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MALAGASY GRAMMAR.

GRAMMAR
OF THE

MALAGASY
IN

LANGUAGE,

THE ANKOVA DIALECT;


BY

DAVID

GRIFFITHS,

Missionary for nearly TAventy years in Madagascar.

WOODBRIDGE
1854.

FEINTED BY EDWAED PITE, CHURCH STREET,

TO

Jie i^eb,

^ aa, iWeller,
RECTOR

ilW.

^,

OF WOODBRIDGE, SUPEOLK,

AND
THE EDITORIAL SUPERINTENDENT OF THE
SCRIPTURES FOR THE

BRITISH

AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY


LANGUAGES,

IN DIFFERENT

THIS

GRAMMAR

IS

MOST RESPECTFULLY

INSCRIBED,

BY HIS

FAITHFUL AND OBEDIENT FRIEND AND SERVANT,

OAVID GRIFFITHS.

120

PREFACE.

IN

learning any language, a

grammar and voca-

bulary are of the utmost importance.

Had

such help been available, when the writer com-

menced the study of the Malagasy tongue, he would


have saved much valuable time, and been spared years
of painful
toil.

Having, through long residence in


ft

Madagascar, acquired a

perfect

knowledge

of

its

language, the desirableness of undertaking the task of preparing a


attention,

Grammar

has often been pressed on his

by many

friends of missions at
different christian

home and
denomina-

abroad.

Gentlemen of

tions, offered

pecuniary assistance towards this object


intelligent

and some of the most

and best educated of

the natives of that important Island, have also ex-

pressed a strong wish to see

it

accomplished.

VI

PREFACE.
Being, at this present time, engaged in revising the

Malagasy translation of the Holy Scriptures, with the


valuable assistance of the Rev. T.

W. Meller, M. A.,

Rector of Woodbridge, and having to give constant


attention to the structure and rules of the language,
it

appeared to the author to be a suitable opportunity for


pursuing his long-cherished purpose.

Such time

as

he has recently been able

to

command,
and he

has been steadily devoted to this object,

indulges the hope that the following work will be of

great service in aiding future Missionaries to Madagascar, in the


will

acquirement of the language, and that

it

also be of important use in the commercial

inter-

course of the English with that Island.

D. G.

Woodbridge,
July, 29th. 1854.

CONTENTS.

Page.

Introduction

Part I.ORTHOGRAPHY.
Alphabet
Consonants
.

11

13
14 15
17

Vowels
Diphthongs
Syllables

Part II. ETYMOLOGY.


Roots, or Stem-words

Rules to find out the roots

....

19

20
79
81

Compound words
Classification of

words

The Noun

83
85
87

Number
Gender
Case

The Adjective

Comparison of Adjectives

...... ....

89
92 98
100

The Pronoun

CONTENTS.
Page.

The Verb The primary

106
divisions of the

Verbs

107

The secondary The first class The second The


third

division

112
.
.

of Verbs

119

119 120
122
. .

Moods
Examples of the Imperative Mood
Tenses
Auxiliaries
Participles

123
128
130
131

Verbal Nouns
Conjugations
First conjugation

133

133
135

Second
Third

ditto

142
151

ditto ditto

Fourth

160

Inflections of regular

Verbs

162

The second
form

conjugation of a Verb in its simplest


.
.

168

The

third ditto

180
negatively and interroga.
.

The Verb conjugated


tively

185
187

Irregular, Defective,

and Impersonal Verbs

The Adverb
Classification of

Adverbs

....
. .
.

188
189 189
191

Adverbs of Number and Time


of Place of Quantity

196
197

of Quality

The Preposition The Conjunction The Interjections The


Repletives

198

......

199 201

202

CONTENTS.

Part III. SYNTAX.

Page.

Syntax of Articles

203
.

of

Nouns

205

of Adjectives of Pronouns of Verbs of Adverbs of Prepositions of Conjunctions


.

208

210
214
219
221

223
226

of Interjections

Part IV.PROSODY.
Pronunciation

Accent

229

Emphasis
230
Pauses, or Stops

Hyphen
Apostrophe
Versification
.

231

232

233
234
Figures of Speech
Dialects

236

Analogy

240
to other languages

Some

242
244

of the pecuHarities of the language

INTRODUCTION.

THE
is

Malagasy Language, abounding with vowels,

so mellifluous

and

soft, that

it

might be called the


Its character is

Italian of the

Southern Hemisphere.

so peculiar, philosophical,

and

original, as to

render

it

truly amazing that uneducated,

and semi-civilized
in such perfection.

people, should have preserved

it

They have no
reached
its

literature

the language has therefore

present state of excellence merely

by

or-

dinary conversation, speeches in the public assemblies,

and pleadings in the courts of


provinces in
tive dialects,
all

justice.

Though

the

parts of the Island have their respectheir

and

own

peculiar

modes of accenis

tuation and pronunciation,

they speak one and the


dialect

same language.

The Ankova

by

far the

most regular, copious, and extensive.

It has

many

words that have the same orthography with the other


dialects,

but different signification, yet they bear a

;;

6
close analogy
signification,
;

INTRODUCTION.

and other words that have the same


letters either

have certain

exchanged,

or added.

The Ankova
try in

following
Dialect, as

Grammar
it is

is

formed out of the

the only dialect of the coun-

which any thing has been written, or printed


It

being more cultivated than any other.


greatly enriched
trade,

has been

by the Hova people, who carry on


affairs

and transact the

of government in the

other provinces, at their different miUtary stations,

and

at the seaports of the Island

and
parts,

also

by the

chiefs
visit,

and

their people

from distant

or reside at the Capital, and use

who either their own diaand proverbs

lects in conversation, speeches, legends,

as well as by captives, taken in the wars,


slaves to the inhabitants of the interior.

and sold

as

Such intercourse
retentive

has afforded the

Hova

people,

who have a

memory, an opportunity of learning the other dialects, and of introducing many words and expressions into
their

own

dialect, while

they reject the nasal sounds,

and

retain their

own

accentuation and pronunciation.

Certain European traders


Island

who had
it

resided on the
to

more than twenty


saying
*'

years,

professed
to

have

acquired the language, and declared


fective,

be very de-

that

it

had no regular verbs with


;

tenses, like other languages

but that the words, efa

(done) and mta (finished) were perfixed to the words


for

no other purpose than


Missionaries,

to

denote the past tense."


it

But the

who made

the principal sub-

ject of their study

and research, soon had the happi-


INTRODUCTION.
ness to find, that
it

7
in regular

excels

many languages
respects,
its

verbs with specific and definite tenses.

Though

it

may be
abound
vatives,

defective in

some

resources
their deri-

in primitives, or stem-words, with

and

in the

number of the conjugations of the


in the Island has a

verbs with their inflections.

Every thing found


flowers, minerals, &c.

name

such

as animals, birds, reptiles, insects, trees, herbs, plants,


Its

name and
;

quality are ex-

pressed by words purely Malagasy


thing
is

but, when

any new
it

imported by foreigners, the natives give

new name, formed out of their own language, or learn and adopt the name given by the person that imports
it,

but pronounce

it

according to the' sound peculiar

to their

own

language.
bears some analogy to the Malay

The Malagasy
and the Arabic

in the

sound and

signification of

many

of the words, and in the inflections of certain verbs

but to say

that, on this account, it is a dialect of either

the Malay, or the Arabic,

would be

as unreasonable

as to say that the Arabic is a dialect of the

Hebrew,

or the

Hebrew
to

a dialect of the Arabic.


bears a very singular re-

The Malagasy language


semblance

one of the most ancient languages of


;

Europe
to the

The Welsh language


a,

viz.

in

placing the

emphasis on the same

syllable, in giving a

broad sound

vowel
;

and
is

in

the formation of

compound
of

words

but there

no analogy

in the construction

sentences, nor in the inflections of verbs.

INTRODUCTION.
It is a general rule in

both languages, to place the

emphasis on the penultimate of dissyllables, and on the


antepenultimate of trisyllables and polysyllables
;

as

Malagasy, Voninahitra

"Welsh Gogoniant, glory.


Breniniaeth, kingdom,

Fanjakana
Fiakarana.

Esginiad, ascent.

The

natural softness of the Malagasy language ex-

cludes harsh, or gutteral sounds.

Every word

ter-

minates with a vowel, and a vowel always intervenes

between two consonants, except the double and


consonants
ts,
:

triple
tr,

mb, mp, nd,


express

nf, ng, nj,

nk, nt, dr,

ndr, ntr,

which should have single characters,


only
a
single

because
final

they

sound.

The

vowel of
is

almost

every

word, except when

accented,

very slightly and indistinctly sounded.

The

roots in the Malagasy, being almost invariably

nouns, adjectives and adverbs, differ from those in


the Greek, and
original

Hebrew

languages.
cast.

This gives

it

an

and philosophic
;

There must be a cause


act.

before an effect

an agent before an
so

The language having and such a number of


renders
it full

many
Some

roots, or primitives,

derivatives from each root,


roots will produce

and copious.

no

less

than two hundred words each, of different

orthography and signification.


is

The

speaker, or writer

thereby enabled to express any form of thought, or


of action with great
facility,

mode

precision,

and

perspicuity.

INTRODUCTION.

As

the

roots

are

common

terms,

and the Ma-

lagasy people are in the habit

of

expressing their

thoughts by figures and similitudes, any person that


studies their language,
literal

must pay attention


signification of

to both the

and figurative

each word ; for


their

in their salutations, harangues,

and proverbs,

words, and expressions have a

literal,

and a figurative
fine

meaning.

It is capable of

becoming a very
be cultivated
its

and
senwell

expressive language.

If

it

if its

tences be precise and compact,

antithesis

formed, and

its

diction bold

and

figurative,

an orator,
as

or writer in this language, will have advantages


great as in any other.
It

does not seem to have any

affinity

with the lan-

guages of the tribes on the Eastern coast of Africa,


nor on the Comoro Islands.

have resided in Madagascar


well

for

Though many of them many years, it is a

known

fact, that

they forgot their

own language,
language of

and acquired the Malagasy, because their own could


not be understood.
It appears that the

these strangers differs as

much from

the language of
diflfer

the natives, as the people themselves

from one

another in their manners, customs, and amusements.


It is not intended

to institute a

comparison between

the Malagasy, and any other language, either Western, or Eastern, but to observe the general arrangement of

Western languages; not on account of any resemblance, but rather for convenience, as being on the

whole the
to the

easiest

and simplest method of conveying

mind of a European, a knowledge of a language,

10

INTRODUCTION.
different

whose construction, and idiom are


own.

from

hU

The changes and

diversities

become more obarising

vious by incidental comparison,

from such

arrangement.

From
the
it

the force of habit, a European,

when he opens
pects to find

Grammar

of a

new language,

ex-

arranged in the usual order of Ortho-

graphy, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

11

MALAGASY
PART

GE AMM AR.

I.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
Orthography treats of the Alphabet, Consonants, Vowels, Diphthongs, Tripthongs, and Syllables,
SECTION
I.

THE ALPHABET.
is

THE

letters

of the Malagasy Alphabet which

called Abidy, are twenty-one in

number.
S,

A, B, D, E, F, G, H,

I,

J,

K, L, M, N, 0, P, R,

T, V, Y, Z.
a, b, d, e,
f,

g, h,

i,

j,

k,

1,

m,

n, o, p,

r, s, t,

v, y, z.

Malagasy

Name.

English Sound.

Malagasy Sound.

English
Signification.

A.

a.

as a in

man

as a in afo, as as

fire.

B. b. by

bee dee
as e in

in biby,

beast.

D.
E.
F. G.

d.
e.
f.

dy
e
ef

d in didy,

command.
done, effected,
four.
silly, foolish.

men

as e in efa,
as f in efatra,
as

ef

g.

ge

gay

in gegy,

12

ORTHOGRAPHY.
SECTION

13

II.

CONSONANTS.

THERE

are sixteen consonants

viz.

B, D, F, G. H. J, K, L, M, N, P, R, S, T, V, Z.

Each consonant has but one


latter

single

sound, and
j.

the same power as in EngUsh, except g, and

The

has the sound and power of EngUsh dz, as in

adze, but the former of the English g hard, as in get,


got, godly.

The consonants
vowels.

are

divided into mutes and semib, d, g,h, j,k, p,


s, t,

There are seven mutes,


f, 1,

and nine semi-vowels,


n, r, are called liquids,

m,

n, r,

v, z

1,

m,

from the ease with which they


;

follow other consonants in pronunciation

b, p,

are called Labials, because they are formed


lips
;

f, v by the

g,

and k are

called Palatals

because they are


t

formed by the tongue and the palate ; and d, and


called dentals, because they are

are

formed by the

teeth.
nt,
;

The double consonants


dr, ts, tr
j is
;

are,

mb, mp, nd, ng, nk,

and the

triple

consonants are ndr, and ntr


it

used as a single consonant though

expresses the

sound of the double consonant dz.

Every consonant

is

followed by a vowel, except

the double and triple consonants.

Examples of words with the double and triple consonants.


1.

mb. mp.
nd.
ng.

2.

Momba, to accompany, to adhere. Manompo, to serye, to minister.


Manda,
to deny, to refuse, to reject. to ask a favor, to beg.

3.
4.

Mangataka,

14
5. 6. 7.

OBTHOGRAPHY.
nk.
nt.
dr.
tr.
ts.

Mankato,

to obey, to serve faithfully.

Manta, raw, unripe, uncooked.


Andro, day, time.
Trano, house.
Tsara, good.

8.
9.

Triple consonants.
1

ndr.
ntr.

Mitandrina, to ohserve, to attend

to.

2.

Miantra, to pity, to have mercy. *

SECTION

III.

VOWELS.
e,
i,

THE
e,

vowels are
i,

six, a,

o,

6,

and y

a,

and

have the same sound as they have both


6 accented

in

the French and "Welsh languages;

as o in English,

and o not accented as oo in English


as

is

the final

i,

in the

EngUsh words, county^

plenty^ godly.

The vowels in the Malagasy have the same sound, and


power that they have
(1)

in the following languages.


in Aaron, in English.

A,

a.

As a

in

man, land, or aa

(2)

E,

e.

As a in Adala, a fool^ a simpleton, in Malagasy. As a in la, mal, madame, in French. As a in bara, marw, tarw, in Welsh. As e in men, ten, and Kent in English. As e in teny, a word, speech, in Malagasy. As As
e in lever, pe'che, lettre in French. e in nef,
lief,

ceg in

Welsh.

Why should not the

following characters be adopted to express


j

the sound of the above double letters, as


press the sound of the English dz
?
;

has been used to exto express the


letters.

viz. u,

sound
Delta,
or

of

mb

w,

mp

x, ts

c,

dr

q, tr

and the Greek


nf ;

nd; Theta, nt;


other characters.

Gamma, ng;

Pi,

and Rho, nk

any

ORTHOGRAPHY.
(3)
I,
i.

