hydraulic medium United States developed the self-contained hydraulic power units

Today most factories have their own fluid power systems, often using both pneumatic and hydraulic systems to power various tools and operations.

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

1.3 Fluid Power Definitions


For a more complete list of definitions for fluid power terms, refer to last page in the notes FLUID - A "fluid" can be any material capable of flowing, but is usually understood to be a liquid or a gas. More specifically, when speaking of fluid power, the "fluids" are compressed air and hydraulic oil. We use the word "fluid" in this book when referring to circuits and principles, which apply to both air and oil. The more specific terms "air", "oil", "pneumatic", "hydraulic", "compressed air" are used when the circuit or principle applies only to one medium. FLUID POWER SYSTEM - This is a system that generates, transmits, and controls the application of power through the use of pressurized and moving fluids within an enclosed circuit. Power is transmitted through pipes as electricity is transmitted through wires. There are many similarities between the action of an-electrical circuit and a fluid circuit. PNEUMATIC FLUID POWER - Normally called an "air" system. Compressed air is used because it is readily available and economical. Occasionally another gas may be used, as for example near a highpressure gas line where the expenditure of gas may be cheaper than the power required to compress air. Most air systems compress and store air in a storage tank for later use or for distribution to many outlets. There may be an occasional exception where the air is compressed at the same rate it is used PRESSURE - Force per unit area, usually expressed in pounds per square inch in the English system.

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Read and study the following: 2.0 SAFETY


General Safety Rules for the Operator of Fluid-powered Machines
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Understand the function and operating principle of all the component parts of the machine. Understand the function and operation of the machine's control system. Report any change in operating characteristics, such as abnormal gauge readings, unusual sounds, faulty or erratic performance, and leakage from components. Log any occurrence or observation that may be a clue that preventive maintenance is needed. Contribute information to the safety and well being of others. Attach "Warning" signs to start switch, ignition, etc. Warn others before operating machine

Personal Safety Rules for the Operator of Fluid-powered Machines


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Wear proper clothing that will not catch in rotating or moving parts. Wear safety glasses to protect eyes against flying objects or fluid spray from ruptured lines. Observe the operating rules for the machine, such as safety guards, two-hand control, automatic pull-aways, and other important devices. Know how to shut down the machine and to prepare it for safe inspection or maintenance. Know how to check out controls for restarts after an emergency shut down. Do not make hasty emergency repairs that may endanger life or damage the equipment. Stand clear of any overhead loads Watch for pinch points Do not point air hoses at others Do not clean yourself using air jets

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Machine Safety Rules for the Operator of Fluid-powered Machines
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Do not operate controls in a reckless manner that may cause hydraulic shock and damage costly hydraulic components. If the machine is equipped with an accumulator, be sure its pressure energy is released when preparing for shutdowns. Know which valves or controls move the machine parts forward and reverse, in case of an accident. Fit safety bars to prevent loads from dropping Depressurise system before removal of any component Remove fittings slowly Watch out for whipping hoses under pressure

Note: 'No job is so important that you cannot take time to do it safely.'

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Read and study the following: 3.0 Fluid Power Technology


Today, the machines, equipment and appliances, which rely upon fluid power systems for their functioning, are valued in many billions of dollars, and it is difficult to find a manufactured product which has not been formed, treated or handled by fluid power technology at some stage of its production or distribution. Why, one reason is automation remote control, automatic control of machinery that manipulates and moves parts and products between processes. This is fluid powers strength. A fluid can go anywhere a pipe or tube can go. Valve levers and pushbuttons are all that are required to start, stop, and control a fluid power system. Usually the source of energy for a machine is not at the point where the work is done. For almost all machines, the energy that does the work is mechanical energy. Actuators transform electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. For this reason, an actuator is required at point of work.

3.1 Comparison of Energy Transfer Systems


There are three main means of transmitting power from one point to another. Mechanical transmission is through shafts, gears, chains, belts, etc. Electrical is through wires, transformers, etc. Fluid power is through liquids or gas in a pipe. Each method of energy transmission has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore a machine may be equipped with a combination of mechanical, electrical, pneumatic and hydraulics systems. To appreciate what type of system or combination of systems should be applied we need to compare the energy transmission systems we have available.

Electrical systems

Ideal over long distances Ideal for rotary power output Limited for linear force output Hazardous could cause fire/explosion or electrocution High efficiency converts 95% of energy input to output Automation possible using relays and sensors

Mechanical systems

Positive application of force Positional control wear and tear create problems with backlash High linear and rotary force output Non hazardous Converts 60% of energy input to output, power losses due to friction Automation possible using cams and trips

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Hydraulic systems


Applications limited to covering short distances, eg up to 15 metres. Ideal for rotary output infinite control of torque High linear force output but limitations on speed Non hazardous fire hazard eliminated using inert oils Converts 80% of energy input to output. Automation possible using cams, sensors and relays

Pneumatic Systems

Applications limited to covering medium distances, eg up to 300 metres. Must be coupled to hydraulic control for accurate positioning and operating speeds Limited linear force output but high operating speeds Clean and quiet no oils, use of silencers on exhaust ports Non hazardous fire/ explosion hazard eliminated Converts 25% of energy input to output. Automation possible using cams, sensors and relays

3.2 Comparison of Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems


Fluid power systems can be designed to use compressed air, hydraulic fluids or a combination of both as the working medium. In some cases, either pneumatics or hydraulics can be used to perform a function. However, in certain cases the nature of the function will dictate the choice of the power medium At first glance it would appear that the difference between hydraulics and pneumatics are negligible; with actual choice being a matter of the designers own particular preference. Certainly there are a great many similarities. Both use confined fluids to transmit power by means of similar devices such as pumps, directional controls, flow controls, and a variety of actuators. But similarities end at that point, fundamentally due to the behaviour of the fluid (air or oil) that is being used to transmit and control power.

Advantages
Pneumatic
Valve switching very fast. Safe to use in difficult areas. Portable hand tools. Ease of control in difficult areas. Ease of replacing components. Overload safe. Very high revs developed. No return lines required. Simplification of circuit design Clean

Hydraulics
Able to absorb external shock loads. Ideal for modifying output power. Absence of wear self-lubricating. Good power to weight ratio. Low inertia for stop - start reversal. Overload safe can be stalled under load. Infinitely variable speeds and feeds. Wide range of applications. Large force output. Long life

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Disadvantages


Pneumatic Low torque at low RPM. Smaller force produced. Noisy loud exhaust air Cold to handle portable tools. Running costs expensive Low rigidity gases compress. Hydraulics Noisy pump running all the time. Over heating friction in pipes. Fire hazard. Operates at lower revs than air system. Strong tubes and containers needed. Problems with contaminants in system

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Read and study the following: 4.0 Fluids


Reference: Chapter 12 Hydraulic Fluids Industrial Hydraulic Control - Rohner

4.1 Introduction
Hydraulic Fluid Power - Originally water was used as the "fluid" because it was cheap and readily available. In fact it was the only liquid available in sufficient quantity. It was circulated once and discarded. Most systems today use refined petroleum oil because it prolongs the life of components, while reducing the size of the system and increasing its efficiency by permitting operation at higher pressures. The oil is re-circulated, with a reserve supply maintained in a reservoir. Where there is a fire hazard, synthetic fluids or water with additives is used. Most hydraulic systems generate an oil flow at the rate of use. But there are systems, which pump the oil and store it in accumulators under pressure for later use.

4.2 Functions of a Hydraulic Fluid


Transmit Power
The fluid must be able to transmit the applied force from one part of the system to another.

Lubrication
Hydraulic fluids must provide adequate lubrication in bearings and between sliding surfaces in pumps, valves and actuators.

Sealing
Hydraulic oil must be able to maintain an adequate seal with a minimum leakage from high pressure passages to low pressure passages.

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Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

4.3 Properties of Hydraulic Oils


4.3.0 Introduction
For a hydraulic fluid to be able to perform the various functions identified on the previous page, the fluid needs to have some particular properties. It is these properties that we will now look at and they are in brief:

Oil operating range (viscosity) Pour Point Chemical Stability Demulsibility

4.3.1 Oil Operating Range (viscosity)


Viscosity is the internal resistance of a fluid to flow. (This is relative to the oil thickness.) It is generally considered as one of the most important physical properties of a hydraulic fluid. Since if affects both the ability to flow and to lubricate moving parts. Petroleum oil is an excellent lubricant for a hydraulic system, but not at all viscosities. If viscosity of an oil were too low, its fluid film would be like water and consequently too thin. This could result in: Excessive internal leakage losses. Excessive wear, due to insufficient lubrication in pumps and motors. Decrease in pump and motor efficiency. Increase in fluid temperature due to internal leakage losses.

If an oil's viscosity were too high, insufficient amounts of fluid would flow into bearings and component clearances. This could result in: High resistance to flow, causing pump cavitation and sluggish actuator movement. Increased power consumption, due to frictional losses. Increased pressure drop through lines and valves.

For this reason, manufacturers of rotating equipment (pumps, motors) which are especially dependent on proper bearing lubrication, specify the viscosity range at which their components are to be operated. When these components are sufficiently lubricated it usually means the rest of the system is lubricated as well.
ISO Viscosity Grade | ISO VG 2 ISO VG 3 ISO VG 5 ISO VG 7 ISO VG 10 ISO VG 15 ISO VG 22 ISO VG 32 ISO VG 46 Mid-Point Viscosity cSt at40.0C 2.2 3.2 4.6 6.8 10 15 22 32 46 Kinematic Viscosity Limits cSt at 40.0C ISO Viscosity Grade ISO VG 68 ISO VG 100 ISO VG 150 ISO VG 220 ISO VG 320 ISO VG 460 ISO VG 680 ISO VG 1000 ISO VG 1500 Mid-Point Viscosity cSt at40.0C 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 Kinematic Viscosity Limits cSt at 40.0C

Min.
1.98 2.88 4.14 6.12 9.00 13.50 19.80 28.80 41.40

Max.
2.42 3.52 5.06 7.48 11.00 16.50 24.20 35.20 50.60

Min.
61.20 90.00 135.00 198.00 288.00 414.00 612.00 900.00 1650.00

Max.
74.80 110.00 165.00 242.00 352.00 506.00 748.00 1100.00 1650.00

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Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems


A few SHELL grades do not conform to the standard ISO classifications. For example the numbers 37, 78 and 800 are SHELL 'ISO type' numbers that have been allocated to meet certain important viscosity requirements that are not met by standard ISO numbers. If components have a required viscosity range, then this information, along with the temperature range of the system, indicates the use of a specific oil. For example, a particular system at its operating temperature requires a minimum/ maximum viscosity of 70-250 SUS (15-54 CST). If the operating temperature range were 80-140F (26.760C), hydraulic fluid Y would be used. If the temperature range were 110-170F (43.3-76.7C), hydraulic fluid Z would be used. Since temperatures can become quite low even in industrial environments, oil can become extremely viscous. To ensure that their pumping mechanisms will fill, pump manufacturers also specify the maximum viscosity allowable at start-up. In general, these viscosities are 1000 SUS (216 CST), and 7500 SUS (1618 CST) for piston, vane and gear equipment, respectively.

4.3.2 Pour Point


The temperature at which fluid congeals is called the pour point. At low temperatures, wax structures begin to form in hydraulic fluids containing any petroleum base crude. These wax formations hinder and may even stop flow. Pour point of a hydraulic fluid is the lowest temperature at which it will pour under a laboratory test. In an actual system, if the maximum viscosity start-up specification is adhered to, the pour point of a fluid is generally not considered. But, when a system has the possibility of operating under extremely low temperature conditions, pour point of the oil should be at least 11C below the lowest expected temperature. This will ensure that the oil will flow and supply the inlet side of the pump.

4.3.3 Chemical Stability Oil Oxidation Stability


Oxidation is a process by which material chemically combines with oxygen; this is a common occurrence, If you have ever taken a bite out of an apple, you know that the pulp quickly turns brown as it is exposed to air. Many things on earth, including oil, oxidise in this manner. Oxidation of hydraulic fluid can be pinned down to basically two system locations; reservoir and pump outlet. In both cases, oil reacts with oxygen but in different ways and the oxidation products are not the same. In a reservoir, the free surface of the oil reacts with oxygen in the air. The product of this reaction includes weak acids and soaps. Acids weaken and pit component surfaces; soaps coat surfaces and can plug pressure-sensing orifices and lubrication paths.

11

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Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems


Heat is a major contributor to oil oxidation in a reservoir. As a rule, oil oxidises twice as fast as normal for every 18-20F (10-11C) rise in temperature above an average reservoir temperature of 130F (54.4C). Reservoir oil also oxidises more readily in the presence of iron and copper particles and water droplets. Besides the reservoir, another location where oil oxidation occurs is at pump outlet. If air bubbles are present in a pump suction line as a result of an air leak in the suction line or returning fluid velocity churning up the reservoir, they suddenly collapse upon being exposed to high pressure at pump outlet. This action generates a high temperature, which according to some calculations can rise to 2100F (1149C) when the bubble is compressed from 0-3000 PSI (207 bar). Strong evidence exists that collapsing air bubbles at pump outlet is a major influence in rapid oil degradation. The high temperature fries the oil, forming resinous products, and causes the oil to acquire a characteristic burnt odour. As high-temperature oxidation at pump outlet occurs, resinous materials are formed, but dissolve in the oil. When a hot surface (pump rotor, relief valve spool) is encountered, resins come out of solution forming a varnish or lacquer coating on the hot surface; this causes moving parts to stick. Resinous material can also form sludge, which combines with dirt and floats around the system plugging small openings in valves and filters, and interferes with heat transfer to reservoir walls.