15

and

y, the final

i.

As As

ee in bee, been, seen in English.


i

in mividy, to buy, in Malagasy.

(4)

O,

As y in county, lovely, godly, in English. As i in French and Welsh. As 00 in moon, boon, book, in English. As in to, tnUh, in Malagasy. As ou in French and w in Welsh. As
in English, French,

o, o.

and Welsh.

When
quires

the vowel

i,

precedes the letters g, ng,


i,

and k, they should be followed by another

as

re-

to follow

it

in the English.

As

kasa, intention,

and Mikasa, becomes mikiasa, to intend ; Haingo be-

comes haingio, decoration^ embellishment


corate one's self, &c.

Mihaingo,

becomes mihaingio, to dress one's self smartly, to deMaro, many.

Mihamaro beto

comes mihiamaro,

to increase in

number,

become

many.

Komy,

rebellion, insurrection.

Mikomy, be-

comes mikiomy,

to rebel, to raise

an

insurrection.

SECTION IV.

DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS.


are pronounced as forming two syl-

DIPHTHONGS

lables in rapid succession,

and are
the

easily learnt

by

paying due attention


of the vowels.

to

correct pronunciation

The Diphthongs
ai, ay,

in general use are,


;

ao

ea, ei, ey, eo

ia, ie, io

oa, oe, oi.

1. a,

The Diphthongs

that are formed

by the vowel

are ai or ay, and ao.

16

ORTHOGRAPHY.
i

Ai, or ay are pronounced as

in the English

words

mine, wine

in

Malagasy words, maina,

dri/, ray,

fa-

ther, taitra, startled.

Ao Ao
2.
ea, ei,

as cow,

now, in English.
desolate, uninhabited place, in Malait,

as lao,

gasy, and alao fetch

take

it, let it

he fetched.
e,

Diphthongs that are formed by the vowel

are

and

eo,
i

Ei

as ei in height, or as

in hite, night.

Ei
that

as ei in Malagasy,

eikia,

indigo

eingia,

Oh

Eo Eo
3.
ia, ie,

as aoo in English.
as eo in

Malagasy, omeo, give,

let

it

he given,

eo there about.

Diphthongs that are formed by the vowel


io.

i,

are

la as eeaa in English, or ia in Welsh.

As

ia in

Malagasy, mamalia, answer, mamilia, to

turn one out of the way. Mania to go out of the way.


Ie as eea in English.

As

ie in

the Malagasy word, anie, oh that /

Io as eeoo in English.

As
4.

io in
;

Malagasy, valio, answer, or


vidio, buy, let the thing be

let

an answer
io, that.

be given

bought ;

Diphthongs that are formed by the vowel


ooa in EngUsh.
in Malagasy,

o, are

oa, oe, oi.

Oa

as

As oa

mandoa,

to vomit, to eject, to

pay money.
Oe
as

ooa in English.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

17

As oe
Oi

in Malagasy,

hoe, saying.

as ooee in English.
oi in

As

Malagasy, manoitra, to raise by

lever.

Triphthongs are mostly used to pronounce and write


foreign

names of persons, towns and countries

as

Emanioela, Immanuel, lodaia, Judea.

Section

v.

Syllables.

SOME
thongs,

syllables

are

formed by vowels, and dipha-vo, high


;

as I-va, low,
;

eo,

here about,

there near

io,

that, but

All other syllables are


tion of vowels

newr. A/^/^f^ formed by the

combina-

and consonants, or of a consonant and

a vowel

except

when

there are two or

more consoman-ka-to,
lo-dai-a

nants, or vowels in the word; as a-la, forest', a-le-ha,

way, course
to obey
;

ta-ny, earth

te-ny,
to

word ;

an-dro,

day ; ma-nia,
divided
into

go astray ;

Judea.
Syllables

are

Monosyllables,

Dis-

syllables, Trisyllables

and Polysyllables.

(1)

Monosyllables are words of one syllable, as

ra, blood, vy, iron.

(2)
ro,

Dissyllables are words of two syllables, as


is

maas

many, ma-ty, dead,


Trisyllables are

dead.
syllables,

(3)

words of three

la-ni-tra,

heaven, shy^ ta-na-na, town:

(4)

Polysyllables are

words of many

syllables,

as

fan-ja-ka-na, kingdom^ fi-re-ne-na, nation^ tribe.

18

ORTHOGRAPHY.

The vowel or diphthong makes the first syllable, when the word begins with a vowel or diphthong, the
consonant and the following vowel makes the succeed-

ing

syllable, as a-lo-na,

waves or
^

hillows, ai-na, life^

a-ve-lao, let it aloney let

it

he left.

When
the
first

the word has double or triple consonants,

consonant joins the preceding vowel and the


succeeding, as om-by, cattle, on-dry, sheep,

latter, the

fan-dra-ka, chisel.

ETYMOLOGY.

19

PART

II.

ETYMOLOGY.
of the derivations of words and

Etymology

treats

the different parts

of speech.

Section

i.

Roots, or Stem-words.

THE

roots of Malagasy words are monosyllables,

dissyllables,

and

trisyllables

as lo, rotten, corrupt,

sotro, drink, spoon,

Hataka, a request, petition, beg-

ging a favour.
Roots
in
;

general
as asa,

are

either
tsara,
it is

nouns, adjectives,
ela, as,

or adverbs

work,

good,

longtime;
mitondra,

but when the root is obsolete,


to carry, to hear
:

a verb,

mililotra

to stick to,

to

adhere

tondra, and lilotra are nearly obsolete roots.

The

roots,

when they

are

common

substantives

or adjectives, become verbs in the imperative

mood of

the passive voice, by adding a vowel, or a syllable, or

by changing the

last syllable.

As

sotro, drink, sotroy,

20
drink,
let
it

ETYMOLOGY.
he

drunk
eject

loa,

vomit^
;

an

ejection,

payment, loavy,
hano, eat
thing
it,

it, let it

he paid

hanina, food,

let it
;

he eaten

fantatra,
it, let it

known

fantaro,

know

he

known, or a known.

Strict attention

must be paid to the following Eules,

in order to find out the roots of derivative words.

RULES.
1.

All words which


;

are preceded

are eoots, as soratra, writing ^

by voa, and tafa, a thing written, word&


;

written

voa

soratra, is written

haona, meeetingy

tafahaona, are
2.

met together,
and
suffixes

The

prefixes

added to the roots of


fi,

derivative nouns, such as the prefixes

faha,

fana,

fanka, and the suffixes ana, na, ena, ina, avana, vana,

azana, ezana, izana, must be rejected

as fisotroana,
of,

a cup, a gohlet, a thing


prefix
fi,

to

drink out
ana,

reject
root,

the

and the
;

suffix

and the
goodness,
root

sotro,

drink
reject

remains
faha,
;

fahatsarana,
na,

kindness,

and

and

the

tsara,

good,

remains

fanasarotana, hardness,
;

means used for


and restore the
hard,
difficult,

hardening

reject
r,

fana,

and na,
sarotra,

radical letter

and the root

remains

fankatoavana, duty, ohligation, reject fan-

ka, and avana, and the root to, truth, remains.


3.

Ma

prefixed to Adjectives, and


:

to

adverbs,

must be rejected

as,

xa3i\dizsi,

famous,

clever,

famed^

ROOTS.
reject

21

ma,

and the

root, laza,
t,

fame, remains

and

tany,

was

there, reject

and the

root, any, is there,

remains.
4.

Man, mank, manka, prefixed


and adverbs,
reject

to nouns,
;

pro-

nouns,

must be rejected

as,

mankalaza,

laza, to glorify,

manka, and the root

fame, remains ; mankaiza, to go where, reject mank, and the root, aiza, where remains ; maninona, to do
what, reject man, and the root, inona, whai, remains.

5.

The

prefixes

which form the verbs of


active

dilfferent

conjugations, in

the

voice

as

mi,

maha,
mifan,

miha,

mana,

mampi,
suffixes of

mampa,

mampaha,
;

mifana, mifampi, mifampa, and mifampaha


prefixes
rejected,

and the

and
as
i,

the passive voice, must be

aha, iha, an, ana, ampi, ampa, ampaha,

ifan, ifana, ifampi,

ifampa, ifampaha

and the

suffixes,

na, ana, ena, avana, vana, azana, ezana, izana,


as

and zana;

maneky,

to consent, to submit, reject

man, and the


;

root eky,
to

submission,
reject

consent, remains

mankato,
truth,

obey,

manka and

the

root

to,

remains.
6.

Mam, man, mand, mang, mank, and manka,


radical letter

prefixed to transitive verbs, must be rejected; and the


first

which they

reject

must be
;

restored,
to

before the

root

can be found out

as

mamaly,
first

answer,
letter

reject
is

mam, and

restore

the

radical

v that

rejected,

and the root valy, an answer,

remains.

22
7.

ETYMOLOGY.

The
K,

first

Radical letters of the roots which the


f,

prefixes of Transitive verbs reject, are ten, viz.

H,

L,

p,

s,

T,

TR,

V,

and

z.

Strict

attention

must be paid
jected
letter.

to the

examples given under each re-

WHEN
by
ROOT.

F,

is

the
;

first

radical letter,

it is

rejected

transitive verbs

as

ENGLISH.
s.

FADITRA,

an offering to avert an

evil,

piaculum,

offscouring.

Mamaditra,
to

v. a.

to offer

any thing to avert an

evil,

pay a

fine for

an accidental injury done. sweeping a house, or a place swept.

FAFA, 5, cleansing,
Mamafa,
v. a.

to sweep, to cleanse

by sweeping.

FAFY,

s.

dispersion,
v. a. to
s.

any thing sown or scattered.

Mamafy,

sow, to scatter, to disperse.

FAHANA,
Mamahana,
musket

any thing presented to entertain stran-

gers, a cannon, or
v. a.

musket loaded.
money, or provisions,
to en-

to give

tertain friends or strangers, to load a cannon, or a


;

Jig. to feed cattle, to feed the loom.

FAHY, s, stalls,
Mamahy,
confine.
^?.

a bullock fatted in a fold, confinement.

a. to feed in a fold, to stall, to fatten, to

FAKA,

s.

root, or roots.
v. a, to root, to

Mamaka,

radicate. Jig.

to

examine

minutely

FAN A, 5. food
Mamahana,
two

warmed, a thing warmed a second time.


to

v. a.

warm,

to

make

hot.

^Qefahana,

different roots for the

same

transitive verb.

HOOTS.
ROOT.

23
ENGLISH.

FANDRAKA,
Mamandraka,
with a chisel.

s,

chisel.

v. a.

to

chisel,

to mortise, to

work

FANDRIKIA,
Mamandrikia,

s.

snare, gin, trap.

v. a. to ensnare, to entrap, to entangle.

FANGITRA,
Mamangitra
boundary,

s,
2?.

mark,
a. to

line,

boundary.
out, to
set a line, or a

mark

FANTATRA, a thing
Mamantatra,
to

known, adj. known, recognized.


prove, to examine,

v. a. to try, to test, to

make

a thing known.
s. nails, pins,
XI.

FANTOKA,
Mamantoka,
adj. fixed,

brads.

a. to nail, to fasten with small nails.


s.

FANTSIKIA,

a fixed employment, or occupation,


like

immovable
s.

an anchor.

Vato-fantsikia,
thing.

an anchor, a person fixed to any

Mamantsikia,

2?.

a. to

nail, to fasten, j^^. to

burst

its

shell like a bird.

FAOKA,

s.

clearing

off,

sweeping away, taking a prey


like a bull

like a bird, raising

up the earth

with

his horns.

Mamaoka,
to tear

V, a. to clear off, to

take a prey like a bird,

up the earth hke a

bull.

FARA,

s.

any thing rubbed, scraped,


'c.a.

fixed.
file,

Mamara,
smooth.

to rub, to scrape,

to

to

make

FARAFARA,
agreement.

s.

bedstead, jig. stipulation, compact

24
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
V. a,, to

Mamarafara,
tell,

make

a bedstead, Ji^. to fore-

to declare before hand, to warn, to caution.


s.

FARAINGIO,
curved
like a

a hook, a curve, any thing bent,

hook.
v. a.

Mamaraingio,

to hook, to curve, to

bend

like

a hook, to catch, or to hold any thing.

PARANA,
Mamarana,

ad. level,

flat,

even, smooth.

v. a. to level, to
s.

make an even

surface.

FARANGO,
Mamarango,
hook.

hook.
to hook, to

v. a.

put any thing on a

FARITRA,

s.

boundary hne, mark, extent.


a, to

Mamaritra, v.

mark

out, to set a

boundary

line,

to point out the extent.

FATO-BAVA,

s.

(from patotra, chains,


confinement,

fetters,

and

VAVA, mouth)

custody, but not in

chains, or fetters.

Mamato-bava,

V, a.

to confine, to imprison, to

keep

in custody, but not in chains or fetters.

FATOTRA,
Mamatotra,

s.

chains, fetters, ad. chained, bound.

v. a. to

chain, to bind, to fetter.


fence, hedge.

FEFY,

8. wall,

embankment,

Mamefy,

h. a. to

hedge, to enclose, to build a wall,

to raise an

embankment.
a knot, fig. superintendence, ad, go-

FEHY,

s.

tie,

verned, ruled, controlled.

Mamehy, v. a. to tie, to bind, to command, to control.

to knot, fig, to govern,

ROOTS.
ROOT.

25
ENGLISH.

FEHI-VAVA,

s.

(from pehy,

tie,

and vava, mouth)

white streaks around the mouth of cattle, a silver


chain which ties up the

mouth of a deceased person.


ground

Money given

for the use of a piece of rice

for a given time, when the

money and

the rice

ground return to

their former owners.

Mamehi-vava,

V, a. to

stop one's mouth, to silence, to

advance money for the use of a piece of rice ground.

FEJA,

s.

a person well-formed, a good figure, ad.

compact, compressed, squeezed.

Mameja,

v. a. to

compress, to squeeze, to grapple.


}
S
a.

FELIKIA, s FELIPELIKIA5.
Mamelikia,
v. a.

person, or an animal stopped,

impeded

in his flight.

ad. enlarged, enclosed, stopped.


to

impede, to stop, to enclose by

making a

circuitous way.
V, a. to

Mamelipelikia,
stop a person.

make

a circuitous course, to

FENJAFENJA,*.
Mamenjafenja,
of,

thing held

fast,

a firm grasp.

V, a.

to hold fast, to take firm hold

to squeeze, to press hard.

FENO,

ad.

full,

replete, filled up.


to
fill,

Mameno,
number.

V, a.

to

fill

up,

to

complete the

EETA,

s. clay,

mud, mortar,
to
plaster

Mameta, V, a. make mortar.

with mud, or mortar, to

26
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
s.

FETAKA,
Mametaka,
letter,

wet, moisture, ad.

muddy, besmeared
to stick, to seal a

with mud.
v. a. to plaster, to

make

to fasten with glue or wax.


restriction.

FETRA, s. a fixed point, limit, FETR'ANDRO, s. an appointed


Mametra,
v. a. to fix, to limit,

time, a day fixed.


to

confine to a fixed

time, or point.

Mametr'andro, v. a.

to appoint a time, confine to a time.

FETSAKA,
Mametsaka,

ad. wet, Ji^. beaten, flogged.


;

v. a. to wet, to damp Jig. to beat. Menetsaka v. a. to throw down, to strike, to beat. FIA, s. pressing, squeezing, compression. Mamia, v. a. to squeeze, to press, to compress.

FIAKA,

s.

pressing the juice out of any thing with


it

the teeth, and sucking

as that of a sugar cane.

Mamiaka,

v. a.

to press with the teeth

and suck the

juice of a sugar cane, &c.

FINA,

s.

the space between the

thumb and
;

the fore-

finger

when both ends meet


a. to

a small bundle, a

skein of thread.

Mamina,
the
fina.

t?.

make

a bundle of sticks, rushes, &c.

as large as could

be compressed between the end of


fore-finger, to

thumb and the


s.

measure by the
removed,

FINDRA,
Mamindra,

removal, translation

ad.

translated, transplanted.
v. a. to step, to

remove

fig. to translate,

to transcribe.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

27
ENGLISH.

FITO,

ad. seven.
v. a,

Mamito,

to

make

into sevens, to

make seven

parts, to seven.

FITSAKA,

s.

a thing growing pressed down, as corn


rain
;

by wind and
Mamitsaka,
hide one's

ad levelled, laid

flat

on the

ground, pressed down.


V, a.
self,
s.

to press

down

jig.

to couch, to

to lie in wait.
;

FITSOKA,
smitten.

beating, striking

ad. beaten, struck,

Mamitsoka,

v. a.

to beat, to strike, to smite.

FOANA,

ad. void, empty, vain.


s.

Zava-poana,

vanity, a thing

good

for nothing.

Mamoana,

'g.

a. to

FODY,
;

s.

the

home Mamody,

the
?7.

make void, to nullify, to annihilate. mode of returning home, returning name of a bird.
home,
to

a. to return

send back a thing

bought or borrowed, to

retaliate.
;

FOFOKA,
Mamofoka,

s.

cough, cold,

ad, beaten, cast down.

v, a. to beat, to cast, or
s.

throw down.

FOFONA,
Mamofona,

smell, scent, odour, vapour, steam.


v. a.

and

v. n.

to

smell,

to stink

Jig. V. a, to bespeak, to betroth.

FOHA V. n.
awake.

imp, awake, arise

the same as fohazy,

Mamoha,

'g.

a,

to

awake one out of


renewal,

sleep,

mamoha,

to open, is

from the root voha, an opening.


s.

FOHATRA,

agitation

ad. withered,

faded,applied to vegetables; renewed, agitated.

28
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH,
v. a.

Mamohatra,
contest.

to renew,

to

agitate,

to

revive a

FOHETRA,
Mamohetra,
hurt.

s. disaster,

calamity

ad,

disastrous,

unlucky, unfortunate, spoiled.


V, a,

to

spoil,

to deprive, to injure, to

FOHY,
FOY,
a

ad. short, dwarfish, not long, not

tall

Mamohy,
Mamoy,
boil.

v. a. to shorten, to abridge, to curtail.

ad. hatched, suppurated, evacuated.


v. a. to suppurate,

to

evacuate, to break as

FOY,

fig. ad. forsaken, abandoned, given up.


y

AMOY,
Mamoi-fo,
failing

^ ^

^^ abandon, to forsake, to give up.


to despair, to despond,

v. n.

one's heart

him.
s.

FOKATRA,
Mamokatra,

exhibitions, things exhibited, as

goods

for sale, taken out of a


v. a. to

box or

chest.

show, to own, to confess, as ap-

plied to persons tried

by the

ordeal, tangena.

FOLA-BAROTRA,
Mamala-barotra,

s.

the price of things reduced to

the lowest point, price reduced.


v. a. to

reduce the price, to cause

the seller to reduce the price to the lowest point.

FOLAKA,
Mamolaka,

ad. bent, folded, tamed, subdued, dislo-

cated, broken.
v. a.

to bend,

to break in, to tame, to

subdue, to

make

docile.

FOLY,

s. silk

thread, any thing spun.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

29
ENGLISH.

Mamoly,

v. a.
s.

to spin,

FONGOTRA,
Mamongotra,
Mamongotra,

extermination

ad. destroyed, fallen

into ruins, a tree rotten at the stump.


v. a. to exterminate, to

extirpate, to

eradicate, to consume.
v. a. to take
feet.
;

hold of the

feet, is

derived

from TONGOTRA,

FONO,
like

5-i

a cover, a wrapper

ad. wrapped, shrouded

a corpse.
v. a. to

Mamono,

wrap, to swathe, to cover, to shroud

like a corpse.

Mamono,

v, a, to kill,

is

derived from vono,

s,

the

act of killing.

FORONA,

s.

any thing produced, created or formed,


grass
v. a.
;

a name of Mamorona,

ad. created, fashioned, produced.


create, to fashion, to form, to

to

produce.

FOSITRA,

s.

an insect of the moth kind, a stick used

to produce fire

by
a.

friction.

Mamositra,
friction,

v.

to produce fire

with

sticks

by
in-

to get fire.
s.

FOTITRA,

inversion, reversion, abuse

ad,

verted, reversed, vilified, abused.

Mamotitra, v. a.

to reverse, to invert, to vilify, to curse.

FOTSY,

ad. white.
v. a,
to

Mamotsy,

whiten, to

make any

thing to

shine, or bright.

FOZA, s. FOZAFOZA,^.

?
\

crab, crawfish, rough usage; ad. treated roughly, squeezed, crumbled.

30
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
v.

Mamozafoza,

a.

to

use roughly,

to

crush,

to

squeeze, to crumble.

WHEN H
by

is

the
;

first

radical letter,

it is

rejected

transitive verbs

as

HADINO,
Manadino,

ad, oblivious, forgotten, neglected, un-

mindful, negligent.
v. a,
s,

to forget, to neglect.
will,

HAFATRA,
a
ordered.

a message, a request, an order, a ad. bequeathed,

testament;

willed, requested,

Manafatba,

v. a.

to send a

message by another, to

order, to bequeath, to request.

HAFITRA, s. HAFOTRA, s.

>

the inner bark of a tree used for making cords and ropes.
to take the inner bark of a tree,

Manafotea, v. <2. and to prepare it

for

making cords or

ropes.
;

HAHA,

s.

a thing, or person loosed, untied

ad.

loosed, unknotted, untied.

MAMAHA,orMANAHA,v.,

to loose,to Untie, to unknot.

HAHY,
fire,

$.

exsiccation

ad. any thing dried by the

or exposed to the sun, or to the wind, exsic-

cated, dried.

Manahy,
or

v. a. to dry, to

spread, to dry

by the

fire,

by exposure

to the sun, wind, or air.

Manahy^

v. a. to fear, to
fear.

be anxious,

is

derived from

ahy, anxiety,

HAY,

8.

knowledge,

ability,

capability

ad.

able,

capable, possible, known.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

Ol
ENGLISH.

Mahay,

v. a.

to

know

a thing, to be able to do a
ability of

thing, to possess the

knowledge and

doing

a thing.

HAJA,

s,

paying respect, obesiance, giving honour.


v. a

Manaja,

to

pay respect, to show

regard, to

salute a person respectfully.

HALADY,

8.

apology, requesting respectftdly a per-

son to withdraw.

Malady, ad. quick, quick of hearing, making haste. Manalady, v. a, to request a person to withdraw, to make an apology to a person for withdrawing himself.

HALATRA,

s.

theft,

robbery.

Mangalatra, v. a. to steal, to rob, to defraud. HANA, s, money borrowed on interest, paying


terest

in-

on money.
V. a, to

MAuaNA,

borrow money on

interest.

Manana,

v. a. to have,
;

to possess, is derived

from

an obsolete root

ana, possession.
agreeable

HANITRA,
Manitra, ad,

8,

fragrance,

odour,

sweet

savour, pleasant scent.


fragrant, odoriferous, sweet scent.
v. a, to yield a sweet odour, to give

Mahamanitra,

an agreeable odour, or pleasant scent.

HANTA,
Mahanta,

s.

submissive and affectionate entreaty, re-

questing, or begging as a child.


v. a. to

indulge, to

humour,

to gratify a

child, or friend.

HANTONA,
suspended.

8.

hanging, suspending;

ad,

hanged,

32
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
v. a, to hang, to suspend.
s.

Manantona,
back

HANTSIKIA,
;

a hollowness of the back, a hollow

ad. struck, beaten hollow, bent.


v. a. to

Manantsikia,

make

to

bend backwards,

to

beat, to strike, to

withdraw from one's bargain.

HAKABY,
Manaraby,

s. ridicule, jeer, gibe, scoffing.

v. a. to ridicule, to jeer, to scoff.

HARAKA,
Jig.
fair
s.

ad.

dried

up,

scorched,

parched

searching for property confiscated in an un-

way.
v. a. to v. a. to

Manabaka,
Manaralca,
obey,
is

dry up, to

tire, to fatigue.

follow, to act according


s.

to, to

derived from araka,

acting according

to, following.

HARAKAOTRA,
added

s.

ulceration, sores

fig.

sorrow

to sorrow, trouble v. a. to

upon

trouble.

Manararaotra,
fig. to

ulcerate, to

produce sores

wound
s.

one's feelings, to aggravate one's sor-

row, to increase one's trouble.

HARARO,
Manararo,

impediment, obstruction,

prevention,

discouragement.
v. a. to prevent, to

impede, to dishearten,

to discourage.

HARATRA,
Manaratra,

s.

shaving, shaving of the head.

v. a. to shave.
s.

HARATSAKA,
Manaratsaka,
and smooth,

cutting off even, paring a thing

even and smooth.


v. a. to cut off even, to pare off

even

to shave.

HOOTS.
HOOT.

33
ENGLISH.

HARIVA,
Manariva,

s.

evening, eve, even.


to
;

v. n.

draw towards the evening.


v. a,

HARO,

s.

mixture
(id.

mangaro,

to mix, to mingle.

HAROHARO,
Mangaroharo,

mixed, mingled.
mix, to mingle.
silver or

v. a, to

HASINA,
gold,
his, or

s.

an offering being a piece of

presented to the sovereign to acknowledge

her sovereignty

name

of a tree.

Manas iNA,

v. a. to present,

to offer a piece of silver

or gold to the sovereign.

HARONA,
to feel.

8.

basket, a small basket.

Mangarona,

v. a. to

grope with the hand in a basket,

HATAKA,
Mangataka,

8.

a petition, a request, begging.

v. a. to beg, to request, to
8,

ask a favour.

HATAKA,
dispersed.

separation; ad. seperated, scattered,

Mampihiataka,
to disperse.

v. a. to

cause to saparate, to scatter,

HATONA,

8.

approach,
;

drawing near, an advance

towards a person

ad. approached.

Manatona, v. a. draw towards.

to approach, to

advance towards, to

HATSIAKA,
Mangatsiaka,

8.

coldness, frigidity, chilliness.

v. n. to

be cold,

frigid, chilly.

HATSIKIA,
Manatskia,
call

8.

beckoning, trigger of a gun ; ad. bec-

koned, trigger pulled back.


v. n. to

beckon, to touch a person, to

him one

side, to pull

back a

trigger;

34
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.

HAVANGANA,
Manavangana,

ad.

stirred

up, arranged, declared

before hand, foretold.


v. a, to
stir

up the

fire,

to arrange

before hand, to foretell.

HAVIA,
Manavia,

ad,

left, left

hand, or

foot, or side.

v. n, to

use the

left

hand, &c., to do any

thing awkwardly.

HAVOKAVOKA,
Manavokavoka,

s.

beating, flogging.

v. a. to beat, to flog, to strike.


off,

HEL AK A,
Manelaka,

s.

a peeling

a skinning off ;

ad, ex-

foliative, peeled,

skinned

off.

v. a. to peel off,

to skin off, to shell off,

to exfoliate.

HELATRA,
lightning.

s.

lightnings,

figurations,

flash

of

Mauelatra,

v. w. to

flash as

hghtning

fig, to

be

hasty in temper, to be angry.

HELIHELY,
Manelihely,
and forward

s,

hovering about, going about.


to

v. n.
;

hover about, to go backward

fig, to annoy, to interrupt, to disturb.

HELIKIA,
Manelikia,
armpit.

s,

armpit.

v. n, to

be up

to the armpit, to reach the

HELINA,
Manelina,

ad, passing by swiftly, gliding rapidly.


v. n. to pass

by

swiftly, to

gUde

rapidly.

HELO, s. ? HELOLELO,^.^
Manelo,
v. a. to

u hovermg, wavermg.
like a shade, to pass

move

backwards

and forwards like a shade , fig, to hinder, to interrupt.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

35
ENGLISH.

HELOKA,

s,

crookedness, perversity, crime, guilt,

oflfence, iniquity, sin.

Meloka, ad. crooked, wrong,


eous, sinful.

guilty, unjust, unright-

Manameloka,

v. a. to

make

guilty, to

condemn, to

charge with a crime.

HEMOTRA,
MiHEMOTRA,

s.

backshding, relapse, drawing back.


71.

V.

to backslide, to relapse.

Manemotra, v. a. to keep back, to withdraw, tain as a cow retaining her milk.

to re-

HE^JAHENA,
Manenahena,

ad. stubborn, obstinate, imwilling to

go forward, or backward, unwilling to move,


v. a. to act

stubbornly, to be obstinate.

HEBAHERA,
daring.

ad. presumptuous, adventurous, bold,

Manerahera,

v. n. to

presimie, to be daring, adven-

turous, presumptuous.

HEROHERO,
Manerohero,

s.

indecision,

doubt;

ad. wavering,

halting between two opinions, perplexed.


v. a. to

perplex,

to

stupify,

to

con-

found, to confuse.

HEROTRA,
Manerotra,

s.

cream, scum.
to

v. a,
s.

produce cream as milk, to scum.

HEVITRA,
MiHiEviTRA,

thought, idea, opinion.


meditate.

V. a. to think, to cogitate, to v. a. to agitate, to

Manevitra,

cause to tremble.

HEVITREVITRA,
Manevitrevitra,
shake.

ad. trembhng, shaking, agitated.


to

v. n.

tremble,

to

agitate,

to

36
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.

HY, s, HIDY,

gums.
s.

a lock, bolt, bar.

Manidy,

v. a. to lock, to bolt, to bar.

HIHY,

s.

the act of scraping, or taking the flesh from

the bones of a dead body.

Manihy,

v. a.

to scrape, or to take the flesh

from the

bones of a dead body.

HINAKA, s. HINAKINAKA, s.
Maninaka, ti, a, Maninahinaka, v.