4.3.4 Demulsibility Water in Hydraulic Oil


We know from experience that water and oil do not mix (except for water-soluble oils). Attempts to mix large amounts of water and oil will result in water settling out at the bottom of a tank. In small quantities, however, water is broken into small droplets, which are carried around by the oil. If an oil contains acidic and resinous products of oxidation, it has an increased tendency to take on water. To counteract this, the oil used should have good demulsibity characteristics ie. the oil resists mixing with water, so that the water will separate out easily and sink to the bottom of the tank.

4.4 Oil Additives


4.4.1 Lubrication and antiwear
A good quality petroleum base hydraulic fluid is not a good enough lubricant for some systems. As pressures climb, the hydrodynamic fluid wedge between moving parts has more of a tendency to break down. This means lubrication is more dependent on a fluid's inherent lubricity. To aid in lubricity or boundary lubrication at high pressures, hydraulic fluids are equipped with chemical additives.

12

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Antiwear Additives


Antiwear (AW) or wear resistant (WR) additives can be divided into three types. One type, sometimes called an oiliness or lubricity agent, is a chemical made up of molecules that attach themselves vertically like blades of grass to metal surfaces. This creates a chemical film, which acts as a solid when an attempt is made at penetration. The additive molecules support the load, allowing a moving part to slip by. But this film is not very durable, tending to break down at high temperatures. Another type of antiwear additive chemically combines with a metal surface to form a protective film. This film forms as low frictional heat is generated between contacting points of moving surfaces. They serve to smooth out or polish surfaces so that friction is reduced. Another antiwear agent, known as an extreme pressure (EP) additive, forms a film on a metal surface as high frictional heat is generated. In a high-pressure system, as mechanical interaction between surfaces becomes excessive, heat becomes excessive and the surfaces attempt to weld together. The extreme pressure additive comes out of solution at this point, keeping the surfaces apart. All three types of antiwear additives are not found in the same fluid and are not used in the same applications. When oiliness agents are used, they are generally found in relatively low-pressure systems (below 1000 PSI/68.97 bar). When extreme pressure additives are found in a hydraulic system, the system will probably be operating above 3000PSI (207 bar), or the same fluid that is used to lubricate gears and machine ways is also used in the hydraulic system. A very common antiwear additive is the one, which operates in the medium pressure range (1000-3000 PSI/68.97-207 bar).

4.4.2 Foaming
As oil returns to a reservoir, it should release any entrained air bubbles, which have been acquired in the system. In some systems where leaks are prevalent and/or returning oil is churned up as it enters a reservoir, foaming of the oil occurs. As a result, entrained air is pumped into the system, causing spongy, erratic operation, rapid oil oxidation and noise. In more severe cases, oil foam could bubble out of reservoir creating a housekeeping problem. Probably the best solution for alleviating foaming oil is to fix any system leaks and redesign the return part of the system with baffles or larger return lines which reduce fluid velocity. Sometimes, because of economics, convenience, or a lack of training, chemicals are used to solve the problem.

Anti-Foam Additives
In an attempt to discourage oil foaming hydraulic fluids can be equipped with anti-foam additives. In some cases, these additives work by combining small air bubbles into large bubbles, which rise to a fluid surface and burst. In other cases, these additives function by interfering with air release which action reduces foaming, but increases the amount of air bubbles in the system. If an anti-foam chemical is desired in the oil, care should be taken that the agent selected does allow air to escape.

13

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

4.5

Fire Resistant Hydraulic Fluids.

A main disadvantage of petroleum based fluid is its ability to burn. When a hydraulic system is located near high temperature equipment or other sources that could ignite the fluid, the use of fire resistant hydraulic fluids is recommended. There are three basic types of fire-resistant fluid.

Water glycols Water-oil emulsions Synthetic fluids. 4.5.1 System Compatibility


The various fire resistant fluids, composed of many complex chemical components, display a variety of effects on the materials used in a hydraulic system. A convenient, but generalised list of material behaviour to fire resistant fluids is shown below. Water Glycol Paints: Common Industrial Epoxy & Phenolic Metals: Ferrous Brass, Copper Zinc Aluminium, Unanodised Aluminium, Anodised Seals: Teflon Viton Neoprene Buna N Butyl Rubber E. P. Rubber Silicone Rubber NC C C C NC NC C C C C C C C C Phos. Ester & Oil Synthetic blends NC C C C C C C C C NC NC C C C W/O emulsions NC C C C C C C C C C C NC NC C

Key:

C = Compatible

NC = Non-compatible

4.6

Summary of the Requirements for selecting a Hydraulic Oil


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Maintain correct temperature. Prevent corrosion. Prevent formation of sludge, gum and varnish. Depress foaming. Separate out water. Compatibility with seals.

14

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Read and study the following: 4.7 Air


Reference: Chapter 13 Pneumatic Industrial Control - Rohner

The air we breathe is springy, squashy and fluid in substance, we take it for granted that wherever there is space it will be filled with air. Air is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen

Air pressure
The atmospheric pressure is caused by the weight of air above us, it gets less as we climb a mountain, more as we descend into a mine. The pressure value is also influenced by changing weather conditions. Pressures will be quoted in kilopascals gauge (kPa) and bar unless otherwise stated An atmospheric pressure of 101.3 kPa absolute has been adopted for the conversion of gauge pressures to absolute pressures for use in calculations shown in the text. The relationship between gauge and absolute pressure is shown in fig. 13-2. Most pressure gauges used on pneumatic equipment are calibrated in gauge pressure. Thus, if a pressure gauge is calibrated for kPa. (A) it is capable of measuring pressures in the vacuum range ("A" stands for absolute pressure calibration). But if it is calibrated just for kPa then the pressure gauge shows pressures above atmospheric pressure only The power of atmospheric pressure is apparent in industry where pick and place suction cups and vacuum forming machines are used, air is removed from one side allowing atmospheric pressure on the other to do the work Pressures are in bar g gauge pressure (the value above atmosphere). Zero gauge pressure is atmospheric pressure Absolute pressures are used for calculations Pa = Pg + atmosphere For quick calculations assume 1 atmosphere is 1000 mbar For standard calculations 1 atmosphere is 1013 mbar There are many units of pressure measurement. Some of these and their equivalents are listed below. 1 bar = 100000 N/m2 1 bar = 100 kPa 1 bar = 14.50 psi 1 bar = 10197 kgf/m2 1 mm Hg = 1.334 mbar approx. 1 mm H2O = 0.0979 mbar approx. 1 Torr = 1mmHg abs (for vacuum)

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Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Free air


Free air (or ambient air) is defined as air at atmospheric conditions at any specific location and time. It should be noted, however, that because the altitude, barometric air pressure and air humidity may vary at different geographical localities and times, the term "free air" does not mean air under identical or standard conditions. In view of such variations and in order that stated air flows relating to pneumatic equipment can be calibrated and compared, a standard is essential. There are unfortunately many standards depending on the industry or country where equipment is produced, but the two most common are the European Standard and the Imperial Standard. The European standard for free air is based on a pressure of 101.3 kPa absolute, at a temperature of 0C, whereas the Imperial standard is based on 14.7 p.s.i. absolute at 15.6C. Hence, the term "free air" based on the previously mentioned standards is quite a simple and useful rating to size and compare delivery rates of air compressors. If the compressor, however, is installed in an environment, which has a free air pressure and temperature other than either of the standards above, then its flow rate will alter from the manufacturer's standard specification. Compressors, for example, are always rated for flow output based on the flow rate (ambient air) they take directly from the atmosphere through their air intake. To illustrate: If a compressor had a rated output of 4 m3/min F.A.D. (free air delivery), for each minute the compressor was operating, eight cubic metres of "free air" would be drawn into the intake from the atmosphere. This would be comparable to a volume of air 2 metres long by 2 metres wide by 1 metre deep, being drawn in each minute The output rate from the compressor, however, would be far less, since the air would now be compressed to a much smaller volume, but to a much higher pressure than at the original ambient pressure prevailing at the compressor intake.

Altitude effects on air compression


In some locations, the effects of altitude on the output of air compressors and air consuming devices must be considered. At altitudes of for example 500 and 1000 metres, there is a corresponding reduction in atmospheric pressure of approx. 5 kPa and 10 kPa respectively. For compressors, these reduced intake pressures cause a decrease in the compressor power requirement. However, the lower atmospheric intake pressure also means that the compression ratio of the compressor is higher. This results in an increased power requirement. The net result for a compressor operating at an altitude above sea level would mean a decrease in the power required to drive the compressor, and a decrease in the free air delivery. Air consuming devices such as air tools and linear actuators, if operated at sea level, would consume more air than if operated above sea level.

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Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Read and study the following: 5.0 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLUID POWER
1. Fluids have no shape of their own.
(a) (b) (c) Liquids will take up the shape of the container up to the filled level. Gasses will take up and fill the entire shape of the container. Because of this, fluids will flow in any direction and into any passage or cavity of any size or shape.

2.

Fluids Transmit applied pressure in all directions.


Pascal's law states that pressure applied to a confined fluid acts equally in all directions and at right angles to all containing surfaces. This not the case with solids as force can only be applied in one direction.

3.

Fluids are able to apply a great increase in applied force.


Force multiplication with a fluid power system is in some ways similar to a mechanical lever. In a fluid power system the same principles may be achieved by applying a small force to a small diameter piston that in turn applies pressure to a larger piston thereby increasing the force output.

4.

Liquids are practically incompressible.


In most hydraulic fluid power systems, the hydraulic oil is considered to be incompressible. Therefore if a piston moves a certain distance the oil will move an equal distance and what ever the oil is pushing on will also move the same distance.

5.

Gasses are readily compressed.


The fact that gasses are able to be compressed makes possible the use of compressed air for use in pneumatic systems. When air is compressed it develops potential energy similar to a spring and will react in a similar way as a spring when applied to a movable member

17

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Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

5.1 Basic Calculations for Fluid Power Systems


5.1.1 Force Transmission
Pneumatic and hydraulic systems are fluid power systems. They use a fluid as the medium of energy transmission. Pneumatic systems use a highly compressible, gaseous fluid. Hydraulic systems use a relatively incompressible, liquid fluid. Just as the other transmission systems (mechanical, electrical), fluid power systems are capable of transmitting a static force (potential energy) as well as kinetic energy. When a static force is transmitted through a fluid, it happens in a special way. To illustrate, we will compare how a force is transmitted through a solid with force transmission through a confined fluid.

Force Transmitted Through a Solid


A force transmitted through a solid is transmitted basically in one direction only. If we pushed on a solid block, the force would be transmitted in the direction of the applied force, to the opposite side only.

Force Transmitted Through a Fluid


Unlike a solid, a force applied to a confined fluid (gas or liquid) is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid in the form of fluid pressure is known as Pascal's law in honour of Blaise Pascal who first defined the principle. If we pushed on a container filled with fluid, the pressure of the applied force would be transmitted equally throughout the fluid. In the case of a gaseous fluid, the applied force would push the piston down compressing the gas. Piston movement would continue until the intensity of the applied force was equalled by gas pressure. A gas absorbs the intensity of an applied force. A confined gas or liquid will transmit pressure in a similar manner regardless of how it is generated. As far as a fluid is concerned, an applied force results in pressure whether the application of force comes from a hammer, by hand, weight, fixed or adjustable spring, or any combination of forces. Fluids take the shape of their container. Consequently, pressure will be transmitted in all directions regardless of container shape.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

5.1.2 Hydrostatic Pressure


Under static conditions and with no other internal pressure, the pressure at any point within a liquid system is proportional to the height of the liquid column above that point. Torricelli called this pressure at the bottom of the fluid column (tank) the "head pressure". The head pressure is equal to the height of the liquid column, multiplied by the density (mass per unit volume) of the liquid in the tank, multiplied by the gravitational constant. Note: Density for water is 1000 kg/m3. Density for hydraulic oil is 860 kg/m3. Gravitational constant is 9.81 N/kg.

Effect of Hydraulic Pressure


The effective area on which hydraulic pressure acts to produce a force is either the projection of the ball-seat contact area (check valve) projection of the pressure exposed piston area (actuator) calculated effective piston area (unloading valve)

5.1.3 Fluid Pressure to Mechanical Force


In transmitting pressure through a confined fluid, some sort of movable member has been used to apply the pressure. In the examples used so far, the movable member has been a piston. To determine the intensity of a force, or pressure, being applied to a system, the force is divided by the area of the movable member. For example, if an applied force of 100N (approx 10kgs) were applied to a piston area of 1m2, the resulting pressure would be 100 N/m2 (Pascal). Applying a force to a fluid and transmitting the resulting pressure throughout the fluid in various shaped containers does very little good for its own sake. Fluid pressure must be converted into mechanical force before work can be done. This is the function of a fluid power actuatorto accept fluid pressure and convert it into a mechanical force. One very common type of actuator is the fluid power cylinder.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Mechanical Force Multiplication
Mechanical forces can be multiplied using fluid power. The determining factor for force multiplication is the area on which pressure is applied. Since pressure is transmitted equally in all directions throughout a confined fluid, if a cylinder piston has more area than the movable member developing the pressure, output force will be greater than input force. In our example, assume that the resisting object is stationary and will not move. A 10N force on the 1m2 area piston results in a pressure of 10N/m2 (Pascals Pa) throughout the system. The 10Pa acts on the cylinder piston with a 2m2 area resulting a mechanical force of 20N

in

Force (N) = pressure N/m2 x area (m2) Movement Sacrificed


It has been illustrated that a cylinder can be used to multiply a force by the action of fluid pressure acting on a piston area. When multiplying a force with fluid pressure, it may have appeared that something was received for nothing. It appeared that a smaller force could generate a larger force under the right circumstances, and nothing was sacrificed. This is relatively true in a static system. But if the force were to be multiplied and moved at the same time, something would be sacrificedmovement. Each cylinder has a stroke and volume. The stroke of a cylinder is the distance through which a piston and piston rod travel. A cylinder volume is the piston's displacement. It is calculated by multiplying its stroke in metres by piston area in square metres. This will give a volume in cubic metres

cylinder volume = piston area x stroke (m3) (m2) (m)


In the illustration, the system is filled with hydraulic fluid. The small piston must move through a distance of 10mm. to make the large cylinder piston move 5mm. In both cases the work done is the same.