> \

pomelling, cudgelling, beating ; ad. pomelled, cudjelled, beaten.


1 X J 1 *^ ^^^^' * ^^^S^^'

? a, \

HINDRAHINDRA,
a child.

ad. childish,

boyish, acting as

Manindrahindra,

. n.

to toss a child

up and down,

to act childishly, playfully.

HITRIKIA,
and
brisk.

ad.

stiff,

fixed erect,

walking upright

Manitrikia,
fix

t>.

a. to fix a thing upright as a post, to

a thing firm.
s.

HITSAKA,
Manitsaka,
spurn

treading,

trampling

ad.

trodden,

trampled, despised.
v. a.

to tread upon, to trample

upon, to

at, to despise.
s,

HITSY,
v. a.

straitness, rectitude, uprightness, equity.


strait,

Mahitsy, ad.
to

upright, just, equitable,

right

be

just, upright, strait,

Manitsy,

v. a. to straiten,

to rectify, to correct, to

adjust, to justify.

HOATRA,

ad. equal, alike, surpassed, exceeded.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

37
ENGLISH.

Manoatra,
MiHOATRA,
rounding

v. a.

to surpass, to excel.

V. n. to surpass, to excel,
s.

to

go beyond.

HODIDINA,
;

circle,

circumference, encircling, sur-

ad. encircled, surrounded.


v. a. to

Manodidina,
compass.

surround, to encircle, to

en-

HODINA,
Manodina,

s.

a turn, a revolving, turning

ad. turned

round, revolved.
V, a. to
s.

turn a thing round.

HODITRA,
Manoditra,

skin, hide, bark.


a. to skin, to flay,

v.

to peel, to take

off the bark.

HOFA,

s, rent,
;

or

money paid

for the use of rice

ground

ad. sifted winnowed, cleansed by a sieve.

Manofa,
for the

v. a. to

pay the rent, to advance

money
sift,

use of a piece of rice ground, to


to clean
s.

to

winnow,

by a

sieve.

HOHOKA,
bom

subversion, infanticide,

the

act

of

placing the face

down

in putting a child to death

on an unlucky day.
v. a.

Manohoka,
to death.

to subvert, to stifle, to put

an infant

HOMBO,

8.

nail,

or nails, pins, spikes.

Manombo, v. a. to nail, to fasten with nails, or pins. ManombOy v. a. to increase, to cause to grow, is derived
from TOMBo,>. increase, gain,
profit;

HONTSANA,
Manontsana,

s.

rinsing

ad. rinsed, washed.

v. a.

to rinse

any thing washed.


;

HORAKA,

s.

a moor, a fen, a marsh

noise.

38
HOOTS.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.

HORAKORAKA,
Manorakoraka,
halloo
at.

ad, noisy, tumultuous.


to

V, n.

make

a noise, to

shout, to

HORIRANA,
Manorirana,
V. n, to

ad. turned on the side, placed side-

ways, looking sideways.


v. n. to

place

thing

on

its

side

look sideways.
s,

HORONA,

roll,

a fold

ad. roUed, folded.


;

Mangorona,

v. a. to fold, to roll

fig. to gather con-

fiscated property.

HOSY,

s.

rice

ground
rice

trodden

by bullocks

for

planting

the

plants,

confiscations,

property

confiscated.

Manosy,

?.

a. to turn bullocks to

tread, or trample

the rice ground, to confiscate.

HOSOTRA,
smeared.

s.

unction, anointing

ad. anointed, be-

MoNosoTRA,
cleanse.

?.

a. to anoint, to besmear, to wash, to

HOTIKOTIKA,
Manotikotikia,
to abuse.

ad, tearing in pieces, torn, ripped.


v.

a, to tear, to rip, to cut in pieces,

HOTO,

s.

pushing, or tearing with the horns.


ad. torn by the horns of a bull, ripped.
to butt, to
v. a.

HOTOHOTO
Manoto,
. a.

push with the horns.

Manotohoto,

to tear in pieces, to rip,


}
,

HOVOTRA, s. HOVOTROVOTRA,*.
Mangovotra,
v. n.

tremor, trembhngs.

.y

to tremble, to be agitated.

ROOTS.
ROOTS.

39
ENGLISH.

HOZONA, s. shaking, agitation. HOZONGOZONA, ad. shaken, loose,


Manozongozona,
V, a,

not

fast.

to shake, to stir a thing back-

wards, and forwards.

WHEN K
by

is

the
;

first

radical letter,

it is

rejected

transitive verbs

as

KAMBANA,
Manambana,

s,

twins

Ji^,

resemblance

ad. joined, united.


v. a. to join, to unite,

to add.

KANINA,

s.

a roast, roasting

ad. roasted.

Mananina, t?. a. > Manakanina, v.a,^

KARAMA,
Manarama,

s.

wages, hire.

v. a. to hire, to
8.

engage for wages.

KEKITRA,
Manekitra,

a bite, biting.

V, a. to bite.

KENDA,
gled.

ad. choking, strangling,

choked,

stran-

Manenda,
ranging,

v. a. to

choke, to strangle, to throttle.


ad. making ready, preparing, ar-

KENINKENINA,
made
Maneninkenina,
arrange.

ready, prepared, arranged.


v. a. to prepare, to

make

ready, to

KEOKA,
Maneoka,

s.

small waist,
s.

a thing small in the middle.

Keokeoka,

a noisy masticulation, champing.


to

v. a.

be small in the middle.


to

Maneokeoka,

v. a.

champ,

to

chew champingly.

40

ETYMOLOGY.

KEPOKA

>
'''''^^

KEPOKEPOKA, s. S
Manepokepoka,
tering.

""^^^ "^'^^ *^^*^-

v. n, to

chew, to champ with chat-

KETRAKA,
energy.

ad. feeble, weak, disheartened, want of

Manetraka,

v. a. to
s.

dishearten, to discourage.

KETRONA,
Manetrona,

a wrinkle, wrinkles, rumples, creases.


to wrinkle, to crease, to rumple.

v. n.

KETSA,
Manetsa,

s. rice plants.

v. a. to set
s.

the rice plants, to plant rice.

KETSIKIA,
Manetsikia,

motion, moving, stirring.

v. a. to

move, to

stir.

KIBO,

s.

belly.
e>.

Manibo,

a. to tickle, to titillate.

KIFAKIFA,
Manifikifa,

ad. clearing away, sent away.


v. a. to clear

away, to send away.


refusal

KIEIKIA, s. KIFIKIFIKIA,
Manifikifikia,

\
s.

wagging of the head,


ad. rejected.
to wag, to shake the

v. a.

head

at

any

thing, to refuse, to reject.

KILEMA,
Manilema,

s.

deformity,

blemish, cripple,

scar;

ad. deformed, crippled, deform, disfigured.


. . to disfigure, to

deform

fig. to dis-

honor, to degrade.

KIPIKIPY,
Manipikipy,

s.

a foot boy, a piece of

wood hurled

at

birds, chasing birds.


v. a.
s.

to throw, to hurl at.

KIRAKIRA,

fingering,

handUng with the

finger.

ROOTS.
ROOTS.

4i
ENGLISH.

Manirakira,

V, a. to finger, to

handle with the finger,

to play with.

KISAKA,
Manisaka,
to

s.

creeping, crawhng.

v. a. to

cause to creep, to

make

to crawl,

make a

thin board or plank, see fisaka, thin.

KIVAKIVAKA, s, making one's way through a crowd.


Manivakivaka,
crowd, to
v. a. to

make

one's

way through a

make a
s.

bustle.

KIZAKIZA,
Manizakiza,

a disregard, a depreciation.

v. a. to depreciate, to disregard.
s.

KOLIKOLY,
Manolikoly,

coaxing, wheedling.

v. a, to coax, to
s,

wheedle.
care,

KOLOKOLO,
Manolokolo,
in

latter

m^ith,

attention;

ad. cultivated.
v. a. to cultivate,

to

keep a plantation

good

order, to fondle, to cherish.


s,

KOTROKOTROKA,
thunder.

rumbUng

in

the

bowels,

Manotrokotroka,

v. a. to

rumble, to thunder.
it

WHEN L
by

is

the
;

first

radical letter,

is

rejected

transitive verbs

as
rejection.
to refuse, to reject.

LA, s, denial, refusal, Manda, v. a. to deny,

LADY,

ad. creeping, crawling, prowling.


in motion.

Malady, ad, quick of hearing, quick Mandady, v. n. to creep, to crawl, to

prowl.

LADINA,

s.

creeping plants, like ivy.


v. a, to wreathe, to entwine, to entangle.

Mandadina,

42
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
s.

LAFATRA.

obstructions,

impediments

ad. ob-

structed, impeded, hindered.

Mandafatra,
to impede.

v. a. to hinder, to

hem

in, to

prevent,

LAFIKIA,
to lay on.

s.

bed of straw, or grass

for

man

or beast

Mandafikia,

v. a. to

make a bed

of

straw,

or of

grass to lay on.

LAHATRA

s.

an order, an arrangement, words or

things set in regular order.

Mandahatra,

v. a. to

arrange

regularly,

to

set in

rows, in ranks, in order,

to state a case,

to defend

one's cause, to represent

by a regular statement.
a falsehood. of being done,

LAINGIA,

s.

lie,

falsehood, untruth,

Mandaingia,

v. a. to lie, to tell

LAITRA,

ad.

penetrable, possible

effective, acted

upon, adhesive, effected.

Mandaitra,

v. a. to adhere, to stick as

wax.

LALO,

$.

a passing by; ad. passed by.


v. a.

Mandalo,

to pass by, to

go by.
;

LALOTRA, s. the
Mandalotra,

smoothing of a thing

ad. poHsh-

ed, smoothed, varnished.


v. a. to smooth, to polish, to varnish.

LAMA,

s.

slipperiness, glibness.

Malama, ad. shppy, slippery, smooth, glib. Mandama, v. a. to make smooth, to lubricate.

LAMAKA,
a

$. flatness, level,

compressed

flat

with the

ground by wind and


fat animal.

rain,

being unable to move like

ROOTS.
ROOT.

43
ENGLISH.

Mandamaka,
even,
to

v. a, to press

down,

to level, to

make

be unable to move

like

fat,

or lean

animal.

LAMBOLAMBO,

s,

smoothness, glibness.

Malambolambo, ad. smoothing, glibing like an eel, Mandambolambo, v. a, to smooth, to make to be


slippery.

LAMINA,

ad. arranged, set in order.


v. a, to arrange, to set in order,

Mandamina,

LANY,

ad. consumed, exhausted, spent.


v. a. to spend, to

Mandany,

consume, to exhaust.

LANJA,

s.

weights, the act of weighing, or of carry;

ing on the shoulders


shoulders.

ad. weighed, carried on the

Mandanja,

v. a. to weigh, to carry
5.

on the shoulders.

LANONA,

the act of collecting, or gathering to-

gether ; ad. collected, gathered together.

Mandanona,

v. a. to collect, to gather.

LANTO,

s.

the act of arranging, of setting in order

ad. arranged, set in order.

Mandanto,

v. a. to arrange, to set in order.


;

LAO,

s.

a deserted place, desolation

ad. deserted,

uninhabited, desolate.

Mandao,

v. a. to desert, to leave
s.

a place, to depart.

LATSA,

a reproach, an upbraiding.
v. a. to upbraid, to reproach.
s.

Mandatsa,

LATSA-BATO,

(from

latsaka,

dropping,

and

VATO, stone) a recounting of public services for


the bestowment of honour.

44
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
v. a. to

Mandatsa-bato,

recount public services in

order to bestow honour, to register public service.

LATSAKA,
Mandatsaka,
to

s.

the

act

of dropping,

of

falling;

ad. dropped, fallen.


v. a. to drop, to let fall, to

cast into,

throw down.
s.

LAVAKA,
rock.

hole, cave, den, in the earth,

or in a

Mandavaka,

v. a. to

make

a hole, to

make

holes in

the ground or rocks, to excavate.

LAVO,
strike

s,

the act of falling


v. a. to

ad. fallen.
fall,

Mandavo,

cause to

to

throw down, to

down.
s.

LAVOKARY,
Mandavorary,
thing well.

the act of

doing a thing well;

ad. prosperous, successful, well done.


v. a. to

do a thing

well, to finish

any

LAZA,

s.

fame, name, renown.

Malaza,

v. a. to

be famous, to be renowned.

LAZO,

s.

a fading, a withering

ad. withered, faded.

Malazo,

v. n. to fade, to wither.
v. a. to

Mandazo,

cause to fade, to

make
;

to wither.

LEFA,

s.

the act of setting at liberty

ad. set at

liberty,

freedom given.
v. a. to set at liberty,

Mandefa,
cannon.

to give

freedom to
a gun, or

a slave, to release,

to send

off,

to

fire

BOOTS.
ROOT.

45
ENGLISH.

LEFITRA,
folding
;

s.

the act of enduring, of forbearing, of

ad. folded, endured, or borne.


v. a.

Mandepitra,

to endure, to forbear, to suffer

patiently, to bend, to fold.

LEFONA
LEMY,
8.

s,

spear, lance, javelin.


v. a. to spear, to pierce

Mandefona,

through.

softness, meekness, gentleness.

Malemy, v. n. to be soft, tender, gentle, meek. Mandemy, v. a. to make soft, tender, to cause to be
gentle,

meek.
s.

LEMPONA,
LENA,

hoUowness, concave.

Mandempona,
Mandena,

v. a. to hollow, to scope, to excavate.

ad. wet, humid, moist.


V, a, to

wet, to moisten, to humectate.


;

LENTIKIA, s. any thing sinking in the water


Mandentikia,
v. a. to sink,
;

ad. simk.

to put

under water, to

submerge, to immerse

Ji^, to convince, to

make
in.

aggravating accusations.

LETRA,
LETSY,

s.

a thing pushed
v. a, to

ad. pushed in, forced

Mandetra,
s.

push

in, to force in, to

drive in.

lowering,

extenuation,

degradation

ad. lowered, humbled, extenuated.

Mandetsy,

v. a.
s.

to lower, to

humble, to

lessen.

LEVILEVY,
fulness,

the act of rising in bubbles,

fear-

a tender heart;

ad. rising in bubbles;

jig. fearful, contrite.

Mandevilevy,
bles
;

v. a. to

boil, to

make

to rise in

bub-

Jig. to cause the heart to melt, to

have a

tender heart.

46
nOOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
s.

LEVINA,

the act

of burying,

of interring

ad. buried, interred.

Mandevina,

v. a. to

bury, to inter.

LEVONA,

s.

the act of dissolving, of wasting away,


;

of vanishing

ad. dissolved, wasted, vanished.


to
dissolve, to

Mandevona,

v. a.

consume,

to cause

to vanish, to disappear as dew.

LO,

s-

corruption, rottenness, putrefaction

ad. rot-

ten, putrid, carious, putrescent.

Mando,

v. a. to rot, to putrify,

to

produce rottenness

or putrefaction.

LOA,

s.

a vomit, ejection

Ji^.

money

paid,

a debt

discharged.

Mandoa,

v. a. to

vomit, to eject

Jl^. to

pay money,

to pay off a debt.

LOAKA,

s,

a hole, an aperture.
v. a. to

MandoakA,

bore a hole, to

make an aperture.

LOATRA,
to eat.

s.
;

the act of serving out food cooked, or

rice boiled

ad. serving out, placed before people

Mandoatra, v. a. to serve out food cooked, and place it on the table ; Ji^. to serve, to attend to.

LOHALIKIA,
Mandohalikia,

s.

knee.

v. a. to kneel, to

bend the knee.


lots.

LOKA,
MiLOKA,

s.

wager, a bet, stake, casting

V. a. to lay a wager, to bet.


v. a. to strike

Mandoka,

a wager, to take the oath of

allegiance, to boast, to brag.

LOKOj

$,

paint, sealing wax.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

47
ENGLISH,

Mandoko,

v.a. to paint, to seal a letter

jig, to fasten.

LOMY,
LONA,

s.

the act of an animal copulating.


v. a. to copulate.

Mandomy,
s,

the

act of steeping corn in the water;

ad. steeped, soaked, wetted.

Mandona,

v. a, to steep, to
s.

soak, as corn.

LOSITRA,

the act of escaping, of running away, an


;

escape, a flight

ad. escaping, running away, escaped.

Mandositra,

v. a. to escape, to flee
filth,

away, to avoid.

LOTO,

s.

uncleanness,

dirtiness,

abomination;

ad. soiled,

made

dirty.
filthy,

Maloto,

v. n, to

be dirty,

unclean.

Mandoto, v. a. to make

dirty, to soil, to defile, to pollute.

LOVA,
LOZA,

s.

inheritance, patrimony.
v. a. to inherit, to possess.

Mandova,
s.

woe, calamity, danger, distress

ad. Jig,

wonderful, surprising.

Mandoza,
signify a

v. n. to act cruelly, to

be mischievous, to

bad omen.
8.

LOZOTRA,
pursuit
;

the act of half cooking a thing


;

fig,

ad. half cooked


v. a.

fig. pursued.

Mandozotra,

to prepare food half

cooked;

fig, to pursue, to follow.

WHEN
by

P,

is

the
;

first

radical letter,

it is

rejected

transitive verbs
s,

as

PEPETRA,
Mamepetra,
to

charge, injunction, order.

v. a, to charge, to dictate, to

show how

do a thing.

48
ROOTS.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
s.

PETAKA,
Mametaka,

the act of

adhering,

adhesion

ad,

stuck, adhered.
v. a. to cause to adhere, to
seal,

to

ad-

here, to fix with paste or

gum.
any
thing

POKA,

s,

the

act

of

striking against

ad. struck against.

Mamoka,

v. a.

to strike, to
s.

knock

against.

PONDIPONDY,
Mamondipondy,

a crush, pressure.
squeeze.
in

V, a, to crush, to press, to

PORITEA,
Mamoritra,

s.

the

act

of crushing or

dashing

pieces; ad. dashed, smashed, crushed,


V,

a. to

dash, to smash, to

crush,

to

break in pieces.

POTIPOTIKA,
Manotipotika,

ad, taken in small portions, or


v. a.

bits.

to

make

small portions, to take

by

bits.
s.

POTRAKA,
Mamotraka,
to
fall.

the act of falling

ad. fallen.

V, a. to

throw down, to cause a person

WHEN
by

S,

is

the
;

first

radical letter,

it

is

rejected

transitive verbs
s.

as

SAFO,

SAFOSAFO,
Manajo, .a. Manafosafo, v.
Manafo,

the act of caressing, or coaxing ad. caressed, coaxed.


to caress, to coax. *

> a. ^

v. a. to thatch, is
s,

derived from tafo, a thatch.

SAEOTRA,
Manafotra,

deluge, flood, an overflow of water.


to overflow, to deluge.

v. a,

ROOTS.
ROOTS.

49
ENGLISH.

S AH AN A,

s.

prevention, obstruction

ad, prevented,

obstructed, stopped.

Manahana, SAIKIA, s.
to

v. a.

to stop, to prevent, to hinder.

the act of dipping a vessel in the water


;

be

filled

ad. dipped, soaked, wetted.


to

Manaikia,

v. a. to dip,

plunge in the water, to

wet, to soak.

SAKAMBINA,
Manakambina,

s.

the
;

act of

embracing, caressing,

folding in the arms

ad. caressed, embraced.

V, a. to
s.

embrace, to caress.

SAKELIKIA,
the armpit
;

the act of carrying any thing under

ad, carried under the armpit.


v. a. to
s,

Manakelikia,

carry under the armpit.

SAKOBONA,
any thing
;

the act of covering, or concealing

ad. covered, concealed, hidden.


v. a. to

Manakobona,

cover, to hide, to conceal.

SAMAKA,
a tree
;

s.

the act of separating, as branches

from

ad. separated, disunited, dislocated.


v. a.

Manamaka,

to separate, to sever,
it

to

rive, to

abuse a thing by handling

roughly.

SAMPANA,
Manampana,

s.

separation, a branch,

or branches;

ad. branching, branched, separated.


v. a.

to

produce branches, to divide

into branches, to separate.

SAMPONA,
article,

s.

new

thing, a specimen of

any new

deformity; ad. maimed, deformed, defec;

tive, imperfect

hindered, prevented.
hinder, to prevent.

Manampona,

v. a. to
s.

SANATRY,

the

name

of a tree used as a medicine,

50
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.

potsherd

with

white,

red and black streaks, a

charm.

Mananatry,

. a.

place where the disease

SANDA,

s,

agio,

cany the charm sanatry to the commenced. a premium given for whole dollars
to

in exchange of cut
five to fifteen

money.

The

agio varies from

per cent.

Mananda,
whole

^. a. to

charge or demand

an agio for

dollars, to
s.

pay the agio required.


false

SANDOKA,
forgery
;

imposition, fraudulence,

name,

ad. imposed upon.


v. a. to

Manandoka,

assume a

false

name, to impose

upon, to defraud, to commit forgery.

SANDRATRA,
dignity
;

s,

exaltation, elevation to power, or

ad. exalted, elevated.


v. a. to exalt, to

Manandratra,

elevate, to raise to

power, or dignity.

SANTATRA,
first

s.

commencement of works,
Jig. an earnest.

the laying
first fruits,

of a foundation stone, the bringing of the

work,

first fruit

Manantatra,
first fruits,

v. a. to

commence a
;

thing, to bring the

to see a place

fig. to taste, try, to exa-

mine, to give an earnest.

SARA,

s.

fare of a canoe, pirogue, boat, or a ship's

freight.

Manara, v. a. Manara,

to hire a conveyance to cross the water, as

a canoe, pirogue, boat, or a ship, to freight a vessel.


v. a. to
s.

be cold,

chilly, is

derived from the

root KARA,

cold, chilliness.

BOOTS.
BOOT.

51
ENGLISH.

SAROTBA,
difficult,

s,

high price,
;

difficulty

ad. dear, costly,

hard

Ji^. greedy, selfish.

Manasarotra,

v. a. to raise
difficult.

the price, to harden, to

make any

thing

SASAKA,

s.

the act of making two equal parts, the


;

half of a thing
frank, plain.

ad, half,

equal part

j%. open,

Manasaka,

v. a. to halve, to

divide into two equal


;

parts, to cut

any thing in the middle

Jiff,

to

be

half a fool.

SASA,

s.

the act of washing, a wash

ad. washed,

cleaned, cleansed.

Manasa,

v. a. to

wash, to lave

Jiff,

to

entertain

person, to give a dinner,

to invite to a feast.

SAROMPATRA,
Manarompatra,
truth, to

s.

the act of keeping back a part of

the truth, concealment.


v. a. to

keep back a part of the


to tell the

hide, to conceal, not

whole

truth.

SAZY,

s.

fine, forfeit,

mulch, penalty.
cause to pay a
fine.

Manazy,

v. a. to fine, to

SEHO,
show,

s.

the act

of coming into sight, appearance,


ad.
manifest,
seen,

manifestation;

ap-

pearing.

Maneho,

s.

to

show, to manifest, to demonstrate, to

point out,

SARONA,
veiled.

s.

a cover, covering, a veil

ad. covered,

Manarona,

v. a. to

cover, to veil, to hide, to conceal.

52
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
s.

SASATRA,
lassitude
;

the state of being fatigued, weariness,

ad. tired, weary, fatigued.


v. a.

Manasatra,

to tire, to weary, to fatigue.

SERANA,
ed

5.

a sudden seizure of pain, the act of


;

passing by, a vessel touching at a place


slightly in passing by,

ad. touch-

touched a place as a ship

passing by.

Manerana,

??.

a. to

touch a person in passing by, to

touch at a place, to turn to a port in passing by.

SESY,

s.

name of

a musical instrument, the act of

dwindling away, jig. transportation, banishment;


ad. expatriated, banished.

Manesy,

v. a. to expatriate, to transport, to banish.


s.

SESIKIA,
Manesikia,

the act of pushing in,

or forcing in

ad. pushed in, forced in.


v. a. to

push

in, to force in, to

push by

force, to propel.

SETRA,
Manetra,

s.

obstruction,

hinderance,

impediment
surmount

ad. impeded, obstructed, hindered.


v. a.

to

face

all

oppositions, to

difficulties, to attack.

SETRY,

s.

an answer, a reply, money

added
it

in

dividing, or weighing

money
to

to

make
it

equal;

ad. added

to, equalizing.

Manetry,
Manetry.,
is

v. a.

to

add money

make

equal, to

equalize, to rectify.
v. a.

to

humble, to degrade, to humiliate,

derived from etry, humiliation, degradation.


s.

SETROKA,

smoke, fumes.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

53
ENGLISH.

Manetroka,
smoke,

t?.

a. to

smoke, to fume,

to

produce

to fumigate.

SIA,

5.

the act of going out of the way, turning out

of the right path.

Mania,

v. n.

to go out of the way, to turn aside, to

err, to

go wrong.
astray,

SIASIA, ad. wandering, going Mini ASIA, v. a. to wander, to

wandered.
way, to go

lose

the

often out of the way, to err often.

SIKINA,

s.

a girdle, the act of girding

ad. girded,

put around the waist.

Manikina,

v. a. to gird, to
s.

encompass, to encircle.
off,

SILAKA,

the act of peeling


;

or of taking off

the bark of a tree

ad. peeled, barked, skinned.

Manilaka,

v. a.

to peel off, to take off the

bark of a

tree, to flay, to skin.

SIMAKA,
faced.

s.

a sphnter, a chip

ad. spHntered, de-

Manimaka,

v. a.

to splint, to chip off, to pare off.

SIMBA,

s.

the act of spoihng anything, spoliation;

ad. spoiled, destroyed, injured.

Manimba,

v. a. to spoil, to stain, to

deface, to injure,

to destroy.

SINDA,

s.

the act of

moving a thing out of


its

its

place

ad. removed, taken out of

place.

Maninda,
place
;

v. a. to

misplace,
to miss.

to

remove out of

its

fig. to
s,

fail,

SINGOTRA,

entanglement, the act of entangling


;

with cords or ropes

ad. entangled, bound, fettered.

54
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
V. a. to entangle, to

Maningotra,

fetter

with cords,

or ropes, to seize, to bind, to catch.

SINTA,

s.

a pain in any part of the body arising


fatigue.

from over

Maninta,

V, a. to feel
s.

shooting pains

by over

fatigue.

SINTAKA,

the act of leaving one's husband and

of going to another man, unchastity, lewdness, incontinence.

Manintaka,
SISA,

v. a. to

seduce another man's wife, to

commit adultery.
s.

residue, remainder, remnant.


v. a. to

Manisa,

leave a residue, to leave

some
isa,

Manisa,

to count, to reckon, is derived

from

a number, a reckoning, counting.

SISIKIA,

s.

the act of

pushing forward

ad.

en-

couraged to go, bribed.

Manisikia,

v. a,

to

push on, to

force, to encourage,

to bribe, to fee.

SITRAKA,
Sitra-po,
s.

s,

the

act of acknowledging

favor

ad. pleased, acceptable, grateful, thankful.

from sitraka, and fo, heart, pleasure,


thank, to express satisfaction

will, gratification.

Mankasitraka,

v. a. to

with what was done, to be pleased.

SITRIKIA,

s.

the act of diving in the water, immer-

sion, plunging;

ad.

made

to

dive, plunged,

im-

mersed, dipped.

Manitrikia,

v. a. to

plunge,

to

immerse, to dip, to

cause to dive.

HOOTS.
ROOT.

55
ENGLISH,

SOFINA,
Manofina,

s. ear.

v. a. to seize

by the

ears, to take

hold of

the ears, to pull by the ears.

SOKA,

s.

black silk
v. a. to
s.

ad. soaked.

Manoka,

dye black.
retirement
;

SOKANA,
Manokana,
ration,

separation,

ad, separated,

apart, retired. v. a to cause to retire, to

make a
is

sepa-

to

place in
to
set

another place.
to

Manokana,

apart,

consecrate

derived

from TOKANA, being alone, apart.

SOKATRA,
covered.

s,

the act of opening

ad. opened, un-

Manokotra,

v. a, to
8.

open, to uncover.
;

SOLATRA,
Matjolatra,

rock, slate, shooting at

ad.

shot at

fi^. touched, grazed by a knife.


v. a. to

shoot

at.

SOLO,

s.

substitution, the act of placing a person, or

thing in the

room of

another, a substitute.
place in the

Manolo,

v. a. to substitute, to

room

or

stead of another.

SOLOKY,
Manoloky,

imposition, fraud, deceit.

v. a. to

impose upon, to defraud, to cheat.

SOMBA,
Manomba,

s.

spoliation, see simba.

v. a. to spoil, to injure, to
s.

mar.
;

SOMBINA,

crumb, or crumbs,

bits

ad, chipped,

mutilated, broken.

SOMBIN'AINA,

s.

crumb of

life

^y. a beloved

child, darling, beloved.

56
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
v.

Manombina,
tilate.

a. to

make crumbs,

to chip, to

mu-

SOMINDA,
'

s.

decapitation, beheading

ad. decapi-

tated, beheaded.
v. a.

Manominda,

to behead, to decapitate.
selfish, ill-natured.

SOMPATRA,

ad. churlish,

Manompatra, v. a. to make one's to show a bad temper, to become

self

disagreeable,

churlish.

SOMPIRANA,
Manompirana,

ad. oblique, sloping, turning sideways.


v. n.

to slope, to turn
hill.

on one

side, to

go on the side of a

SONDROTRA,

s.

exaltation, elevation, the

act of

elevating to honour, see


lifted up, elevated.

sandratra

ad. exalted,

Manondrotra,
honour.

v. a. to raise

up, exalt, to elevate to

SONGA,

s.

the upper lip turned upwards

ad. un-

covered, making naked.