When forces are multiplied with fluid pressure, movement is sacrificed .

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Fluid Pressure Multiplication


Intensifier
An intensifier multiplies fluid pressure.

What Intensifiers Consist of


An intensifier basically consists of a housing with inlet and outlet ports, and a large area piston connected by a rod to a small area piston. The volume between the two pistons is vented.

How Intensifiers Work


The inlet of an intensifier is connected to a source of fluid pressure either air or hydraulic. Intensifier outlet is connected to part of the system containing hydraulic fluid. An intensifier multiplies, or intensifiers, an existing fluid pressure by accepting an air or hydraulic pressure at the large area piston and applying the resultant force to the small area piston. Fluid pressure is therefore intensified or multiplied at the actuator. In our example, assume that the object is to be clamped. An input pressure of 3Mpa at intensifier inlet ultimately results in a high output clamping pressure of 12MPa.

12MPa

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5.2 Pressure and Force Calculations


Pressure it equal to the amount of force exerted over a given area.

FORCE Pressure is equal to AREA

F P=A

The unit for pressure is PASCAL(Pa)

EXAMPLE1) FORCE = 100 NEWTONS AREA = 1M X1M = 1M2

EXAMPLE2) FORCE = 100NEWTONS AREA = 2M X2M = 4M2

FORCE Pressure = AREA


PRESSURE = 100 PRESSURE = 100 PASCALS

FORCE Pressure = AREA


PRESSURE = 25 PRESSURE = 25 PASCALS

Calculations
All calculations should be done in base units. Base units: Force = N Area = m2 Pressure = Pa Volume = m3 Power = W Distance = m Work = J Velocity = m/S

Derived Units
Derived units are used as a more convenient method of expressing values. BASIC UNIT Newton (N) Pascal (Pa) Meter (m) X 1000 or 103 Kilo Newton KN Kilo Pascal KPa Kilo Meter Km X 1,000,000 or 106 Mega Newton MN Mega Pascal MPa Mega Meter Mm

NOTE: Pressure is often related to atmosphere which is measured in bar an 1 bar is equal to 100,000Pa

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Review Questions: 5.2.1 Force &Pressure Calculations


Exercise 1 Change the following pressures into derived units: kPa kPa kPa kPa kPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa bar bar bar bar bar

10000 Pa 950 Pa 1000000 Pa 800000 Pa 1000 Pa

Exercise 2
1 m2 0.01 m2 0 3 m2

Change the following areas into derived units:


cm2 cm2 cm2 cm2 cm2 mm2 mm2 mm2 mm2 mm2

0.004 m2 0.0007m 2

Exercise 3

Which answer is correct?

The pressure p=24 N/m2. The force acting on 10000 cm2 is therefore: 2.4N 24N 240 Ng Impossible to calculate

Exercise 4

Which answer is correct?

If P= A and F=200 N and A=0.08 m2; then p is: p = 4 Pa p = 25 N/m2 p=0.25N/cm2 p=160Pa

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Exercise 5 Which answer is correct?

A force of 250 N is acting on an area of 2 m2. The pressure is therefore: 125Pa 250 Pa 500 Pa Impossible to calculate

Exercise 6

Which answer(s) are correct?

There is a force of 315 N acting on a flat surface. The pressure must not exceed 45 N/cm2. The area on which the force acts must therefore be at least: 7cm2 45 cm2 35 cm2 14625cm2

Exercise 7

Which answers are correct?

A liquid exerts a force of 180 N over an area of 0.002 m2. The pressure p is: 1/9N/cm2 90 kPa 90000 Pa 36 N/cm2 0.36 N/m2 1.111 Pa 90000 N/m2 0.0036 N/m2 0.9 bar

Exercise 8
GIVEN P= 3MPa F =15kN F = 6MN P = 477 bar F = 8.3kN d = 42mm FIND d= d= P m; mm; MPa; mm m bar

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Exercise 9


GIVEN d =800 mm F =12 MN d = 130 mm p =1200kPa FIND p= F= bar; kN; MPa M

Exercise 10
GIVEN AP = 0.049 m2 AR = 0.005 m2 F = 750kN F = 0.12 MN p = 40 MPa FIND p= p= AA = m= MPa bar m2 kg

Exercise 11
GIVEN DP = 125 mm dR = 100 mm p = 16 MPa dP =450 mm dR =280 mm F =2144 kN FIND AA = F = m = AA = p = p = m2 kN kg m2 MPa bar

Exercise 12 Work out each stroke separately and assume no back pressure.
GIVEN dp = 10 cm dR = 8 cm p1 = 0.6 MPa p2 = 1.683 MPa Fret = kN FIND AA = Fext. = m2 kN

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Exercise 12 Refer to fig. 6-4.2

The surface area of the lifting piston in a fork-lift truck 0.006 m2. The maximum load on the platform is 1200 kg. The lifting mechanism, which also has to be raised, weighs 6000 N The minimum pressure on the piston must therefore be: p= kPa MPa bar

Exercise 13 Refer to fig. 5-3.1


A1 = 0.005 m2 A2 = 0.150 m2 F1 = 2250 N Calculate: m d2= p= p= F2= F2= m kPa bar kN MN

Exercise 14 Circle the correct answer. The ratio of forces (F1:F2) in fig. 5.3.2 is:
3:8 1:30 17:8 8:3 30:1

Exercise 15 The following data apply to the fork-lift truck in fig; 5.3.3.
Piston diameter d= 100 mm Weight of lifting mechanism W1 = 1 kN Load to be lifted W2=7 kN Calculate the minimum required system pressure in: bar kPa MPa N/m2

Exercise 25 A boiler must be pressure tested to 1.2 MPa. The internal diameter is 2.4m. What force in MN acts onto each of the domed end caps of the vessel?

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Read and study the following: 5.3 Fluid Flow


If work is to be done in a fluid power system there must be movement (W = F x D) In order for movement to occur an unbalancing of forces needs to occur. When movement occurs the fluid will be forced to flow. The tendency to cause flow may be supplied by a mechanical pump or may be caused by the weight of the fluid. Torricelli proved that if a hole is made in the bottom of a tank of water, the water, will run out faster if the tank is full and the flow rate decreases water level decreases. Measuring Flow: 1) There are two ways to measure the flow of a fluid.

Velocity (V)

Velocity is the speed at which a fluid travels past a given point. It is measured in metres per second. .:V= M/S 2) FlowRate(Q)

Flow rate is the volume of a fluid that passes a given point. It is therefore a combination of volume and speed. It is measured in cubic metres per second. Q V A = = = Flow Rate(m3/s) Speed (m/s) Area (m2)

Q =V A
We shall now further consider flow under the following headings: (a) Flow and pressure drop (b) Flow through an orifice (c) Laminar and turbulent flow.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Flow and Pressure Drop A basic rule of hydraulics is that wherever there is flow, there must be a pressure difference or pressure drop. Conversely, where there is a difference in pressure, there must be either flow or at least a difference in the level of the liquid. Whenever a gas is flowing, a condition of unbalanced force must prevail to cause fluid motion. Hence, when a gas (and compressed air is a gas) flows through a pipe with a constant diameter, the pressure will always be lower downstream than at any point upstream (fig. 5.3.1).

fig. 5.3.1

The pressure difference when a liquid is flowing is used to overcome friction and to lift the fluid where necessary. When a liquid is flowing, the pressure is always highest upstream and lowest downstream. The pressure differential or pressure drop is caused by the friction of the gas or liquid molecules amongst each other and friction of gas/liquid molecules on the walls of the pipe. Thus the inside surface condition does influence the pressure drop in the piping system. This friction creates heat, and so the pressure drop (or loss) is a permanent loss, transferred into heat energy, which cannot be regained.

fig. 5.3.2

As soon as the flow stopped Pascals Law must be applied for the now static condition, and pressures in all parts of the piping system (fig. 5.3.2).

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Flow through an Orifice Pressure drop occurs to a greater degree when the flow is restricted. An orifice is a restriction often placed in a line deliberately to create a pressure difference. There is always a pressure drop across an orifice so long as there is flow (see diagram below). However, if we block the flow beyond the orifice, Pascal's Law takes over and pressure equalizes on both sides. An orifice is a hole with less cross-sectional area than the pipes or cavities to which it is fitted. The orifice is generally used to control flow (speed control of actuators) or to create a pressure differential (pressure reducing valve). Pressure drop also takes place when passing fluid through a valve or line. The smaller the valve passage or line the greater the pressure drop. In effect, the restrictive area acts as an orifice.

Flow through an orifice to Atmosphere When compressed air is discharged through an orifice to atmosphere, the speed at which it flows through the discharge orifice, either sonic( the speed of sound) or subsonic (lower than the speed of sound) The speed depends on two factors: The shape or type of orifice; The pressure differential across the orifice

The pressure upstream of the orifice is 140 kPa (1.4 bar) higher than the downstream pressure then it can be surmised that the speed at which the compressed air flows is sonic. No matter how much the pressure upstream is increased now, the flow will remain sonic. This phenomenon is an important characteristic of compressed air on which the effective speed control of double acting linear actuators depends, and for that reason, any pneumatic actuator or pneumatic motor (Fig. 5.3.3.)

Fig 5.3.3 Flow through an orifice to atmosphere

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Laminar and Turbulent Flow Laminar flow (sometimes referred to as streamline flow) occurs when the liquid particles flow smoothly in even layers, and frictional losses are at a minimum. The sketch (Fig. 5.3.4) illustrates laminar flow and highlights the greater restriction next to the walls of the tube.

Fig 5.3.4 laminar flow patterns

Generally it can be said that the flow is laminar if the liquid flows slowly enough and remains laminar at greater velocities if the diameter of the pipe is small. If the velocity of flow or size of pipe increases sufficiently, the flow becomes turbulent. Turbulent flow occurs when the liquid particles flow in a random or erratic pattern as is illustrated in Fig. 5.3.5.

Fig 5.3.5 turbulent flow patterns

Flow Law If fluid flows through a pipe with different diameters the speed of the flow changes, (ie) faster speed in the smaller diameter. Example : Fig. 5.3.6 shows that an equal volume of fluid will take the same time to flow through a pipe, this means that the speed of the fluid flows will be faster in the small diameter pipe.

T 1 T 2

T 3

V 1

V 2

V 3

T 1 x V1

T 2 x V2 =

T 3 x V3

Fig 5.3.6 fluid flow through pipes of different diameters

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Review Questions: 5.5.1 Flow - Calculations


1. Express the following volumes in derived volumes 6 litres = 117mL = 220cm3 = mL cm3 mL cm3 L m3 m3 m3 L

2.

GIVEN d = 80mm Q = 4L/min V = 15m/min d = 60mm Q = 0.5L/sec V = 12mm/sec

FIND V= V= Q= Q= A= d= m/min mm/s L/min L/sec m2 mm

3.

Calculate the flow rate of a pump in (l/min) if it is driven with a speed of 1400rpm and its geometrical displacement is 255cm3. Assume a volumetric efficiency of 91%.

4.

Calculate the required RPM for a piston pump with a geometrical displacement of 107mL and a volumetric efficiency of 97% The pump must produce a flow rate of 3.46L/s.

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5.

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Calculate the required geometrical displacement in litres if the pump is driven at 1400 RPM and must deliver a flow rate of 72L/min. The stated volumetric efficiency (v) is 95%

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Read and study the following: 6-0 Actuators Introduction


Reference: Chapter 3 - Linear Actuators Pneumatic Control for Industrial Automation - Rohner

Actuators are used to convert the stored (static) energy of compressed air or liquid flow (kinematic energy) into mechanical force or motion. Although the actuator itself produces motion, a variety of mechanical linkages and devices may be attached to it to produce a final output force which is rotary, semi-rotary or a combination of linear and rotary. Levers and linkages may also be attached to achieve force multiplication or force reduction as well as an increase or reduction of motion speed (fig. 6.0.1).

Fig 6.0.1 simple actuator mechanisms The generation of thrust force with an actuator is very simple and direct. The compressed air or liquid when delivered to one end of the actuator, acts against the piston area and produces a force against the piston (force = pressure x area). The piston with the attached piston rod starts to move in linear direction as long as the reacting force is smaller. The developed force is used to move a load, which may be attached either to the protruding piston rod or to the actuator housing (fig.6.0.1). The distance through which the piston travels is known as the stroke.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Linear Actuators (cylinders) A cylinder is a term used in fluid power for a device for translating the energy contained in a system into an equivalent amount of mechanical energy. Cylinders can give either straight movement or rotary movement. Commonly those actuators that are referred to as cylinders give straight-line movement. Those that are rotary actuators are termed motors. Cylinders can be either single or double acting. Single Acting Cylinders The single acting cylinder has a power stroke on extension by means of introducing compressed air into the cylinder behind the piston. The return stroke is achieved by springs or weights on the piston rod when the air is exhausted from the piston side of the cylinder. When using a single acting actuator the force available from the air operated stroke is reduced by the opposing spring force. It must also be borne in mind, that the force due to the spring compression is progressively decreasing along its stroke Single acting actuators are usually built with a stroke length up to 100 mm. Some manufacturers of pneumatic actuators make a special type of single acting actuator called a short stroke clamping cylinder or diaphragm actuator. These actuators have extremely short strokes ranging from 1 to 10 mm and piston areas ranging from 100 to 3000 mm2, whereby the large piston (diaphragm) actuators normally have the extremely short strokes of 1 to 2 mm. Such clamping actuators are normally retracted by either an inbuilt spring or by the pretensioned diaphragm A very special type of single acting actuator is the air bag. The air bag actuator consists of s flexible "bellow" (or bellows) made from plies of nylon-reinforced cord, encased by neoprene rubber. The cord is meant to provide a restraining effect as pressure is applied and helps to maintain the effective area of the internal air column, which provides the thrust when filled with compressed air. The bellows may be made in single, double or triple convolutions. "Girdle hoops" of metal or metal wire covered with rubber, provide additional restraint on multiple bellow types Metal end pieces are attached to the top and bottom of the bellow(s) and the air enters and exhausts through a port in the end piece. Manufacturers of air bags provide performance charts that contain such information as: useable stroke length, load-carrying capacity related to stroke and air pressure, air volume at various stages of inflation, and mounting methods. The main applications are heavy duty lifting, logging industry, air presses, isolation of vibration, cause of vibration. shock absorption and clamping.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Standard Double Acting. Power stroke is in both directions and is used in the majority of applications. The double acting cylinder is retracted when pressure air is applied to the rod side of the cylinder and the air from the piston side is exhausted to atmosphere. Double-Rod Cylinders. Used when equal displacement is needed on both sides of the piston, or when it is mechanically advantageous to couple a load to each end. The extra end can be used to mount cams for operating limit switches, etc. Ram Type, Single-Acting Cylinders. Containing only one fluid chamber, this type of cylinder is usually mounted vertically. The weight of the load retracts the cylinder. They are sometimes known as "displacement cylinders", and are practical for long strokes. Telescoping Cylinders. Available with up to 4 or 5 sleeves; collapsed length is shorter than standard cylinders. Available either single or double-acting, they are relatively expensive compared to standard cylinders. Tandem Cylinders. A tandem cylinder is made up of two cylinders mounted in line with pistons connected by a common piston rod and rod seals installed between the cylinders to permit double acting operation of each. Tandem cylinders allow increased output force when mounting width or height is restricted. Duplex Cylinders. A duplex cylinder is made up of two cylinders mounted in line with pistons not connected and with rod seals installed between the cylinders to permit double acting operation of each. Cylinders may be mounted with piston rod to piston (as shown) or back to back and are generally used to three position operation. Rotary actuators Motors are used where a semi-rotation or full rotation is needed. They are found on air tools such as grinders where the motor is a vane type. Air winches employ rotary actuators, which require great force but not as high a speed as the air grinders. Air winches utilise piston motors to generate the high torque required.

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6.1 Cylinder Construction


Major Parts of Cylinders The major components of a cylinder are the head caps, tube, tie rods, piston, piston rod, rod bearing and seals. Cylinder Heads and Caps are usually made from rolled steel or cast iron. Some are also from aluminium or bronze. Cylinder Tubes are usually brass, steel or aluminium. The inside, and sometimes the outside, is plated or anodised to improve wear characteristics and reduce corrosion. In some applications, cylinder tubes can also be made Pistons vary in design and materials used. Most are made of cast iron or steel. Several methods of attaching the piston to the rod are used. Cushions, are an available option on most cylinders and most often, can be added with no change in envelope dimensions. Piston Rods are generally high strength steel, case-hardened and ground, polished and hard- chrome plated for wear and corrosion resistance. Corrosive atmosphere conditions usually require rods of stainless steel, which may be chrome plated for wear resistance. Rod Glands or Bearings are used on the head end of most industrial cylinders to support the piston rod as it travels back and forth. The gland also acts as a retainer for the rod packing or seals. Most are made of ductile iron or bronze and usually are removable without disassembling the entire cylinder. The gland usually contains a piston rod wiper or scraper on the outboard side to remove dirt and contamination from the rod, and prevent foreign material from being drawn into the packings. A primary seal is used to seal the cylinder pressure. Seals are generally made from Nitrile or fluoro carbon elastomers, polyurethane, leather or Teflon'9. Commonly used seal shapes are shown in illustration b-8. The Lipseal'9 shape is commonly used for both piston and piston rod seals. Generally, O-Rings are used for static applications such as head to tube; piston to rod; and head to gland. Cup or V-packings are used for sealing piston and piston rod. Piston rings are usually cast iron. Tie-Rods are usually high tensile steel with either cut nr rolled threads, prestressed during assembly. Prestressing with proper torque prevents separation of parts when subjected to pressure and reduces the need for locknuts, although locknuts are sometimes used.

Fig 6.1.1 cylinder construction

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Cylinder Mounting
Cylinders can be mounted in a variety of ways, some of which are shown below. The type of mounting is determined by the manner of fitting the cylinder to fixtures and machines. The cylinder can be designed with a permanent type of mounting, alternatively it can be converted to another type of mounting at a later date by using suitable accessories. Modular construction of cylinders allows the use of basic cylinders types in many different applications.

Fig 6.1.2 cylinder mounting styles Short non-centerline mounted cylinders Relatively short, fixed non-centerline mounted cylinders can subject mounting bolts to large tension forces which, in combination with shear forces, overstress the bolts. In applications involving large forces, cylinders with non-centerline type mountings tend to sway under load. The use of non-centerline type mountings may require strengthening of machine members to resist bending under load

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Long Cylinder Mountings Relatively long cylinders with fixed mountings often require additional supports to prevent excessive sag or vibration. The following arrangements can applied: Use of an extra mounting block located midway along cylinder body. A spreader type tie rods are used to increase rigidity in center portion of cylinder. Where one end of a cylinder must be overhung, an additional supporting member can be provided. Cylinders using Dowel Pin Location Cylinders that are pinned in place to help secure alignment and resist shock loads should be pinned at either end, choice of end depends upon direction of major shock load. If dowel pins are used across corners, cylinder may be warped by operating temperatures and pressures or shock loads. Shear Key Mounting Shear keys are often used to absorb shear forces developed at cylinder mounting surfaces. Proper placement of shear keys depends upon direction of major load, (a). Shear keys should never be mounted at both ends of a cylinder, (b). Otherwise, shock-absorbing capabilities of cylinder elasticity can be lost, and changes in cylinder length due to temperature and pressure effects can cause trouble. .Manufacturing tolerances for similar components could also make replacement difficult with such arrangements. Trunnion Mounting Trunnions for pivot mounting of cylinders are generally designed to resist shear loads only. The use of self-aligning bearings that have small bearing areas acting at a distance from the Trunnion and cylinder head introduce forces that can overstress the trunnions.

Cylinder Misalignment
Standard type actuators are not designed to absorb piston rod side loading. Thus actuators must be mounted with care and accuracy, to ensure that the load moves precisely parallel and in alignment with the actuator centreline. In many cases the cylinder must have a clevis or trunnion mount to allow it to swing as the direction of the load changes. Use guides on the load mechanism, if necessary, to assure that no side load is transmitted to the cylinder rod. A self-aligning piston-rod coupling can also be used to compensate for both angular and radial misalignment, but the angular misalignment must not exceed 4C in either direction and the radial alignment must not be more than 1 mm out (fig. 6.1.3).

Fig 6.1.3 self - aligning coupling

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Misalignment of fixed-mounted cylinders with work slides can be of two types. The cylinder can tolerate slight misalignment that increases with stroke. It cannot operate properly with constant misalignment,

Sometimes, a relatively long-stroke cylinders can be made somewhat self-aligning by allowing the rod end head to Float. Holes in the side lugs at the rod cylinder head permit some movement of the front of cylinder with respect to dowel pins. Cylinder body flexes slightly about fixed mounting.

Actuator failure
Rod Bearing Failure Rod bearing failures usually occur when the cylinder is at maximum extension, when side load is not detected early enough or cannot be avoided. Failure occurs most often on hinge or trunnion mount cylinders, in which the rear support point is located considerably behind the bearing.

rod

The following actions should be taken to avoid / minimise rod-bearing failure Where space permits, order cylinders with longer stroke than actually needed. Do not permit the piston to approach close to the front end under load. Use a double - ended piston rod type actuator,

Use an actuator with oversize piston rod, which has less flexing than a standard size piston rod

Rod Buckling Column failure, or the buckling of the rod, may occur if the cylinder stroke too long in relation to the rod length to rod diameter. Tension and Compression Failures Standard cylinders are designed with sufficiently large piston rods. They will never fail either in compression or tension, if the cylinder is operated within the pressure range specified by the manufacturer. 39 is

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

6.2 Actuator (Cylinder) Sizing


The main criteria on which the size of a linear pneumatic actuator is based are: Force output for extension and retraction; Piston speed for extension and retraction; Impact cushioning at the end of the piston stoke Mechanical stability of the piston rod. Piston Force Calculations The piston force exerted by a working element is dependent on the air pressure, the cylinder diameter, and the frictional resistance of the sealing components. Theoretical Piston Force The theoretical piston force can be calculated using the following formula:

Fth = A x P
Where : Fth A P = = = theoretical piston force useful piston area operating pressure (N) (m2) (Pa)

Effective Piston Force In practice however, the effective piston force is significant. In calculating the effective piston force, the frictional resistance must be taken into account. Under normal operating conditions (pressure range 4 - 8 bar), the frictional forces may be assumed to be between 3-20% of developed force. The effective piston force can be calculated using the following formula: Single acting cylinders :

Fn = A x p -FR -FF Fn = A x p -FR Fn = A' x p -FR


(N) (N) (3-20% of Fth) (N) (m2) (m2) (Pa)

Double acting cylinders :

Double acting cylinders (return stroke) : Where : Fn FR FF A A' P = = = = = = effective piston force Frictional force force of return spring useful piston area useful piston ring area operating pressure

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Sample Calculation A pneumatic double acting cylinder is used to clamp work pieces in a machine tool. The actuator available has a piston diameter of 50mm. The rod diameter is 12mm.The operating system pressure available is 6 bar. Calculate the clamping force available. Assume a friction loss of 5% (near static thrust) SOLUTION Piston area: A = D2

= 0.0502
Fth Fth

3.142 4

= 0.00196345m2

Theoretical piston force :

=p x A = 600, 000 x 0.00196 = 1178.1N = 1.1781 kN

Frictional resistance at 5% is 58.9N Effective piston force : Fn = p x A FR = 600,00Pa x 0.001963m2 58.9N = 1178.1 58.9 = 1119.2N = 1.12 kN Effect of Undersizing an Acutator If an actuator is undersized, it may either not cope with given load force or it may just cope, but the response and acceleration times become extremely long, such that back pressure falls below the level required to maintain sonic speed. Thus the necessary back pressure is no longer there and the speed becomes erratic. In addition, the pneumatic cushioning is totally ineffective since initial back pressure used for cushioning is too low Effective Force Table
cylinderDia RodDia piston piston area A(cm2) 21 29 53 82 129 212 333 517 824 1328 2072 3239 5309 8295 12960 Effective Force (N) at p (Bar) 3 17 22 46 69 108 182 280 436 739 1199 1943 3028 4976 7962 12442 28 39 70 109 172 282 444 690 1098 1771 2763 4319 7079 11060 17280 4 21 30 61 92 144 243 373 581 986 1598 2591 4037 6635 10616 16590 5 6 35 45 91 137 216 364 560 871 1478 2397 3886 6056 9953 15924 24885 49 68 123 191 302 493 776 1207 1923 3098 4836 7558 12388 19355 30239 7 41 52 107 160 253 425 653 1016 1725 2797 4534 7066 11612 18579 29032 56 77 141 218 345 563 887 1380 2196 3541 5526 8638 14157 22120 34559 8 46 60 122 183 289 486 746 1162 1971 3196 5181 8075 13270 21233 33180 63 87 158 246 388 634 998 1552 2471 3984 6217 9718 15927 24885 38879 9 52 67 137 206 325 546 840 1307 2218 3596 5829 9084 14929 23887 37327

10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250

4 6 6 8 10 12 16 20 20 25 25 32 40 40 50

O.8 0.66 1.1 0.8 2.0 1.73 3.1 2.6 4.9 4.1 8.0 6.9 12.6 10.6 19.6 16.5 31.1 28.0 50.0 45.3 78.5 73.61 122.7 114.6 201.0 188.4 314.1 301.4 490.6 471,0

35 29 42 48 37 58 88 76 106 136 114 164 216 180 259 352 304 422 554 466 665 862 726 1035 1373 1232 1647 2213 1998 2656 3454 3238 4145 5399 5047 6479 8848 8294 10618 13825 13270 16590 21600 20737 25920 FULL PISTON AREA ANNULAR AREA

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Review Questions 6.3 Actuator - Calculations

1.

Calculate the static force output for a clamping actuator with the following measurements:

PISTON DIAMETER = 140mm PRESSURE = 650 kPa

2.

Calculate the force output for a slowly oscillating actuator with a piston diameter of 250mm; a rod diameter of 180mm and a system pressure of 600kpa. Assume a friction loss of 8% and no back pressure. Calculate extension as well as retraction forces.

3.

Calculate the required lifting force and piston diameter for the given application. Assume no back pressure and no losses

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 4. A linear actuator required to produce a theoretical total extension force of 7000 Newton with a line pressure of 600 kPa, fails to produce that force, due to a back pressure of 300 kPa resulting from meter-out speed control. The piston rod diameter is 60mm (custom made actuator). It is assumed that a pressure increase will produce the necessary extension force of 7000 Newton (with 700 kPa pressure) if necessary, use a new standard size piston diameter of 160mm. But maintain a piston rod of 60mm. Calculate the following parameters:PISTON AREA ROD AREA NEGATIVE FORCE (AGAINST EXTENSION) ANNULAR AREA AVAILABLE FORCE (EXTENSION) NEW FORCE (INCREASED) NEW PRESSURE (INCREASED) FINAL FORCE (NEW ACTUATOR) AP =D2 x 0.7854 AR =D2 d2 x 0.7854 F=pxA AP A R FEXT FNEG FEXT + FNEG F Ap FEXT FNEG.