Manonga,

V. a.

to

uncover, to

strip, to

take away

one's clothes.

SONGONA, s. the act of raising a thing higher. SONGONA-BAROTRA, s. the act of offering
higher price, a higher price.

Manom-barotra,

v. a. to offer

a higher price, to raise

the price of any thing.

SORATRA,
marks
;

s.

writing,

or a thing written, colours,

ad. coloured, written,


v. a.

marked.
colour,
to

Manoratra,
arrange

to

write,

to

mark, to

silk

threads for weaving.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

57
ENGLISH.

SORITRA.
Manoritra,

s.

an engraving, sculpture

ad. engraved,

sculptured.
v. a, to

engrave, to sculpture, to

mark out.

SOSOKA,
Manosoka,

s.
;

the act of adding a thing to another, ad, appended.

appendage

V, a. to
s,

add, to append, to adjoin.

SOSOTRA,
Manosotra,
Manosotra,
unction.

the state of being vexed, or annoyed

ad. annoyed, angry, displeased.


v. a. to

vex, to annoy, to provoke, to

anger, to tease.
v. a. to anoint, is derived

from hosotra,

WHEN
by

T,

is

the
;

first

radical letter,

it is

rejected

transitive verbs
s.

as

TABOROAKA,
hole
;

the act of penetrating through a

ad. bored through, pierced through.


v. a.

Makaboroaka,
through, to

to
hole.

bore, to pierce,

to

thrust

make a

TADY,

s.

a cord, a rope, search, a thing sought, the


;

act of seeking

mitad^/, to seek.
twist, to cord,

Manady,
rope.

v. a. to

to

make a

cord, or

TAFY,
ments

s,
;

wearing apparel, clothes, covering, gar-

ad, clothed, covered, dressed.


v. a. to clothe, to dress, to cover.
s.

Manafy.

TAFIKIA,
Manafikia,

war, expedition, invasion.

v. a. to

go

to war, to

make

war,{to send

an expedition, to invade.

58
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
s.

TAFINTOHINA,
bled, offended.

the act of stumbling; ad, stum-

Manafintohina,
to offend.

v. a.

to

cause to stumble, to

trip,

Mahatqfintohina, to offend.
ad. thatched, covered.

TAFO, s. roof, thatch, covering;

TAFON-TRANO, s. roof of a house. TAFON-KENA, s. a bullock hump.


Manafo,
v. a. to thatch, to

cover.

TAHA,
take

s.

money, or presents given by the husband


second
wife

to the first wife, for giving her consent to him, to

a fine

for

libel,

or false

accusation.

Manaha,

v. a. to

give property to the

first

wife for

her consent to take another wife in addition to her


to fine for libel, or false accusation.

TAINGINA,
Manaingina,

s.
;

riding, the act of

mounting, raising

any thing up

ad, mounted on, riding.


to raise up, to cause to ride, to

V, a,

place on the back of a horse.

TAITRA,
Manaitra,
to

s,

an agitation of mind;

ad. starthng,

shocked, moved.
t?.

a. to startle, to stir, to start, to purge,

have frequent motions.


ad. startling often.
'0.

TAITAITRA,
Manaitaitra,

a. to startle often, to

purge often.

TAKALO,
Manakalo,

8.
'G.

barter, exchange.
a. to barter, to exchange.

TAKATRA,
name

s,

the act of reaching to a thing, the


;

of a bird

ad. reached to, extended to.

; ;

ROOTS.
ROOT.

59
ENGLISH.

Manakatra,

v. a, to reach, to

extend

to, to attain to.

TAKONA,
by any

s.

out of sight, the state of being out of


;

sight, obstructing the sight

ad. concealed, hidden

thing.
v. a. to

Manakona,

hide a thing by standing between

the spectator and the object, as a house, a tree, or

mountain hinders one from seeing another object.

TAMANA,
ated.

ad.

accustomed,

acquainted,

habitu-

Manamana,
liarize.

v. a. to

accustom, to habituate, to fami-

TAMBATRA,
total

s.

a heap,

collection

of any thing,

amount.
v. a. to

Manambatra,

heap together, to add together,

to join, or unite together, to totalize.

TAMBY,
Manamby,

s.

wages, reward, remuneration,

v. a. to hire, to
s.

engage for wages.

TAMBITAMBY,
Manambi TAMBY,
to caress.

a bribe, wheedUng, coaxing.


to coax,

V. a. to bribe, to wheedle,

TAMI-TRANO,
Manami-trano,

s.

a burglary, a house breaking.

v. a. to

rob a house by night, to

break into a house with intent to rob.

TAMPINA,
Manampina,
fill

s.

the act of covering or stopping a hole

ad. covered, stopped.


v. a. to

cover a hole, to stop, to cork, to

up, to hinder.
s.

TAMPOKA,
Ji^, cooled

suddenness

ad. sudden, unexpected

by adding cold water.

60
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
V. n. to

Manampoka,

come upon one unawares, unexany thing, crown of the head.


the

pectedly, suddenly.

TAMPONA, s. TAMPON-DOHA,
Manampona,
X).

\
s. \

the top of

a, to

reach the top, to stand on the

top, to place one's self

on the

top.
is

Manampona^

v. a. to hinder, to prevent, s.
s.

derived

from tsampona,

prevention, hinderance.
shade, umbrage, shadow.
to shade, to

TANDINDONA,
Manandindona,

v. a.

shadow.
skin,

TANDRA,
Manandra,

s.

tongs,

pincers,

a mole on the
is

property set apart for a child before he


v. a.

born.

to take hold of with pilars, pincers,

or tongs, to have moles on the skin, to set apart

property for a child before he

is

born.

TANDRY,

s.

the

act

of

observing,

observation

ad. observed, noticed, impeached, charged.

MiTANDRiNA,
to, to

V.

a. to

obscrvc, to notice, to

attend

guard, to watch.
v. a, to

Manandry,

impeach, to accuse, to charge.


to,

TANDRIFY,

ad. opposite

capable

of,

able to do,

proper, right to do.

TANGY,
Manangy,

s.

the hire of a harlot, a harlot's wages.


to hire a harlot.
s.

v. a.

TANTERAKA,
thing
;

the

act

of

accomplishing any
finished,

ad. accomphshed,

fulfilled,

com-

pleted.

Mananteraka, v. Mahatanteraka,

a.

to

v. a^ \

accomplish, to fulfil, to finish, to complete.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

61
ENGLISH.

TANTY,

s.

a basket, a small
;

mat basket

to carry

meat, endurance

ad. enduring,

sustained, falling

in the way, intercepted.

Mananty,

v. a.

to

present the hand to receive any

thing, to hold out any thing in the


to sustain, to endure.

hand

as receiver,

TAPAKA,
or

s.

the act of breaking, or snapping any


;

thing, a piece cut off


ruling,

Ji^. the act of governing,


;

or

managing

ctd.

broken, snapped,

governed, managed.

Manapaka,

v. a.

to break, to snap

Ji^. to rule, to

govern, to manage.

TAPITEA,
tion
;

s.

end of any thing, completion, exhaus-

ad. ended, completed, expended.


v. a. to
s.

Manapitra,

end, to finish, to complete.


;

TARANAKA,
tary, entailed.

generation, posterity

ad. heredi-

Manaranaka,
inherit the

'0.

a. to

produce the same species, to

same

disposition, or maladies.

TATAKA,
Manataka,

s,

the act. of

breaking open as a bank,

letting out water,

sewing getting loose.


to let

v. a, to unstitch, to loose, to open,

out water by breaking a bank, to break a bank by an overflow of water.

TAVONA,
Makavona,

s.

the act of besmearing, unction

ad.

bedaubed, besmeared, anointed.


v. a, to
s.

besmear, to bedaub.
;

TEBAKA,

contempt, contemptuousness

ad. con-

temned, despised, slighted.

62
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
V. a. to

Manebaka,

contemn, to

slight, to despise.
;

TEFY,

s.

the act of working in iron or clay

ad.

formed, modelled, forged, malleated.

Manefy,
to

v. a. to malleate,

to forge,

to

work

in iron,

make

earthen vessels
s.

Jig. to arrange, to rectify.

TEMITRA,

tapestry, a house, or
;

room embellished

with mats, paper, or cloth

ad. covered, or embel-

lished with mats, paper, or cloth.

Manemitra,
centre

v. a. to
s.

mat, to paper a house, or room.

TENATENA,
;

half way, the middle of any thing,

ad. intervened, coming to the middle point,

or half way.

Manenatena,

s.

to

reach the centre, to reach half

the length of any thing.

TENDA,
Mat?enda,

s.
8.

neck.
to seize a person
is

by the neck.
derived from kenda,

Manenda,

v. a. to strangle,

strangling.

TENDRY.
Manendry,

s.

appointment, order, direction

ad. ap-

pointed, ordered, arranged.


v.
s.

a. to appoint, to order, to direct.

TENDRO,
Manendro,

top, peak, beacon,

summit. summit, to

v. a.

to touch the top, or the

touch with the point, or end of any thing.

TENITRA,
Manenitra,

s.

despicableness, vileness

ad. despica-

ble, contemptible, vile,


v.

mean, despised.

a. to despise, to treat with contempt.

TENON A,
Manenona,

s.

warpt, a thing

woven

ad. woven, weft.

v. a. to weave.

; ;

ROOTS.
ROOT.

63
ENGLISH.

Manenona,
crow
noise.

v. a. to

sound, to
is

make

a noise, or to

as

a cock,

derived from neno, sound,

TENTINA, s
spots
;

a stain, spot, or spots

ad.

marked with

Ji^, filled up, stopped up.


v. a. to spot, to taint, to

Manentina,
Jig. to
fill

mark with spots


Jig, con-

up, to stop up.


;

TERY,
ed
;

s.

pressure, milking, compression

straint,

compulsion

ad. pressed, compressed, milk-

Jig, constrained, compelled.


V. a.
s,

Manery,

to press, to compress, to urge.

TETIKIA,
Manetikia,

ornamental marks cut

in

the

skin

Jig. consultation.
v. a. to

cut ornamental marks in the skin

Jig. to consult.

Manetitetikia,

v. a.
s.

to cut in pieces.

TEVATEVA,

disrespect,

disregard,
;

the act

of

lowering a person, degradation


lowered, degraded.

ad. disregarded,

Manevateva,
despise.

v.

a.

to

disregard,

to

degrade,

to

TEVIKIA,
through
through.

s.

stitches, spasms,

cramp, a hole bored


;

the lobe of the ear

ad. pierced, bored

Manevikia,

v. a, to

huve

stitches, spasms, or a

cramp,

to pierce, to bore, to prick.

TIA, V. a. Mankatia,

to love, to esteem.
v. a. to love,

mifankatia,

v. a.

to

love

one another, to love reciprocally.

64
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
s.

TIFITRA,
fired at.

shooting,

firing

a gun;

ad,

shot,

Manifitra,
shoot.

v.

a.

to

shoot, to

fire;

mitifitry, to

TO, s. truth, verity, reaUty. Mankato, v. a. to obey, to follow

the truth.
;

TODY,

s.

retaliation,

retribution

ad.

retaliated,

requited.

Manody, v. a, to retaliate, to requite come requited, to return upon him.

. n.

to

be-

TOHY,
tied.

5.

junction,

a joint, a knot;

ad.

joined,

Manohy,

X).

a. to join, to tie.
if.

TOHITRA,
Manohitra,
dict, to

opposition, contradiction

ad. opposed,

contradicted, spoken against.


v.

a.

to

oppose, to

resist, to

contra-

speak against.
s.

TOKANA,

individual,

individuality,
;

single
set

one
apart,

ad. single, only one, placed apart


consecrated.

jig.

Manokana,

v.

a.

to

individualize,

to

set

apart

jig, to consecrate.

TOKO,

s.

trivet,

a company, a band, a chapter,

section.

Manoko, v. a. to divide into companies, or sections, to make separate lots, or sections. TOLAKA, s. the name of a small fish ad. prevented
;

by some supernatural power, produced by the


fluence of witchcraft.

in-

ROOTS.
ROOT.

65
ENGLISH.

Manolaka,

v. a.

to hinder, to

blame another,

to pre-

vent one to prove his innocence by the ordeal,

through the influence of witchcraft.

Manolaka,

v. a.

to tame, is derived

from folaka,

s,

the act of taming.

TOLOTRA,
reel
;

s.

a small piece

of

bamboo used

as a
;

Jig. a present,

a presentation, an exhibition

ad, presented, given.

Manolotra,
the hand.

V, a. to give, to

present, to present with

Manoloira,

v, a.

to stick to, to cleave


s.

to,

is

derived

from OLOTRA,

nearness.

TOMBO,

s.

growth, gain, increase, profit;

ad. in-

creased, grown, profits gained.

Manatombo v. a. Manombo, v. a,
succeed.

to exceed, to surpass.

to

gain,

to

profit,

to prosper,

to

Manombo,
nail.

v. a.

to

nail, is

derived from hombo,

s,

TOMPO,
Manompo,
brooks

s.

lord, master, owner, proprietor.

. a.
s.

to serve, to minister.
flood,

TONDRAKA,
;

an overflowing of

rivers,

or

fig.

cattle trespassing,

or breaking into

another's field, or plantation.

Manondraka,

v. a.

to

flood,

to

overflow,

to

pour
;

water on, to moisten food with gravy,


fig. to break through fences.

or broth

TONDRO,

s.

an index,

finger, pointer

ad. pointed

with the finger.

66
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
v. a.

Manondro,
grace.

to point with the finger.


$.

TONDKO-MASO,
Manondro-maso,

a confronting,

dishonour, dis-

v. a.

to confront,

to bring face to

face, to oppose, to

shame.
to

TONGILANA,
to one side.

s.

a leaning

one side

ad. leaned

Manongilana,

V, a. to incline, to

make

to lean to one

side, to incline sideways.

TONY,

ad. calm, serene, quiet, calmed, pacified.


v. a. to
s.

ManjONY,

calm, to pacify, to appease.


the

TONITONY,
Manonitony,

mode

of washing clothes by
;

pressing and beating on stones


v. a.

ad, beaten, pressed.

to beat, to press, to

wash clothes
;

by

pressing and beating

them on stones

Ji^. to beat,

to pommel.

TONONA,
Manonona.

s.
;

a knot, joint

Jiff,

utterance, dictation,

declaration

ad. uttered, dictated, mentioned.


knot, to tie
;

v. a. to

Jiff,

to utter,

to

dictate, to

mention.
s.

TONTOLO,
whole,
all,

the whole,

all

things,

universe

ad.

total.
v. a.