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Read and study the following: 7.0 Rotary Actuators (Motors)


Additional Reference: Chapter 7 Rotary Actuators Industrial Hydraulic Control Rohner

Motor is the name usually given to a rotary actuator. Rotary actuators (motors) convert hydraulic or pneumatic energy into rotary power. Motors very closely resemble pumps in construction. Instead of pushing on the fluid as the pump does, as output members in the hydraulic system, they are pushed by the fluid and develop torque and continuous rotating motion. Since both the inlet and outlet ports may at times be pressurised, most hydraulic motors are externally drained. The maximum performance of a motor in terms of pressure, flow, torque output, speed, efficiency, expected life and physical configuration is determined by the: Ability of the pressure surfaces to withstand hydraulic force Leakage characteristics Efficiency of the means used to connect the pressure surface to the output shaft. Motor Ratings Motors are rated according to displacement (size), torque capacity, speed, and maximum pressure limitations. Motor Displacement: Displacement is the amount of fluid required to turn the motor output shaft one revolution. Motor displacement (flow output) is expressed in m3 (or cm3or mL) per revolution. Hydraulic motors are built with fixed or variable displacement. Fixed displacement motors provide constant torque and variable speed. Speed varies with the amount of input flow into the motor. Variable displacement motors provide variable torque and variable speed. With constant input flow and constant operating pressure, the ratio between torque and speed can be infinitely varied to meet load requirements. Torque Torque may be defined as a twisting or turning moment and is expressed in Newton metres (Nm). Motor torque figures are usually given for a specific pressure differential, or pressure drop across the motor. Theoretical figures indicate torque available at the motor shaft Torque is a function of system pressure and leverage, whereby the leverage is measured from the centre of the drive shaft to the centre of the pressured exposed area.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems The figure shown below illustrates the typical torque requirements for raising a load with a pulley. Note: Torque is always present at the drive shaft, but is equal to the load multiplied by the radius. A given load will impose less torque on the shaft if the radius is decreased. However, the larger radius will move the load faster for a given shaft speed.

Breakaway torque is the torque required to get a non-moving load turning. More torque is required to start a load moving than to keep it moving. Running torque can refer to a motors load or to the motor. When used in reference to a load, it indicates the torque required to keep the load turning. When it refers to the motor, running torque indicates the actual torque, which a motor can develop to keep a load turning. Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of actual torque delivered to theoretical torque. Motor Speed Motor speed is a function of motor displacement and the volume of fluid delivered to the motor. Speed of a motor is expressed in revolutions per minute (RPM). Maximum motor speed is the speed at a specific inlet pressure, which the motor can sustain for a limited time without damage. Minimum motor speed is the slowest, continuous, smooth rotational speed of the motor output shaft. Slippage is the leakage across the motor, or the fluid moves through the motor without doing any work. Change
INCREASE PRESSURE SETTING DECREASE PRESSURE SETTING INCREASE L/MIN DECREASE L/MIN INCREASE DISPLACEMENT (SIZE) DECREASE DISPLACEMENT (SIZE)

Speed
NO EFFECT NO EFFECT INCREASES DECREASES DECREASES INCREASES

Effect on operating pressure


NO EFFECT NO EFFECT NO EFFECT NO EFFECT DECREASES INCREASES

Torque available
INCREASES DECREASES NO EFFECT NO EFFECT INCREASES DECREASES

Above table assumes a constant load

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7.1 Motor Sizing


Some factors for sizing of a rotary actuator (motor) are: Maximum torque required (Nm) Maximum r.p.m. output (r.p.m.) Maximum operating pressure (Pa) Displacement volume per revolution (m3/rev) Most efficient r.pm.

A motor operating below its maximum rated capacity will provide a service life gain more than proportional to the loss in operating capacity. Motor performance is separated into volumetric efficiency, mechanical efficiency, and overall efficiency. The efficiency is expressed as a percentage. Formulae for Motor Application. Listed below are the formulae used for applying hydraulic motors and determining flow and pressure requirements. Note: All of the following formulae are for theoretical torque. To find the torque required for a job use the following formula: torque load = Force(N) radial distance(m) To find working pressure for a given size motor and load: Operating Pressure (p) = torque load (M) Motor Torque Rate

To find torque when pressure and displacement are know Torque (M) = Pressure (Pa) Displacement (V) 2 (6.28)

To find L/min requirements for a given drive speed Flowrate (m3 /min) (Q) = Displacement (V) Revolutions ( rpm ) Efficiency( v ) 100

To find drive speed when displacement and GPM are known RPM = flow rate (Q) efficiency( v ) Displacement (V) 100

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Review Questions: 7.1 Rotary Actuator Calculations


1. GIVEN V = 90cm3 Q = 140L/min P = 20Mpa FIND v= n= % RPM

2.

GIVEN M= 100Nm V = 0.032L n = 1500RPM

FIND p= MPA

3.

GIVEN n = 1500RPM Q = 80.5L/min v= 95% p = 20Mpa

FIND M= A= P= Nm m2 Kw

4. Calculate the required motor torque to drive a cable drum with the following specifications: Load mass = 2000kg Cable drum Dia. =1.4m

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 5. The cable drum crane described in the previous question is driven by a hydraulic motor with a direct drive (no gearbox). Calculate the required RPM of the motor and the flow requirements in L/min. the load is to be lifted a distance of 82 metres in 22 seconds. The motor has a displacement volume V of 0.60 Litres and operates at a pressure of 12Mpa. Efficiencies are: volumetric v= 95%

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Read and study the following: 7.2 Types of Rotary Actuators (Motors)
There are a variety of motors used in industrial applications. The type of motor that is used depends on the demands of each individual application.

Vane motors In vane motors, torque is delivered by pressurised fluid acting onto rectangular vanes, which slide in and out of their slots in a rotor splined to a drive shaft. As the motor turns, the vanes follow the contour of the cam ring, thus forming sealed cavities which transport the hydraulic fluid from the pressurised inlet side to the non-pressurised outlet side. Since the motor vanes must maintain cam ring contact at all times, and centrifugal force is absent during motor start, these vanes are usually fitted with springs to enable rotation to commence. Other designs use coil springs, or feed pressure to the under side of the vanes to force them firmly against the cam. Gear motors There are two basic types of gear motor available External and Internal, application is usually hydraulic. External gear motors Some gear pumps can also be used as motors. The hydraulic fluid enters the gear chamber on the side where gears mesh, and forces the gears to rotate. The fluid exits at low pressure on the opposite side to the inlet. Non-reversible motors have the case drain connected internally to the low-pressure side of the motor. Reversible gear motors must have an external case drain, which must be connected, to the reservoir. Internal Gear Motors Orbit motors, direct drive gerotor motors, and crescent gear motors work in much the same way as internal gear pumps. The orbit motor and direct drive-drive gerotor motors are designed and built for high torque and lows peed applications. Most internal gear motors are flow reversible and thus require a case drain. All internal gear motors are fixed displacement machines, which provide fixed torque but variable speed can be achieved provided input flow is variable. 49 the

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Piston motors This type of motor is very compact, provides extremely high torque and high acceleration. They also have an excellent life expectancy. Axial piston motors are capable of operating at speeds from 0.5 rpm to as high as 6000rpm with stable torque output for fixed or variable displacement. Radial piston motors are up to 95% overall efficient, can operate at power outputs of up to 3000Kw, and reach peak speeds of 14,000 rpm. Some larger motors may require a motor input flow rate of 1600L/min.

HSLT Motors In many applications, the motor operates continuously at relatively high RPM. Examples are fan drives, generator drives, and compressor drives. While the speed is high and reasonably constant, the load may be either steady as in fan drives, or quite variable, as in compressors or generators. HSLT motors are excellent for these kinds of applications. The four primary Types of HSLT motors are; LSHT Motors In some applications, the motor must move relatively heavy loads at lower speeds and fairly constant torque. A motor for a crane is one such application. Some LSHT motors operate smoothly down to one or two rpm. LSHT motors are simple in design with a minimum of working parts and are quite reliable and generally less expensive than higher speed motors employing speed reducing devices. Ideally, an LSHT motor should have high starting and stall torque efficiencies. They should start smoothly under full load and provide full torque over their entire speed range. Basic LSHT motors include Internal gear Vane Rolling Vane radial piston axial piston axial ball piston In-line piston Bent axis piston vane gear

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Free wheeling control In some applications of hydraulic motors. It is necessary for the motor to freewheel during part of the operating cycle. In some, freewheeling is achieved by means of suitable external valving. To permit flow circulation from port to port. In piston motors freewheeling is sometimes achieved by connecting both inlet and outlet ports to tank, simultaneously ensuring a positive pressure of approx. 50 100kPa. This pressure moves the pistons clear of the cam ring. In this way, freewheeling for speeds of up to 700rpm may be achieved Deceleration control (braking) Regulating the pressure on the motor outlet port controls the motor deceleration. In some applications inlet pressure is maintained while outlet pressure is gradually increased until the motor stops. This method gives accurate deceleration control. In other applications the directional control valve is shifted to neutral, while at the same time a brake valve imposes a restriction on the motor outlet flow. The pressure setting on the brake valve controls the rate of deceleration.

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Read and study the following: 7.4 Actuator Applications


Cylinders Moving Horizontal Loads Rolling Loads A cylinder thrust of l/10 the load weight will move loads which operate on low-friction needle, roller, or ball bearings. An air cylinder with meter-out flow controls can be used on some applications, even at slow feed rates. Attention should be given to deceleration at the end of cylinder stroke to prevent momentum of the load from damagthe cylinder and/or the machine Sliding Loads Either air or hydraulic cylinders can be used for moving high friction sliding loads. On applications that require rapid indexing from one positive stop to another, an air cylinder will give more rapid action than hydraulics if the load is within its capacity. Air cylinders should not be used for slow speed or controlled feeding of a sliding load with a large area of surface friction, as a chattering motion will result. Hydraulic cylinders with a meter-out flow control should be used in these applications. In some instances an air/oil system will also give acceptable performance. The force needed to push a sliding load varies with surface material, lubrication, unit loading and other factors. For lightly lubricated machined slides, the cylinder thrust should be equal to 1/2 to 3/4 of the load weight to get the load started. A thrust of 1/5 to 1/6 load weight will keep it moving. To operate an air cylinder at high speeds, the cylinder should be sized to develop twice the thrust needed to balance the load.

ing

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Cylinders for Lifting Differential Lift Where overhead clearance is not sufficient for direct lift, a differential lift is sometimes an ideal solution. A shorter length, larger diameter cylinder is usually best in this application. The arrangement illustrated will give a 2:1 mechanical reduction. Size the cylinder with twice the piston area and half the stroke needfor a straight lift of the same load. Possible side thrust from the cylinder is prevented by running the pulley attached to the cylinder rod in horizontal guides. In addition to needing less head room, this arrangement allows the cylinder to work on full piston area and the rod packings are not subjected to high pressure. Vertical Lifting Air cylinders used to lift a load must always be sized to exert a force greater than the weight of the load. An air cylinder, which exerts a 2.5kN force can support a 225Kg load, but cannot move it. For normal applications, an air cylinder should develop 25% more thrust than needed to support the load. Twice the force needed to support the load is required for fast operation. A hydraulic or ail/oil system must be used if the cylinder is to be stopped at an intermediate point a

ed

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Read and study the following:


8.2

Directional Control Elements


Chapter 2 Directional Control Valves Pneumatic Control For Industrial Automation Rohner

Reference:

Fluid power working element (actuator) needs a positive method to allow it to move in and out. The movement of the actuator is achieved by a control element. The simplest actuator control element is a Directional Control Valve, this valve directs flow to either the head or rod end of a cylinder. What a Directional Control Valve Consists of: A typical directional control valve consists of a valve body with four internal passages and a sliding spool moving part, which connects and disconnects the passages.

How a Directional Control Valve works: With the spool in one extreme position, the pressure passage is connected to cylinder passage B and tank/exhaust passage is connected to cylinder passage A. With the spool in the other extreme, the pump passage is connected to cylinder passage A and tank passage is connected to cylinder passage B. With a directional control valve in a circuit, the cylinders piston rod can be extended and work performed. By shifting the spool to the other extreme, flow is directed to the other side of the cylinder. The piston rod retracts.

Types of Directional Control Valves Directional valves control the path of air in the system. They turn on, switch off and control the direction of flow, Directional valves fall into two main categories. 1. Lifting (poppet valves) Ball seat valves Disc seat valves - toggle disc Spool poppet valves 2.Sliding Spool valves Flat slide valves Rotary valve

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Poppet Valves The valve is opened and closed by a plate, disc, ball or plug with flexible gaskets usually being used to seal the valve seats. Poppet valves have very quick response. The plunger need only lift a small amount to open up the full valve flow area. These valves are simple in make up, but do not ensure a perfect seal at all times

(fig.8.1)Ball Seat Valve (fig. 8.2)Spool Poppet Valve These valves have a spring-loaded seat or disc. As with the ball seat valve air pressure forces the disc on its seat, which prevents leakage.

(Fig 8.3) (Fig 8.4) Toggle Disc Seat Valves 5/2 Toggle Disc Seat Valves 3/2 Slide Valves In slide valves, the individual connections are closed to one another by means of spool slides slides and sliding plates. When double piloted they become memory valves.

(Fig 8.5) Pilot operated poppet valve

flat

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems (Fig. 8.6) Sliding Plate Valve (Fig. 8.7) Spool Valves

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems The force required to shift a spool valve is usually lower because there are no opposing forces such as springs or compressed air. The actuation travel is longer than for that of poppet valves. Sealing presents a problem in this type of slide valve. The gap between slide and housing should not exceed .002 - .004 mm in the metal to type spool. To prevent leakage the spool is often sealed with O rings or double cap packings, or the bore of the housing is sealed with O rings. To avoid damage to the seals, the connecting ports are distributed around the circumference of the spool jacket.