Manontolo,
possess
all.

to

embrace

all,

to

have

all,

to

TONTONA,
Manontona,

s.

refuse,

dregs

ad. cleared of the

refuse, or of the dregs.


v. a.

to clear out the refuse, to shake in

a sieve, or basket.

TOPY,

s,

the act of sprinkling with water.

;; ;;

ROOTS.
ROOT.

61
ENGLISH.

Manopy,

V. a. to

sprinkle,

to bespatter

any liquid

fy.
to

to cast the eye

upon any
of

thing, to turn the eye

any object.
s,

TOKAKA,
Manoraka,
stone.

the

act

throwing

stones

ad.

struck with a stone, or any thing thrown.


'b,

a,

to throw,

to cast, to pelt,

to

TOEANA,
Manorana,

s.

the act of faUing into


fit.

fits,

a fainting

ad. faint, fallen into a


v. a, to

cause

fits,

to

produce

faintings,

faintness, or langour.

TOKO,

s.

index, pointing out a thing


;

Jig, a bruise

ad. pointed out, shown

fig. bruised.
;

Manoro,

v. a. to v. a. to

point out

fi^. to bruise.
s,

Manor0,

bum,

is

derived from oro,

the

act of burning.

TOROTORO,
Manorotoro,

s.

a bruise, or bruises, contrition

ad.

bruised, broken, contrite.


v.

a. to

bruise,

to

break any thing

brittle in pieces, fig. to

produce contrition.

TOSIKIA,
Manosikia,

s.

a push, a thrust, the act of pushing

ad. pushed, thrust.


v. a.

to push, to thrust

fig. to urge, to

encourage.

TOTO,

s.

the act of pounding

ad. pounded, bruised,

pushed with the horns, butted.

Manoto,

v. a.

to

pound, to bruise, to butt, to push

with the horns.

68
HOOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
s.

TOTOTRA,
ad.
filled

the act of

filling

up a

hole, or cavity

up, covered.
v.

Manototra,

a.

to

fill

up, to

cover with earth,

stones, or rubbish, a hole or cavity,

TOVANA,
dition
;

s.

an appendage, an augmentation, an ad-

ad, appended, added to, augmented.


v. a.

Manovana,

to

add

to,

to append, to

add

to the

length of any thing.

TOVANTOVANA,
Manovantovana,
dom.

s.
5.

at
a.

random, a guess work.


to guess, to

act

at

ran-

TOVO,
Manovo,

5.

drawing of water, the act of drawing

water with a vessel plunged in the water.


. a.

to

draw water.

TRAINGIO,

s.

the act of houghing, hamstringing

ad. hamstrung, houghed.

Manatraingio,

'0.

a. to

hough, to hamstring.

TRETRIKIA,
Manetrikia,
to

ad. happy, fortunate, comfortable.


to

v. a,

make happy and


tearing,

comfortable,

make

one's self happy.


s.

TRIATRA,

the act of
;

thing torn, as

cloth, or papers

ad. torn.

Mandriatra,

?.

a. to tear, to rip, to rend.

TROTRAKA,
weary
;

s.

the state

of being fatigued, tired,

ad. tired, fatigued.


v. a. to tire, to fatigue.

Manatrotraka, Mahatrotraka,

TSAINGIOKA,
Manaingioka,

s.

an aptitude, or a habit of touching

with the finger, light fingered.


v. a, to finger, to

snap.

ROOTS.

69

TSANGANA,
set
;

s.

a figure, shape, a

pillar,

any thing

up erect ad, raised, erected, set up. Manangana, v. a. to raise up, to erect, to build.

TS ATOKA,
place
;

s.

the act of fixing any thing fast in any


;

ad. fixed, stuck fast

j%. an appointment,

a time appointed.

Manatoka,

v. a.

to fix, to stick.

TSENTSINA, $.
Manentsina,

a cork, a plug

ad, corked, plugged.

v. a.

to cork, to plug, to check.


;

TSILO,
Manilo,

8.

thorns, any prickly things

ad. prickled

pierced with thorns.


v. a. to

prick, to pierce with thorns, to be

pricked with thorns.

TSIMINA,
Manimina,
a thatch.

s.

rushes
;

arranged, and prepared

for

thatching a house

ad. rushes prepared for thatching.

v. a. to

arrange and prepare rushes

for

TSINDEY,
Manindry,

s,

the

act of pressing, impression

ad.

pressed, squeezed.
v. a. to press, to
s.

squeeze

j^^. to assist.

TSINDRIKA,
Manindrika,

a particular

mode

of thatching.

v. a. to thatch.
s.

TSINDEONA,
Manindrona,

the act of
;

pricking,

or

piercing

with a sharp point


v. a.

ad, pricked, pierced.

to pierce, to prick, to goad.


fault,

TSINY,
Maniny,

s.

blame,

censure, imperfection.

v. a. to
s.

blame, to censure.
;

TSIPAKA,
Manipaka

a kick, kicking
to kick.

ad, kicked.

v. a.

; ;

70
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
s.

TSIPY,
Manipy,

the

act

of

throwing, or castmg away

ad. thrown, cast away.


v. a.
s,

to

throw away,

to cast

away.

TSOBOKA,

the state of being drenched, soaked

ad. drenched,

soaked, dipped, plunged, accidental,


fi^.

unexpected;

deluged.

Manoboka,

v. a. to

drench

fi^. to deluge, to entice,

to impose upon.

TSOFA,
Manofa,

s.

a saw, a

file. file.

v. a. to

saw, to

WHEN
VAHA,
s.

V,

is
;

the
as

first

radical letter,

it is

rejected

by

transitive verbs

the act of loosing any thing, relaxation,


;

slacking

ad. loosened, slackened, untied.


untie,
to

Mamaha,
unbind.

v. a, to

loosen,

to

slacken,

to

VAHAVAHA, s. an announcement before hand, a previous declaration; ad. declared previously, foretold.

Mamahavaha,
before hand.

V, a,

to

declare

previously,

to

tell

VAHOAKA,
Mamahoaka,
to

s.
'c,

the people, subjects, the inhabitants.


a. to

borrow the people of a

district

work on a

particular occasion,

to ask the assis-

tance of the people to do any work.

VAHOTRA,
Mamahotra,

ad. confounded, perplexed,

benumbed
jig. to

Jig, bound, fettered.


ij.

a. to perplex,
tie.

to

confound

bind, to fetter, to

HOOTS,
ROOT.

71
ENGLISH.

VAINGIA, .. VAINGIAVAINGIA,
Mamaingiavaingia,

s. i

""

^""^P'

v. a,

to

produce lumps, to raise

up lumps,

to carry in a mass, or in lumps.

VAKY,
vessel

s.

the
;

act

of

breaking any

thing brittle
as an

jig. reading
;

ad. broken, smashed

earthen

fig. read, perused, passed through.


V. a,

Mamaky,

to break, to

smash

fig. to read, to

peruse, to go through, or to pass through.

VAKI-LOHA,
rice ground.

s.

the act of breaking the clods of the

Mamaki-loha,
ground.

v. a,

to

break the clods of the rice

VAKI-SERANA,
Mamaki-serana,

s.

commencement, a beginning.
begin, to

v. a. to
s.

commence.
a

VAKI-TRATRA,
Mamaki-tratra,

being a burden to

person;

ad. burdensome, troublesome.


v. a.

to give trouble, to annoy, to

be

troublesome, or burdensome to any one.

VALA,

s.

a small bank raised as a border round a

piece of rice ground,


ration, a fold, a

wooden

fence, partition, sepa-

pen

ad. enclosed, fenced.

Mam ALA, V. a. to make a fence, or partition. VALY, s. an answer, reply, response ad. answered,
;

responded, repHed.

Mamaly,

v. a. s,
'g.

to answer, to respond, to reply.

VANGY,
Mamangy,
welfare

visit, visitation,

prominent teeth.
after a person's
letter.

a. to visit, to enquire

either
s.

by word of mouth, or by a
;

VANGO,

the act of beating

ad. beaten, struck.

72
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
V. a.
s.

Mamango,

to beat, to strike.

VANKONA,
Mamankona,

a plane.
to plane, to

v. a.

make smooth,

to

work

with a plane.

VANTANA,
Mamantana,

ad. frank, open, candid, undisguised.


v. a.

to

have a particular place

to

go

to,

to accustom, or to habituate one's self to a place.

VARINA,
Mamarina,

s.

the act of throwing over a steep place,


;

precipitation

ad. precipitated over a rock.


to throw over precipices, or a steep

v. a.

place, to precipitate over a rock.

VATSY,

s.

victuals, provisions

for a journey;
to

ad.
for a

provided with food, or


journey.

money

buy food

Mamatsy,

v.

a. to give

provisions, to provide food,

or to give

VAVA,

s.

money to buy food. mouth vavana, ad.


;

loquacious, talkative,

abusive language.

Mamava,

v. a.
s.

to

open the mouth,


;

to open.
s.

VAZANA,
Mamazana,
sever.

the double teeth

vazan-tany,

the

ends of the earth, boundaries of a country.


v. a.

to strike

with a spade, to open, to

VELA,
ad,

s.

offals,

residue,

dung,

any thing

left;

left,

forgiven, pardoned.
1).

Mamela,

a. to leave,

to permit, to

allow

Jig.

to

forgive, to pardon, to remit sins.

VELATRA,
expansion
;

s.

the act of spreading, or of opening,

ad. spread, opened.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

73
ENGLISH,

Mamelatra,

V. a.

to open, to spread, to expand.


;

VELY,

s.

the act of beating, or striking, thrashing

ad. beaten, thrashed, malleated.

Mamely,
leate.

v. a.

to beat, to

strike,

to thrash,

to

mal-

VELONA,
Mamelona,
maintain

ad. Uving, alive.


v. a.
life,

to revive, to quicken, to sustain, to


life

to support
>
s. ]

as with food.

VENDRY, s. VENDRIVENDRY,
Mamendrivendry,

wandering thoughts, wild


notions, silliness
;

ad.

be-

wildered, lost in thought.


v. n.

to

have foolish thoughts, to

bewilder, to wander in thought.

VERAKA,

s.

the act of

opening

as

packages, or
;

bundles, getting loose, earth opening, or cracking

ad. opened, got loose.

Mameraka,

v. a.

to open,

to untie,

to

loosen

fig.

to disclose, to explain, to

open one's mind.

VERY,
very
;

s.

the state of being lost and reduced to slalost,

ad. reduced to slavery,


^?.

not found.
to
forfeit

Mamery,
liberty,

a. to lose

any thing,
to

one's

to

reduce

slavery,

to

make one
;

slave.

VERINA,
Mamerina,

s.

a return,

the act of going back

ad.

returned, sent back.


v. a.

to return, to send back.


?
\

VETA, s. VETATEVx\, s.
Mametaveta,

obscenity, abomination ; ad. obscene, abominable, detestable.


to vilify, to abuse, to defame, to

v. a.

use obscene language.

74
ROOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
$.

VEZATRA,

weight, the act of opening (in a vul-

gar sense), uncovering.

Mavezatra, ad. heavy, weighty, burdensome.

Mamezatra,

v. a. to press heavily, to

make any

thing

weighty or heavy, to open, to disclose, to uncover.

VEZAVEZA,
Mamezaveza,

ad, open, exposed.


v. a. to

open, to expose.

VILY,
tion,

s.

the act of going out of the way, a devia;

a turning out of the way

ad. gone out of

the way, erred, deviated.

Mamily,

v. a. to

turn a person out of his right course,

to lead one astray, to cause one to err.

VILINA,

$.

hem, border, edge.


to

Mamilina,

v. a.
s.

hem,

to

make

a border.
;

VINANY,
Maminany,

a prophecy, prediction

ad. foretold,

guessed, surmised.
v. a.

to prophesy,

to predict, to foretell,

to guess, to conjecture.

VINGY, s. VINGIVINGY,
ried
;

}
5.

the act of carrying any thing between the fingers; ad. car-

jig. abuse, contempt.


>
v. a. \

Mamingy, . a. Mamingivingy,

to carry any thing between the fingers ; jig. to slight a

person, to despise, to abuse.

VINTSITRA,
Mamintsitra,

s.

the act of sucking


to suck.

ad. sucked.

v. a.
s.

VIRAVIRA,
lion
;

the act of tearing like a dog, or a

ad. torn, pulled in pieces.


v. a.

Mamiravira,

to tear in pieces.

ROOTS.
ROOT.

75
ENGLISH.

VITA,
thing

$.
;

the act of finishing,

or

completing

any

ad. done, finished, completed.


v. a, to finish,
s.

Mamita,

to complete.

VITRANA,
Mamitrana,

a seam

ad.

a border made, or a

seam made.
v. a. to

make a seam,
seed,
fruit

to

sew, or

to

weave a border

to a cloth.
;

VOA,

s.

kidneys,
;

ad.

struck, shot,

wounded Mamoa, v. a.

v.

Mahavoa,

to hit, to strike.

to yield seed, to bear fruit.


s.

VOA-FADY,
stained.

a desecration

ad. spoiled,

injured,

Mamoa-fady,
to stain.

v. a.

to desecrate, to spoil,

to injure,

VOAKA,
out.

s.

the act of going out

ad. gone out, sent

Mamoaka,

v. a. to

send out, to compel to go out

Jl^. to explain, to disclose.

VOANJO,
sidence.

s.

the act of returning to a former re-

Mamoanjo,

v. a. to

send, or to

order to return to a

former residence.

VOIVAVA,
Mamoivava,
tion.

s.

a fine decided by the ordeal to be

paid by the accuser to the accused.


v.

a.

to

pay a

fine for false

accusa-

VOKY,

s.

the

state

of

being satiated

ad.

filled,

satiated, satisfied as to

food

Ji^. satiated with tales

or stories, accusations of a person.

76
HOOT.

ETYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.
;

Mamoky, v. a. to satiate, to satisfy with food to make many accusations against a person, to
courage opposition.

Jig.

en-

VOKOKA,
Mamokoka,
deformed.

s,

hump, a crooked back.


to

v. n,

have a

hump on
cooked

the back, to be

VALOVOLA,
Mamolavola,

s.
1).

a ball of
a. to

rice.
;

make

a ball of cooked rice

fig. to fondle, to foster.

VONY,
VONJY,

s.

blossoms, flowers.
to blossom.

Mamony,
helping

v. n.
s.
;

the act of saving,

rescuing, delivering,

ad. saved, delivered, rescued.


v.

Mamonjy,
help.

a.

to save,

to deUver,

to rescue,

to

VONKINA,
drawn up.

s.

contractedness

ad.

contracted

Mamonkina,
to contract.

v. a. to

become contracted,

to

draw up,

VONO,
beaten

s.
;

the act of kilUng

ad. killed, murdered,

fig. effaced, or blotted out as writing.


v. a. to kill, to

Mamono,

murder,

to destroy, to beat

fig. to efface, to destroy a writing.

Mamono,

v. a.

to cover, to swathe, is

derived from

roNO, the act of swathing.