(Fig.8.8) Rotary Valves These valves are usually foot or hand operated, as other means of actuation is difficult. By twisting discs ports are connected or disconnected. Exhaust Overlap This refers to the connections within the valve when it is switched from one position to another. It results from the inlet air being able to pass directly to the exhaust port and escape to atmosphere during actuation. High leakage losses are incurred on such valves and they should not be employed in pneumatic control equipment.

Contamination Contamination can be a problem with either of the two valve groups. It can be in the form of dirt rust, water and gummy oil deposits. Contamination, prevents poppets from sealing, scores spool valves and prevents accurate switching times with pilot controlled valves.

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8.2

Logic Function Valves

Memory Directional Control Valve The term memory valve refers to the fact that the valve will stay in the position as directed by the last pilot signal. In essence it will remember and stay in the position of the last command (pilot) signal until directed by another command (pilot) signal. A 4/2 or 5/2 directional control valve, which utilises pilot to operate it on both sides is referred to as a memory valve. (Power Valve). The diagram shows a 4/2 valve with ports labelled A, B and R. Ports labelled A and B are the working lines and are connected to the ports of the cylinders, A to extend and B to retract. Z and Y ports are the pilot lines. If a pulse of air was introduced at Port Z then the sliding plate moves across and pressure air goes to A, port is exhausted to atmosphere via R. If a pulse was introduced to Port Y then the pressure goes to B and A is exhausted via R. Below are symbols depicting 4/2 and 5/2 memory valves air

P,

B air

Shuttle Valve ("Or Logic Function Value) Reference: Chapter 2 Directional Control Valves Pneumatic Control for Industrial Automation - Rohner

A shuttle valve is used where it is required to operate a cylinder from either of two valves. Shuttle valves are sometimes referred to as an OR- valve, because of its logic function. This simply means that the cylinder can be controlled from one valve or another valve.

S1

S2

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Two Pressure Valve ("And Logic Function Valve) In some situations it is necessary to operate a cylinder when two push buttons or levers are operated. This situation is required in many applications where safety is of prime importance. An example of this is on a press where the operator is required to push two buttons to operate the press, effectively keeping both hands out of the press during operation.

(Fig10.2-1) AND valve The two pressure valve has a logic function "AND", by which this valve is commonly known as. The AND function can also be achieved using two 3/2 valves in series as shown.

8.3

Directional Control Valve Applications

Control of a Single Acting Cylinder Reference: Chapter 2 Directional Control Valves Pneumatic Control for Industrial Automation Rohner Actuation of the system is by pushing the button to open the pressure port to direct air the piston side of the cylinder and this will make the piston extend. When the button is released the valves moves to closed position (via the spring), blocking the pressure port and opening exhaust port venting the air to atmosphere. Another method of controlling the single acting cylinder is shown below to

In this case the 3/2 valve is indirect or pilot controlled via another 3/2 valve. The arrow acting against the spring on the other side of the valve indicates pilot air to actuate the valve.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems CONTROL OF A DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER Reference: Chapter 2 Directional Control Valves Pneumatic Control for Industrial Automation Rohner To control the operation of a single acting cylinder we required a valve with two positions, one to extend and one to retract the piston. The valve also required three ports for the flow of compressed air. The single acting cylinder has one port where the air is introduced. Therefore, we require a three port valve. One for the cylinder which is known as a working line, one pressure and one exhaust port. The exhaust port is usually vented directly to atmosphere through a silencer, indicated by an open arrowhead. The double acting cylinder requires a two-position valve for extension and retraction. The double acting cylinder requires two working lines for the extension and retraction of the cylinder. Two more lines or ports are required for pressure and exhaust. The minimum requirement to control a double acting cylinder is a 4/2 valve (4 ports, 2 positions).

Shown below are another two methods of actuating a 4/2 directional control valve

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Review Questions: 8.4 Directional Control Valves


1. Identify the following valve types. Match the valve identification letter given to each illustration with its corresponding design type name

Flat Slide Toggle Disc Valve 3/2 Spool Valve Pilot Operated Poppet Valve Spool Poppet Valve Toggle Disc Valve 5/2

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 2. Indicate which of the six valves shown on the previous page have: a. positive overlap b. have air pressure assisted sealing c. are flow reversible

3.

Examine the following statement and mark all the correct answers

An "AND" valve produces an output signal when:None of the two input signals is present Both inputs are simultaneously present Input 1 arrives prior to input 2 Input 2 or input 1 are present Input 2 arrives prior to input 1 Only one of the two inputs is present

4.

Correctly mark which of the two valves shown below, when correctly connected, provide the "AND" function and lets the stronger of the two input signals flow to the outlet port.

5. Identify the input ports of the valves shown above with P1 and P2. The output port should labelled with "S". The port with the stronger signal must be marked P2

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 6. Mark the valve arrangements which provide an "AND" function, if signals S1 and S2 are given
A A A A

S 1

S 1

S 2

S 2

S 1

S 2

S 1

S 2

7. Examine the following statement and mark all the correct answers

An "OR" valve produces an output signal when:None of the two input signals is present Both inputs are simultaneously present Input 1 arrives prior to input 2 Input 2 or input 1 are present Only one of the two inputs is present

8.

Explain with the aid of a sketch to prove that a "T" type connector cannot replace an "OR" type connector when connecting two signals into one output

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 9. Correctly label the valve and show by means of arrows, how this valve could be connected to perform the "OR" function.

10.

Which of the four (4) circuits shown in question 6 is called a. b. c. series function? "AND" function? "OR" function?

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Read and study the following:


9.0 Pressure Control Valve Elements
Reference: 9.1 Chapter 5 - Pressure Controls Industrial Hydraulic Control - Rohner

Non-Passing Pressure Control Valve Types

Simple Relief Valve A simple relief valve basically consists of valve body with spool, which is biased by a heavy spring. When pilot pressure at the spool end opposite the spring is high enough, the spool moves up opening a path to tank for pump flow. In the circuit illustrated, the simple relief valve is set to relieve 10 GPM (37.9 I/min) when pressure at pump outlet reaches 1000 PSI (68.97 bar). This does not mean that at a pressure level of 1000 PSI (68.97 bar), the valve suddenly opens dumping flow to tank. The valve opens at point below 1000 PSI (68.97 bar) bleeding off fluid to tank and progressively bleeds more off as 1000 PSI (68.97 bar) is approached. a

The moving part inside a relief valve forms a restriction back to tank as the valve is operating. The restriction begins to appear in the system when a predetermined pressure level is reached. As system pressure and pilot pressure at the bottom of the spool increases, the size of the restriction also increases allowing more flow back to tank. At the pressure setting of the valve, the size of the restriction is large enough to accept all pump flow. When pressure in a system, drops below valve cracking pressure, the opening to tank through the valve disappears from the circuit. Uses of a Non-Passing Pressure Valves: Normally non-passing pressure control valves have many uses in a hydraulic system. Besides using the valve as a system relief, a non-passing pressure control can be used to cause one operation to occur before another. It can also be used to counteract external mechanical forces in the system

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Sequence Valve The sequence valve is closely related to the relief valve in its design and function. It permits hydraulic fluid to flow into a subcircuit, when the pressure in the main circuit has reached the setting of the sequence valve. How a Sequence Valve Works The direct operated sequence valve is a normally closed valve. When pilot pressure at point 'X' exceeds the pressure setting, the spool is raised against the spring, and fluid flows from the primary port P to the secondary port A. The valve requires an external drain to permit internal leakage past the spool land to drain back to the tank. Sequence Valve in a Circuit In a clamp and drill circuit, the clamp cylinder must extend before the drill cylinder. To accomplish this, a sequence valve is positioned in the leg of the circuit just ahead of the drill cylinder. The spring in the sequence valve will not allow the spool to connect primary and secondary passages until pressure is high enough to overcome it. Flow to the drill cylinder is blocked. Therefore, the clamp cylinder will extend first. When the clamp contacts the work piece, the pump applies more pressure to over-come the resistance. This rise in pressure actuates the spool in the sequence valve. Primary and secondary passages connect. Flow goes to the drill cylinder.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Counterbalance Valve A normally non-passing pressure control valve be used to balance or counteract a weight such as the platen of a press. This valve is called a counterbalance valve. Counterbalance Valve in a Circuit In a press circuit, when the directional valve directs flow to the cap end of the cylinder, the weight of the platen attached to the cylinder will fall uncontrollably. Pump flow will not be able to keep up. To avoid this situation, a normally non-passing pressure valve is located downstream from the press cylinder. The spool in the valve will not connect primary and secondary passages until pressure, which is sensed at the bottom of the spool, is greater than the pressure developed the weight of the platen. (In other words, when fluid pressure is present at the cap end of the piston.) In this way the weight of the platen is counterbalanced throughout its downward stroke. A counterbalance valve can also be used to retard the spinning motion of a weight attached motor shaft. can

rod

a by

to a

A hydraulic motor, which is turning a heavy wheel, may run away once the momentum of the wheel has built up. A counterbalance valve, positioned at the outlet of the motor, will not open until pressure is present at the motor outlet. This pressure counteracts the force of the spinning weight.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Brake Valve A brake valve is a normally non-passing pressure control valve with both direct and remote pilots connected simultaneously for its operation. This valve is frequently used with hydraulic motors instead of a directly operated counter-balance valve. What a Brake Valve Consists Of A brake valve consists of a valve body with primary and secondary passages, internal remote pilot passages, spool, piston, bias spring, and spring adjustment. How a Brake Valve Works A brake valve is a normally non-passing valve. Assume that the spring biasing the spool is adjusted for 800-PSI (55.2 bar) direct operation. When pressure in the internal pilot passage reaches 800 PSI (55.2 bar), the piston moves up pushing the spool and opens passage through the valve. If pressure falls below 800 PSI (55.2 bar), the valve closes. This operates as the directly operated counterbalance valve, which we saw earlier. The piston, on which the internal pilot pressure acts, has much less cross sectional area than the spool. The area ratio is frequently 8:1. With the remote pilot connected to the opposite motor line, a pressure of only 100 PSI (6.89 bar) is needed to open the valve since it acts on the bottom of the spool with eight times more area than the piston. Brake Valve in a Circuit With a brake valve set for 800 PSI (55.2 bar), the valve will be open when 100 PSI (16.89 bar) is present in the motor inlet line. Pressure at motor inlet will be whatever it takes to turn the load only (assuming that this pressure is above 100 PSI/16.89 bar) If the load attempts to run away pressure drops off in the motor inlet line. The brake valve closes and does not reopen until a backpressure of 800 PSI (55.2 bar) is generated to slow down the load. A brake valve is a normally non-passing pressure control valve whose operation is directly tied to the needs of a motor load. and

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 9.2 Normally Passing Pressure Valve Types A normally non-passing pressure control valve has primary and secondary passages disconnected, and pressure at the bottom of the spool is sensed from the primary port. A normally passing pressure valve has primary and secondary passages' connected, and pressure at the bottom of the spool is sensed from the secondary port. Pressure Reducing Valve A pressure-reducing valve usually is a normally passing pressure control valve. How a Pressure Reducing Valve Works: A pressure-reducing valve operates by sensing fluid pressure after it has passed through the valve. As pressure downstream equals the setting of the valve; the spool is partially closed causing a restricted flow path. This restriction turns any excess pressure energy ahead of the valve into heat. If pressure after the valve drops off, the spool will open and allow pressure to build once again. Pressure Reducing Valve in a Circuit The illustrated clamp circuit on the previous page, requires that clamp cylinder B apply a lesser force than clamp A. A pressure-reducing valve placed just ahead of clamp cylinder B will allow flow to go to the cylinder until pressure reaches the setting of the valve. At this point, the valve spool is actuated causing a restriction to that leg of the circuit. Excess pressure ahead of the valve is turned into heat. Cylinder B clamps at a reduced pressure.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Read and study the following: 9.2 Drains The spool in a pressure control valve moves within a passage. There is some leakage of fluid into the passage above the spool. This is a normal occurrence, which serves to lubricate the spool. In order for a pressure valve to operate properly, the area above the spool must be continuously drained so that the liquid does not impair the movement of the spool. This is accomplished with a passage within the valve body, which is connected to the reservoir. Internal Drain If the secondary passage of a pressure valve is connected to the reservoir, as in relief valve and counterbalance valve applications, the drain passage is internally connected to the valve's secondary or tank passage. This is known as an internal drain. External Drain If the secondary passage of a pressure valve is a pressure line (or in other words does work) as in sequence valve and pressure reducing valve applications, the drain passage is connected to tank by means of a separate line. This is an external drain. Sequence valves and pressure reducing valves are always externally drained. 9.4 Direct and Remote Operation

Up to this point, we have seen that pressure controls sense pressure from a passage within the valve body. In normally non-passing valves, pressure is sensed from the primary passage. In a pressure-reducing valve, pressure is sensed from the secondary passage. This type of pressure sensing is identified as direct operation. Pressure control valves can also sense pressure in another part of a system by means of an external line. This is remote operation. Unloading Valve

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems An unloading valve is a remotely operated normally non-passing pressure control valve, which directs flow to tank when pressure in a remote part of a system reaches a predetermined level. Unloading Valve in a Circuit A directly operated relief valve used in an accumulator circuit means that once the accumulator is charged, the pump's flow returns to tank at the relief valve setting. This is a waste of horsepower and an unnecessary generation of heat. A remotely operated unloading valve, with its pilot line connected downstream from the check valve, will allow pump flow to return to tank at a minimum pressure when the accumulator is charged to the valve setting. The pump is not required to apply a high pressure to operate the unloading valve because the valve is operated from pressure in another part of the system. Since pressure applied by the pump is negligible, so is the horsepower.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Remotely Operated Counterbalance Valve A directly operated counterbalance valve, positioned downstream from a cylinder supporting a heavy platen, effectively balances or cancels out the weight of the platen. If the platen is required to move through the material during the pressing process, the weight of the platen does not add to the total pressing force. If this is undesirable, the pilot line of the valve is remotely connected to the other cylinder line. Remotely Operated Counterbalance Valve in a Circuit With remote operation, the platen is still balanced on its downward stroke and use can be made of the platen's weight in pressing. If the platen attempts to pull away from fluid flow, pressure will drop off in the upstream cylinder line as well as in the pilot line. The valve will close and allow the flow to catch up. During the pressing operation, the valve will be wide open. No backpressure will act on the rod end side of the piston. The platen's weight can be added to the pressing force. NOTE: This simplified circuit may need refining to achieve a smooth operation. Directly Operated Counterbalance Valve in a Motor Circuit A motor circuit is illustrated below, which uses a directly operated counter-balance valve to control the run-away tendency of a spinning load. With the valve set for 800 PSI (55.2 bar), a backpressure is always present while the load is spinning. This pressure keeps the load from running away from pump flow, but it also means that pressure at motor inlet must be 800 PSI (55.2 bar) more than the work load pressure. This is a disadvantage, which is overcome by a brake valve.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 9.5 Reversible Flow

A normal requirement of all pressure valves, except relief and unloading valves, is that reverse flow must be able to pass through the valve. Since normally non-passing pressure valves sense pressure from the primary passage, as soon as flow is reversed, pressure in the primary passage falls off. The spool is de-actuated. Primary and secondary passages are disconnected. Flow through the valve is blocked. Since we cannot go through the valve, we go around the valve by using a check valve Normally passing pressure valves sense pressure from the secondary passage. It would appear that as long as reverse flow pressure ahead of the valve remains below valve setting, passage through the valve will remain open and no check valve is required. This is true. However, any rise in pressure above the setting will result in the spool being slammed shut. As a pre-cautionary measure, many times a check valve is used with a pressure-reducing valve for reverse flow. 9.6 Time Delay Valve

Pneumatic timing systems are simple and reliable, but less accurate than electrical time delays. Deviations of about 10% of the adjusted time must be taken into account. The maximum time delay that can be obtained. Depending on the size of the reservoir is a few minutes. Applications of time circuits a. b. c. d. The automatic opening and, after delay, closing of process control valves. The temporary immersion of products in baths for surface treatment such as cleansing, enamelling, heat treatment etc. Momentary clamping of glued surfaces, particularly with impact adhesives. Adjustment of the pressing time in laundry presses.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Generalisations about Pressure control valves Some generalisations can be made about pressure control valves: A. Pressure control valves, whose secondary ports are pressurised, have external drains. (Sequence and pressure reducing valves) B. Pressure control valves, whose secondary ports are connected to tank, generally have internal drains. (Relief, unloading, counterbalance, and brake valves) C. To pass reverse flow through a pressure control valve, a check valve is used. Pressure Control Valve Symbols From the beginning of the lesson we have been building the symbols for the various types pressure control valves. The complete symbol each valve is illustrated. of for

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Read and study the following:


10.0 Speed Control (Flow Control) Elements
Reference: Chapter 4 - Flow Controls for Pneumatics Pneumatic Control for Industrial Automation - Rohner

Flow-control valves are used in fluid systems to control the rate of flow of fluid from one part of the system to another. Flow-control devices accomplish one or more of the following control functions: For pneumatic systems, their use is limited to the control of compressed air to and from the actuator and their main functions are; To control the maximum speed of the actuator piston and its attached load, To provide constant speed for the main part of the actuator piston stroke when acceleration is completed, To cushion the load impact at the end of the actuator stroke or decelerate a load to a lower speed, To prevent free falling of a heavy load on the downward movement.

For hydraulic systems they are used to control the rate of flow from one part of the system to another. Limit the maximum speed of linear actuators and flowrate pistonspee d = hydraulic motors Piston Area Limit the maximum power available to subcircuits by controlling the flow to them (power=flowrate x pressure); Proportionally divide or regulate the pump flow to various branches of the circuit

The speed of a piston or shaft of a motor is dependent on the amount of flow of fluid into the actuator. To increase the speed the flow of fluid must be increased, to decrease the speed the flow of fluid must be decreased. This is done by simply placing a restriction in the fluid line. This restriction can be either fixed or variable. Shown below are the symbols for fixed and variable flow control

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems A simple circuit is shown below for controlling the extension speed of a single acting cylinder.

Simple restrictor valve (variable throttle valve) Variable restrictor type flow controls (fig 10-1) are used in control circuits where the controlled speed of actuator is not critical, and thus may vary if the actuator load fluctuates or the viscosity of the fluid undergoes changes. These valves usually consist of a valve body and a throttling screw (5) for fine adjustment. If you trace through the flow of fluid to the cylinder in sketch above, you can see that both the extension and retraction speeds are controlled. (fig. 10-1). When the fluid is fed into the cylinder to make the piston extend, the incoming fluid is throttled. This is known as 'metering in'. Similarly, when the piston retracts the exhaust fluid is throttled through the same flow control valve. When the exhaust fluid is throttled it is known as 'metering out'. A disadvantage of this type of flow control valve is that the piston speed is controlled in both directions. Commonly a piston usually requires a controlled forward (extension) speed with a fast return. the the

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Variable restrictor with free reverse flow Where speed control (flow control) in only one valve direction is required, a check valve is built into the flow control. This permits unrestricted flow of air in the reverse direction (fig.10-2). The construction of this type of valve apart from the inbuilt check valve is identical to the simple restrictor type. The check valve consists of rubber ring, which flex upward if reverse flow required, and a ring hub to hold the disc onto to the check valve orifice during the throttling function Some pneumatic component manufacturers also make miniature type flow control valves, which are directly built into the exhaust ports of the power valve. Others manufacture an actuator swivel fitting which contains a small flow control valve with free reverse flow. Such inbuilt valves save space, extra connectors and installation costs.

can

Figure 10-2 shows a flow control valve, which has throttling in one direction with free flow in reverse direction.

The square around the symbol indicates that there is more than one valve in the valve body. In this case we have a variable restrictor valve with a check valve. The check valve is represented by a ball sitting on a seat. The flow of air can lift the ball off its seat and allow free flow. If the flow comes from the other direction then the ball is pushed against the sect and prevents flow through the check valve. You must realise that the symbol is only a symbolic representation and does not indicts the physical construction of the valve.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Cam roller operated flow control Cam roller operated flow control valves perform the same function as the previously explained flow controls, but here a cam roller is used to alter the flow-rate (orifice area). Thus variable speed control during the stroking of the actuator can be achieved (fig.10-3). The minimal speed (orifice opening) is limited on the rear end of the roller lever by means of a screw. (fig.10-3) A template is attached to the moving piston rod or to the moving machine part driven by the piston rod. A downward movement of the roller reduces the cross section of the orifice and thus reduces the speed of the actuator under control. The inbuilt check valve permits unrestricted air flow in the reverse direction. The check valve poppet moves to the left when unrestricted flow is required and resets itself when the flow is in the opposite direction (P to A). Flow control valve with pressure compensation Where accurate and consistent flow-rate control is required, regardless of changes in the pressure differential (p), a pressure-compensated flow control should be used. Pressure compensation ensures that the flowrate (Q) through the valve is precisely maintained, even if the upstream or downstream pressure should vary. Valve operation (fig. 10-4)

Flow passes from port (P) through the pressure compensator orifice and then through the control orifice, and leaves the valve at port (A). Pressure compensation is based on the use of a pressure-positioned variable orifice (compensator orifice) upstream, in a series arrangement with the control orifice (fig. 10-4). The ends of the compensator spool (hydrostat), which have precisely equal areas, are hydraulically connected to the inlet and outlet of the control orifice Hence, in a static condition the hydraulic forces will hold the compensator spool in balance, but the bias spring will force it to the far right, thus holding the compensator orifice fully open. In the flow condition, any pressure drop (p), less than the bias-spring force will not affect the fully open compensator orifice; but any pressure drop greater than the bias-spring force will reduce the compensator orifice. Any change in pressure on either side of the control orifice, without a corresponding pressure change on the opposite side of the control orifice, moves the compensator spool. Thus, a fixed pressure differential (Ap) across the control orifice is maintained at all times. By this means, the valve holds the pre-set flowrate across the control orifice constant. 78

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Quick Exhaust Valve The speed of a piston can only be increased to the stage that the restrictions in the piping and valves will allow. If you refer back to the previous circuit the exhaust air from the cylinder is vented via the 4/2 pilot controlled valve to atmosphere. The piping and valve restrict the flow of exhaust air and in so doing reduce the speed of the piston. To prevent this from happening we need to vent the exhaust air directly to atmosphere at the cylinder. It allows air to flow from the power valve (port P) to the actuator to which it is attached (port A). When the actuator exhausting (flow in reverse direction), the valve element is shuttled to the left where it blocks port P and the exhausting air can rapidly flow through a large exhaust port (R) to atmosphere. Thus the exhaust air must not be forced the way back through the power valve (fig. 10-5). This valve often permits a speed increase up to 2 m/s, but care must be taken to control load impact. The fitted exhaust silencer does not affect exhaust efficiency. (fig. 10-5) is

all

10.1Flow control methods for restrictor type valves


Three basic methods are commonly used when applying flow control valves for actuator speed regulation. These methods are: meter-out, meter-in, and bleed-off" The restrictor type flow control valves shown in fig.10-1 or fig.10-2 may be used for all three flow control methods. Meter-out flow control This speed control method is highly accurate, and used wherever a free-falling load or overhauling load tends to get out of control (runaway condition). The flow control valve is located between the actuator and the directional-control valve, and controls the exhaust fluid from the actuator. If both actuator strokes are to be controlled, the valve can be installed in the return line of the directional-control valve. If only one stroke is to be speed controlled, a reverse free-flow check valve would be required for rapid retraction A disadvantage in hydraulic circuits is that excess pump flow, which cannot pass through the flow control valve, is pushed over the system relief valve. Meter-out provides the necessary back-pressure in a pneumatic system, which is imperative for smooth and constant piston speed.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems One disadvantage of using meter-out speed control in a pneumatic system is that the back pressure brought about by meter-out speed control reduces the force output of the actuator, which means that a larger piston may have to be selected to move the given load. The advantages gained from meter-out speed control are numerous and may be listed as: A free falling, suspended or supported load can be controlled with ease The back pressure caused by a meter-out speed control restrictor (flow control valve or an orifice) resists the advancing piston which is driven forward by the pressure on the opposite side. This form of speed control provides excellent and constant control of the stationary actuator speed. Pneumatic end-cushioning is greatly enhanced with the air pressure cushion caused by the meter-out speed control restrictor valve.

Meter-in flow control This speed control method is also highly accurate, and is used where the load on the actuator resists the stroke at all times (no "runaway condition) The flow control valve is located in the feed-line on the actuator and where only one stroke is to be speed controlled, a reverse free-flow check valve would be required to provide rapid retraction. If both actuator strokes are to be speed controlled, the flow control valve may be installed between the pump and the directional-control valve. However, stroke speeds could then not be regulated individually. Here too, in hydraulic systems excess pump flow is pushed over the system relief valve. Bleed-off flow control This speed control method is used mainly with hydraulic circuits and has a power-saving advantage, as the pump operates always at the pressure required by the workload, and the excess pump flow returns via the flow control valve to tank, without being pushed over the relief valve. The method is not as accurate as meter-in, since the measured flow goes to tank and the remaining flow into the actuator. This makes the actuator speed subject to varying pump delivery. Bleed-off flow control does not require a reverse free-flow check valve. It must be noted that bleed-off control is not suitable for runaway" load conditions. System Sizing System sizing is the simplest and least costly speed control method. Even if it does not provide adjustable speed control, it has a proper place especially in large series of identical controls. It is mostly established by trial and error, but saves on costly control valves. The fittings screwed into the actuator ports acts as natural restrictors and where necessary, reduction fittings may be used to cause more flow restriction.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

10.2 Summary of Speed Control Types


The speed control methods used to control speed of pneumatic actuators are many and varied, but essentially fall into seven main categories, some of which have been discussed here. They listed in order of importance and frequency of use below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Variable restrictors, with reverse flow installed as meter-in or meter-out Simple restrictor type flow control install mostly in power valve exhaust ports. Pneumatic end cushioning in conjunction with other speed control types. System sizing used in conjunction with pneumatic-end cushioning Quick exhaust speed control in conjunction with other speed control types such as variable restrictors. 6. Cam roller operated flow control in conjunction with other speed control types. 7. Hydraulic check speed control usually installed as an ancillary unit attached to an existing actuator

Summary of installation methods


The most recommended method is meter-out, but power valve exhaust port installation, even if it is also a form of meter-out, is not as effective as having the speed control directly mounted onto the actuator. Meter-in speed control should be avoided where possible.

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10.3 VALVE SIZING


When selecting a valve for a particular application an important consideration is their ability to pass the required volume of air at an acceptable pressure drop. This is referred to as the flow rating. A common method of rating flow is by a Cv "(C-Sub- v)" factor. The Cv factor is derived from an expression, which gives the number of gallons of water per minute that will pass through the valve with a 1psi differential between the valve's inlet and outlet. Typical capacity coefficients for four-way directional valves are shown in the table below Port Pipe Size (NPT) 1/8 inch 1/4 inch 3/8 inch 1/2 inch 3/4 inch 1inch Flow Rating (Cv) 0.2 to 0.8 0.5 to 2.0 1.5 to 3.5 2.5 to 5.0 4.0 to 9.0 6.0 to 16.0

In many valve designs, the variation in capacity between different flow paths may vary up to 50%. One manufacturers 1/2" port valve may actually pass less flow than another manufacturer's 1/4" port valve.

VALVE SIZING CALCULATIONS Currently using the following Cv formula ( Flow in Cubic Feet per Minute)

Cv =

Q 114.5

T1 G P ( P2 + Pa )

Where: Cv = Capacity Coefficient (a numeral) Q = Flow in standard cubic feet per minute (dm3/s) @ 7600mm Hg, 20oC, 36% relative humidity. G = Specific gravity of the flowing medium (G = 1 for air) T1 = Absolute temperature (273 + Co) P1 = Inlet Pressure (bar) P2 = Outlet Pressure (bar)\ P = Pressure drop (bar) static to static pressure (P1 P2) Pa = Absolute Pressure

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Although this formula is not difficult to work with. We can make use of already prepared tables for some of the basic quantities found in the equation. It may be rewritten as Cv = Flow rate (CFM) x A (for US units only) Where A is a constant, which is a function of inlet pressure and pressure drop and obtained from the table below
Inlet Pressure (psig) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 "A" Constants for Various Pressure Drop Compression Factor 1.6 2.3 3.0 3.7 4.4 5.1 5.7 6.4 7.1 7.8 8.5 9.2 9.9 10.6 11.2 11.9 12.6 13.3 14.0 14.7 2 psi P .155 .129 .113 .097 .091 .084 .079 .075 .071 .068 .065 .062 .060 .058 .056 .055 .054 .052 .051 .050 5 psi P .102 .083 .072 .064 .059 .054 .050 .048 .045 .043 .041 .039 .038 .037 .036 .035 .034 .033 .032 .031 10 psi P .066 .055 .048 .043 .040 .037 .035 .033 .031 .030 .029 .028 .027 .026 .026 .025 .024 .024 .023

EXAMPLE: An impact tool is being used in a particular circuit. The tool uses 10CFM (4.72dm3/s) at 90 psi (6.2 bar) What is the Cv and what type of valve is needed? SOLUTION: Since the system needed will be used to power an impact tool, a simple two-way valve is sufficient. The size of the valve is determined by its Cv. Cv = CFM x "A" In this application, we have decided to take a 10 psi drop across the valve to save on initial cost. This means the upstream pressure of the valve is: Upstream pressure = Impact tool pressure + pressure drop The "A" factor from the chart for 100 psi inlet pressure is 0.031, therefore the Cv will be: Cv =10 x 0.031 Cv = 0.31

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Checking port sizing capacity chart, we find that we would need a valve with 3/8" ports to accommodate the flow rating In some applications we also need to consider valve response time VALVE RESPONSE TIME Many manufacturers provide data on the time required to pressurise specific volumes. With 100 psi supply, times are calculated for filling from 0 - 90 psi and exhaust from 100 psi 10 psi. Some typical performances for relatively fast valves are shown below: Time (seconds) to pressurise or exhaust fixed volumes Port pipe 12 cu. in. 100 cu in. 1000 cu. In. Size (NPT) 1/4 inch 0.060 0.300 3/8 inch 0.040 0.090 1/2 inch 0.035 0.075 3/4 inch 0.030 0.070 0.55 1 inch 0.065 0.40 1-1/4 inch 0.060 0.37

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Read and study the following:


11.0 Assembly and Design of Fluid Power Systems
reference: Chapter 7 Circuit Presentation Pneumatic Control for Industrial Automation - Rohner

Fluid Power Circuit Interpretation This section has two purposes: to show you how to find your way around graphical circuit diagrams; and to acquaint you with some of the applications of the components to mobile equipment We'll begin by seeing how the various components and lines are diagrammed and how to follow flow in a graphical circuit. Then we will analyse the hydraulic circuits for several different kinds of mobile vehicles, describing in detail how various operations are accomplished. Circuit Diagrams Accurate diagrams of hydraulic circuits are essential to the designer, to the people who must build the machine, and to the man who must repair it. The diagram shows how the components will interact. It shows the manufacturing engineer and the assembler how to connect the components. It shows the field technician how the system works. . .what each component should be doing and where the oil should be going. . . so that he can diagnose and repair the system. Whichever of these categories your interest in hydraulics falls into, you'll certainly want to be able to "read the blueprints" . . . to interpret the diagrams and be able to analyze and classify circuits from their diagrams. NOTE: A fluid power diagram is a complete drawing including description, sequence of operations, notes, component list, etc. Kinds Of Diagrams There are basically three kinds of circuit diagrams you'll encounter in studying hydraulics. You'll also find many combinations of the three. Cutaway diagrams are ideally suited to instruction because they show the internal construction of the components as the flow paths. By using colors, shades or various patterns in the lines passages, we are able to show many different conditions of flow and pressure. Cutaway diagrams, of course, are expensive to produce and take considerably longer because of their complexity.

as well and

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Pictorial diagrams are designed to show the piping arrangement of a circuit. The components are seen externally, usually in a close reproduction of their actual shapes and related sizes. The pictorial diagram shown below (Fig. 11.1) also shows the locations of the components.

Fig. 11.1

Graphical diagrams, the "short hand" system of the industry, are usually preferred for design and trouble-shooting. A graphical diagram is made up of simple geometric symbols for the components and their controls and connections. Figure 11.2 is a graphical diagram for part of the circuit in Figure 11.1. Comparing the two, notice that the graphical diagram doesn't show any thing about the construction or relative locations of the components. Its purpose is to show functions, port connections and flow paths.

Fig. 11.2

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Fluid Power Symbols Symbols are used to describe components and systems in fluid power systems, just as in other technologies, the symbols for the components, which have been discussed and the simple system, which has been developed can be illustrated using either ANSI Y32.10 graphic symbols or ISO 1219 graphic symbols for fluid power. Circuit Diagrams A novice in the field of fluid power is apt to become frustrated with the seemingly endless variety of practical circuits currently employed. It is important to recognize that a surprisingly high percentage of all circuits stem from a relatively small number of basic circuits. Basic circuits can essentially be classified into two types: The general type The specific type. The specific type deals with basic circuits for particular types of machinery. The general type of basic circuits incorporates fundamental methods that are common in circuits used in all fields of fluid power application. Circuits of this type are so basic that nearly all circuits must employ some of the fundamental features of the basic circuits to accomplish their purpose. If circuits are first conceived and developed in symbolic form, the task of combining various basic components into composite valving becomes relatively simple. A symbolic circuit together with the load, speed, and environmental requirements define the composite design problem. It is not necessary for the reader to memorise the basic circuit configurations. They should be studied and carefully followed (traced) through before specific circuits are designed.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems The basic circuits are learned by referring to them on actual design problems. There are several reasons for studying the basic circuits: 1. A better understanding of symbols is gained. 2. Proficiency in circuit tracing is acquired. 3. Ideas will be generated for application of the circuits. 4. An opportunity to test knowledge of basic valves is offered. Basic circuits are referenced according to the function they perform or the major component being utilised. The following is a list of the types of circuits that are common: 1. Unloading circuits, 2. Speed-control circuits, 3. Locking circuits, 4. Automatic reversing circuits, and 5. Emergency and safety circuits.

11.1 Circuit layout and presentation


At present, no international standards exist for uniform circuit array and circuit labelling. However, a well presented circuit can facilitate circuit construction for the engineer and fault finding for maintenance personnel, as well as making the total control package a more marketable item Recommendations for circuit array There are no international standards for circuit presentation and layout at present, so some well proven principles are listed below.

Draw all actuators in their machine rest position or initial position. For example, if an actuator extended at the end of the cycle it should be drawn in the extended position Draw all symbols where possible in horizontal position and attach lines to the right hand square for two position valves or to the centre square for three position valves. Do not mirror-invert symbols if avoidable, since this practice confuses comprehension of signal direction, fluid-flow and valve function. (See fluid power symbols in Appendix) Draw all valves in their de-actuated unpressurised rest position, except for those valves, which are actuated either by a lever, cam or machine part, when the machine is at rest, or at the end of a cycle. For such valves one must indicate with a cam or similar device that the valve is actuated and all attachment and pressure lines are to be connected to the left hand square.

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems In designing circuit diagrams, begin with the energy supply at the bottom of the page. The energy flow is then drawn from the bottom to the top of the page. This layout means that the circuit diagram must be drawn without considering the actual physical locations of the elements and it is recommended that all cylinders and directional controls be drawn horizontally The circuit diagram represents certain features and does not represent other features of a circuit. Example 1: It is required that the piston rod of a double-acting hydraulic cylinder travel out and then return with controlled speed when the solenoid valve is actuated.

Drive element

Process element

Control element

Process element Energy supply

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VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Example 2: It is required that the piston rod of a double-acting pneumatic cylinder travel out if either a manual button or a pedal is operated and that it return to its starting position after reaching the forward end position. (When the signal element which initiates the outward travel is no longer operated).
1 .0 A 1 .3

Drive element

Control element
1 .1 1 .5

Process element
1 .2 1 .4 1 .3

Signal elements
0 .1

Energy supply NOTE. The valves are not drawn in the position they are fitted on the machine. The numbering system indicates where they are in relation to the cylinders. System Identification You will notice that a numbering system is used to identify the components on the drawing shown above. 1.0 refers to the cylinder. 1.1 refers to the directional control valve that controls cylinder 1.0 1.2 refers to the control valve that signals the extension of the piston. (even numbers extension). 1.3 refers to the control valve that signals retraction of the piston (odd numbers retraction).

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Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Lettering System The lettering system is used on circuit designs where a more simplified approach is required. If cylinder 1.0 was labelled A and 2.0, B the sequence can be represented as shown. A+ B+A-B+ gives extension of the cylinder. - gives retraction of the cylinder. The diagram shown below uses the lettering system.

The difference between the numbering and lettering system is that not all the valves are identified in the lettering system. The lettering system essentially identifies the valves giving the sequence of operation. Valve a0 is found in the rear position of the piston A. a l is at the extension of A piston. Displacement - Step Diagram Before a circuit can be designed for a system, the sequence of operations must be considered. This diagram represents the sequence of operation of the cylinders in the circuit shown above.

91

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

11.3 Single Actuator Circuit layout and presentation


1. Meter Out and OR function Circuit Design a circuit to extend a piston when either of two push buttons are pushed. The retraction of the piston is via a single push button. The extension speed of the piston is to be controlled by metering out. Draw the displacement - step diagram and then a fully labelled circuit using the numbering system

92

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 2. Circuit using AND function valve Design a circuit for the clamping of parts. The piston is to extend slowly when two push buttons are pressed. The retraction of the piston is to occur when one button is pushed. Retraction speed is fast. Draw the displacement - step diagram and then a fully labelled circuit using the numbering system

93

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 3. Circuit using Quick Exhaust" valve Design a circuit to automate a drilling machine. The quill of the drilling machine extends slowly via a variable restrictor valve after a button has been pushed. The quill retracts quickly via a quick exhaust when another button is pushed. Draw the displacement - step diagram and then a fully labelled circuit using the numbering system

94

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 4. Pressure Dependent Circuit Design a circuit for a press used to laminate sheets of plastic. The piston extends when a roller operated 3/2 valve detects a part present and when either a push button or pedal is operated. The return stroke of the piston occurs when a preset Pressure and full extension of the piston is reached. Draw the displacement - step diagram and then a fully labelled circuit using the numbering system

95

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems 5. Time Delay circuit Design a circuit for the operation of a cementing press. A push button controls the extension stroke and after the piston has fully reached the end position the piston returns automatically after a delay of 15 seconds. Draw the displacement - step diagram and then a fully labelled circuit using the numbering system

96

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

11.4 Multiple Actuator Circuit layout and presentation

Problem: Packages arriving on a roller-conveyor are lifted by a pneumatic cylinder and pushed onto another conveyor by a second cylinder. Cylinder B may then perform a return stroke only after cylinder A has reached the rear end position. The start signal should be provided by means of a manual button, each signal initiating one cycle. Before a circuit can be designed for this system, the sequence of operations must be considered. Displacement - Step Diagram This diagram represents the sequence of operation of the cylinders.

97

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems The circuit diagram can now be drawn, beginning with the actuators (cylinders) at the top of the page down through the control valves signal elements to the air supply.

98

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Problem 2:

Two clips are to be rivetted together on a semi-automatic press. Components and rivet are positioned by hand and then removed by hand on completion of the rivetting operation. The automated part of the working cycle consists of the holding and clamping of the components (cylinder A) and also the rivetting (cylinder B), and the cycle should be performed ending at the starting position after operating a start button. Draw the displacement - step diagram and then a fully labelled circuit using the numbering system

99

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems Problem 3:

Rectangular parts are stamped on a special machine. The parts are taken from a gravity-feed magazine, pushed into the machine against a stop and clamped by means of a cylinder, stamped by a second cylinder, and ejected by an ejector cylinder Draw the displacement - step diagram and then a fully labelled circuit using the numbering system

STEPS 3

7=1

100

Mechatronics

Swinburne University TAFE division

VBP267 - Set up Fluid Power Controlled Engineering Systems

Practical Task 4.

Metal sheets are to be flanged on a pneumatically operated bending tool. After clamping the component by means of a single acting clamping cylinder (A), it is bent over by a double acting cylinder (B) and subsequently finish bent by another double acting cylinder (C). The operation is initiated by a manual button. The circuit is to be designed so that one working cycle is completed each time a start signal is given 1. 2. 3. Complete the motion control diagram below. Design the circuit diagram and then draw a fully labelled circuit using the numbering system, also include a parts list and the motion/state diagram Construct the circuit using the FESTO training board and equipment supplied

STEPS 3

7=1

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