VONOSOTRY,
Mamonosotry,
it

s.

the

act of testing the quality of


it

the ordeal (tangena), by giving


v. a. to try, to test

to a chicken.

the ordeal

by giving

to a chicken.

ROOTS.
ftOOt.

77
ENGLISH.

VORY,

s.

the act of collecting together

ad.

col-

lected, assembled, gathered.

Mamory,

v. a.

to collect, to gather.

VORIVORY,
Mamorivory,
circular.

ad. round, globular, circular.


v.

a.

to

make any

thing round, or

VOROVORO,
Mamorovoro,

s.

entanglement, confusion, disorder.


to confuse.
;

v. a. to entangle,

VOSITRA,
Mamositra,

s.

a bullock, a castrated animal

ad,

castrated, gelded.
v. a.

to castrate, to geld.
?
s. ]

VOSOTRA, s. VOSOBOSOTRA,
Mamosotra, v. a. Ti/r Mamosobosotra, v.

^ J^^^' ^ J^^^'
? >
x

a. ^

to joke, to jest.
'

'

'

VOTSOTRA,
young
;

s.

the

act

of

animals

casting

their

ad. free, ejected, cast.


v. a. to cast their

Mamotsotra,

young

Ji^. to release,

to set at liberty.

VOVO,

s.

net, a
v. a.
s.

kind of hand net.

Mamovo,

to fish, to catch fish with a net.

VOVOKA,

dust
a.

ad.

filled

with dust.
to

Mamovoka, v. make dust.

to

cover with dust, to dust,

VOZONA,
Mamozona,

s.

neck.
to seize a person

v. a.

by the neck

jig.

to force, to compel.

78
ROOT.

fiTYMOLOGY.
ENGLISH.

WHEN
by

is

the
;

first

radical letter,

it

is

rejected

transitive verbs
s.

as,
;

ZAITRA,

needle work
v. a. to

ad. sewed.

Manjaitra,

sew.
;

ZAKA,

s. ability,

capacity, strength

ad, able, strong

enough

to bear a burden.
v. a, to reign, to rule, to

Manjaka,

sway a

sceptre.

ZEHY,
ZERA,

s,

a span

ad. spanned.

Manjehy,
s.

v. a, to span.

the act of falling


v. a. to
s.

ad. fallen, tumbled.


fall.

Manjera,

cause to tumble, to
;

ZEZIKIA,
Ji^,

dung, manure

ad. dunged, manured.

many, numerous, beaten.


v. a. to

Manjezikia,

produce manure, to dung, to


strike
;

manure, to beat, to

Ji^. to

make

a great

number.

ZINGIA,

s.

a ladle

made

of horn with a handle, to

lade water from the pitcher.

Manjingia,
any

V. a. to

lade water out of the pitcher, or

vessel.

The preceding Roots


voa, ortafa to

are

made
s.

verbal adjectives,

by

prefixing

them; asvory,

collection,

a gathering; voavory,

or tafavory, collected together.

COMPOUND WORDS.

79

Section il

Compound Wobds.

Compound words are composed of two or more


words.
1.

A COMPOUND
;

word

is

formed either by re-

peating the same word, or by uniting two, or

more

words together

as kely, small, little, kelikely, rather

small; Sain'olona,

human mind, from

sain A, mindy

and OLONA, Tnan.


2.

The succeeding word,


;

or words in a compound,
;

express the quality of the preceding


lahy, son, or sons

as,

zanaka*

from zanaka,

child, offspring,

and LAHY, male

tanan'ankavanana, right
;

hand ; from
zava-tsaro-

tanana hand, and ankavanana, right


bidy, things dearly hought, from

zavatra, things^

SAROTRA, dear,
3.

difficult
is

and vidy hought,


elision of a vowel,
is
it is

When

there

an

speci-

fied

by an apostrophe, and when there

an

elision of

a syllable, and a substitution of the rejected radical


letter in the

succeeding word, they are signified by a


is

hyphen

but neither

used,,

when the compound

word denotes the name of an object which expresses


one single idea.
Tanan'olona,

human hand, from


;

tanana, hand, and olona,

man

zava-tsaro-pantarina,
difficult,

mystery.^ from zavatra, thing, sarotra,

and

fantarina, Jcnown, comprehended


from MASO, eye, and andro, day

; ;

masoandro, suUy
vavolombelona,

witness, from vava, mouth,, olona, mxin, and velona,.


living.

80
4.

ETYMOLOGY.

compound word

is

composed of words either


viz.

of the same, or diiferent parts of speech,


(1).

Of Substantives joined
;

to Substantives,

with

a pronominal affix

as, tranon'olona,

a man's house,

from TRANO,
(2).

Jiouse, ny of him, and olona, man, Of Adjectives joined to Substantives as, zava;

tsara,

a good

thing, from zavatra, thing,

and tsara,

good.
(3).

Of Adjectives joined
;

to Adjectives, or Partidifficult

ciples

as, saro-pantarina,

mysterious,
difficult,

of

comprehension, from sarotra,


'known, comprehended.
(4).

fantarina,

Of Verbs joined

to Verbs

as,

mitsaha-miasa,

to cease

working, from mitsahatra, to cease,

and
Arthe

MiASA, to work.
(5).

Of Substantives and Adjectives joined


;

to
;

ticles

as, Itrano,

or Eatrano, Itsara, or Eatsara


signify

Articles I,

and Ea,

that the words,

trano, a

house, and tsara, good, are proper names, or names

given to individuals.
(6).

Of Adverbs joined
;

to

Substantives, and to
;

Adjectives

as, rava-ela,

long time in ruins


;

from
very

rava, ruins, ela, long time

lavitr'indrindra,

far, from lavitra, far, indrindra, very,

exceed-

mgly.
5.

The
D,
K,

first

Eadical letters of words beginning

with
DR,

z, V, s, R, L, H,

and
in

f,

are

changed into

j, b,

ts

and

the

formation of

compound

words, viz.
(1).

Z,

is

changed into

b,

as,

manan-javatra mare


CtASSrPICATION OF WORDS.

8t
?iave,

hy,

lie

has

many

things

from man an A, to

and

ZAVATRA, things, and maro, many.


(2).

into B,

manam-bady,
;

to

have a husband, or

wife, to

be married

from manana, to have, and VADY,

a husband, wife,
(3).

or partner.

S into

TS, as, lalan-tsarotra,

difficult

road

from

lalana,

road, and sarotra,


as,

difficult.

(4).

into DR,

manan-draharaha
to have,

izy,

he has

some business ; from manana,


business.
(5).

and raharaha,

into D, as, lalan-dava, long

way, from

lala-

na,

way, and lava, long.

(6).

into K, as, olon-kafa, another

mam

from

OLONA, man, and haea, another,


(7).

.F into p, as, saro-pantarina, mysterioibS,.itoimi

sarotra, diflcult, and fantarina,. known.

Section hi.

The Classification ob Words.


have

ALL

the words of the Malagasy language,


divisions, or classes,

been arranged into ten

which are
Articles^

commonly

called

*'

parts

of

speech."

Nouns, Adjectives,
Conjunctions,
Eepletives.

Pronouns, Verbs,

Adverbs^

Prepositions,

Interjections,

and

Definitions^
1.

Articles.
I,

The

Articles

are the three Iktfe

words,2.
asj^

RA, and ny.

Nouns*

A Noun

is

the

name

of an)r things,

amboa^ dogyixaonoy home,, omby,

cattle..

82
3.
lity

ETYMOLOGY.
Adjectives.
of the

Adjectives

tell

the kind, or qua-

Noun,

as, lehibe,

great.

4.

Pronouns.
as,

The Pronouns
manetsa izy^

stand instead of

Nouns,

olona njiasa,

man works : mamboly hazo izy^


he plants the rice

he plants trees ;
plants.
his head,
5.
as,

Tandrok'oraby, a hullock's horns^ ny loha^zy,

ny tongowy,
Verbs

his feet.
tell

Verbs.

of something being done,

manoratra, to write, mandeha, to walk, mihira, to

sing,
6.

Adverbs.
;

The Adverbs,

tell

how

things are

done
7.

as, faingiana,

quickly, miadanadana, slowly.

Conjunctions.
as,

Conjunctions join Nouns or

Sentences together,

ny

olona,

na ny
earth

ankizy,

men
;

or children;

tany sy lanitra,
olona,

and heaven

Mandeha ny
ple walk,
8.

ary manidina ny vorona, the peo-

and

the birds fly.

Prepositions. Prepositions stand before Nouns


as,

and Pronouns,
amSS^o, with me.
9.

amy ny

varavarana, hy the door

prise,

10.

The Interjections show suras, Endry mahagaga izany Oh it is wonderful, Eepletives. The Kepletives enhance the
Interjections.
!

signification of

words, as

Ho

tahin'

Andriamanitra

anie hianao.

May God
Section, iv.

hless you.

May

you

he

Messed of God.

ARTICLES.

1.

Ad

Auticle

is

a word put before a Noun, to


its

jpoint out the extent of

meaning.

There are thre


NOUNS.
83*

Definite Articles

in

the Malagasy,
izy.

i,

ra, and ny,

and sometimes ilehy and


2.

The Articles

i,

and ra are prefixed

to the

names of persons,
terms.
rity,

to distinguish
i,

them from common


loana, John,

The

Article

denotes familiarity, and inferio;

and RA, respect and superiority

as,

Raioana,
3.

Mr. John. The Article


;

I only is

prefixed to the proper

names of places
4.

as, Ifenoarivo,. the

name of

a town,.

Itoamasina, Tamatave, Imahavevelona, Foule Pointe,

The Article Ny,

the,

is

applied to Nouns,

either singular, or plural, and has the

same power of

defining a thing as the in English

as,

ny vorona

izay

manidina, the birds


noratra,

thM fly

ny
;

lehilahy izay

ma-

the

man

that writes

ny omhy

izay lafoy

the cattle that are sold.

Section

v.

NOUNS.
exists, or

A Noun
supposed to

is

the

name of whatever

may be

exist.

There are
Abstract,
ticipial.
1.

six kinds of

Nouns

Proper, Common^
Verbal, or Par-

Collective,

Compound,

Proper Nouns,
anarana
;

Proper Nouns are the peculiar

names of persons,

things,

and places
rehetra,

as,

Adama
gave
taona.

nanome

ny

biby

Adam

names

to all cattle

Radama nanjaka roa-polo


;

Madama

reigned twenty years

ony lehibe any an-

Tsakalava Imania,
Salcalava Country.

Imania

is

a large river in the

84
2.

ETYMOLOGY.

Common Nouns.
human
beings
;

Common
kind
;

Nouns
ahitra,

denote
;
;

individuals of a class, or
olona,

as,
;

biby, animals

hazo,

trees

grass
I,

but they become Proper


to them.
3.

Names by

prefixing

or

ra

Abstract Nouns.
also of acts,
is

Abstract

Nouns

are

the

names of
and

qualities, or properties apart

from substances

and
;

states,

as,

fotsy ny taratasy, the


hafotsiana, the

paper

white

hafotsy, whiteness,

means or ways of making a thing white ; saina, mind, hery, strength, teny, word. Most of the roots^
are Abstract
4.

Nouns.
Collective

Collective Nouns.

Nouns

express,

in a singular form, a plural idea.

Most of the Mala-

gasy Nouns,

may be

called

Collective Nouns, beterm


without any
included
;;

cause they represent the collection of 7nany particular


notions into one comprehensive

immediate
as,

reference

to

the individuals

olona,

man,

or

mankind, omby,

cattle, biby,

animal, rano, water, tany, earth, teny, word.


5.

Compound Nouns.
of the Article

Compound Nouns are


wordis,

formed by the union of two^ or more


the placing

and by

Ny

before Adjectives,.

Pronouns, Verbs, Participles, Adverbs and Prepositions


;

as,

tanim-boly, a
ny,
it,

garden ^ a plantation
;

from
tsara,.

tany, earth,
the good,

and voly, plantation


the
;

ny

ny

ratsy,

things that are

mine

had ; ny ahy, the thing, or ny mividy, buyer, or he that


or
things

ny amidy,

the thing

fan

sale

;;

KOUNS.

85
the

ny

ankehitriny,

the now, or

present moment

ny amy ny
6.

fanjakana, the things respecting, or

con^

cerning the kingdom, the affairs of the kingdom.

Verbal Nouns.
as,

Verbal

Nouns

are

Nouns

derived from Verbs, and are formed by changing M, into

MP, and F
fanoratra,
;

manoratra, to wr27^,mpanoratra, writer,

mode of writing, fanoratana, things used for writing mamono, to kill, mpamono, killer, murderer^ famono, mode of killing, famonoana, the place, or
things used for killing
drinker, fisotro,
;

misotro, to drink, mpisotro,


fisotroana,

mode of drinking,

a cup

a tumbler, or a thing used for drinking.


Section
vi.

NUMBER, GENDER, AND CASE.


is

TO
1.

NoxjNs belong Number, Gender, and Case.

Number
Gender
Case
;

the distinction of one from


lehilahy maro,

many;

as, lehilahy iray,

a man,

men.
;

2.

is

the distinction of sex

as, lehilahy,

man, vehivavy, woman.


3.
is

the relation which one

Noun

bears to

another

as. tranon'olona,

people's house.

NUMBER.
Malagasy Nouns have
Dual, and Plural.
1.

three numbers, Singulab^

Singular.

The Singular number

is

used,
is
;

when

Nouns
iray,

refer to one person,

or thing, and

specified
as,

by an Adjective of the Singular number

omby

hullock,

or one

lullock,.

ity trano ity, this,

house.

86
2.

ETYMOLOGY.

Dual.

The Dual number

signifies
;

that the

Noun

denotes two persons, or things

as,

'^

1'

V
}

*^^ brothers, they are two brothers.


.

Mirahavavy Mpirahavavy

*^^

'^'*^^''

^u

^^^^ ^^^ *^^

a.

'''*^^'-

MafadJhy
Mpianadahy

^^^^

^ ^'""^t^^^^^ a sister and a brother.

^f

^'^

S
>

Mi

n b

a brother and sister, they are a brother

Mpianabavy

and a
S
I

sister.

mambana
Mianaka Mpianaka
}
S >

*^'^

**y

Mpikambana S
father

^^'"^ ^ *? couple, or coupled.


or
its

^''^

'^

and

child,

the dam, and

mother and child young one.

Mivady Mpivady

husband and wife, or wife and husband, a couple, two persons united together.
tsirora,

Olona mandeha
izy roa lahy, the

men walk two hy two


izy roa vavy, the

two men,

two

women,
3.

The Dual number becomes


;

plural

by adding

AVY
Tvyr

as,

mirahalahy avy, they that are brothers.


i ^ 7 \

-^ ? Mpirahavavy avy

t^6y that are


-^

sisters.

Mianakavy Mpianakavy
4.
it

all

the family, parents and


children.

When

the

is

expressed by
;

number of persons is more than two,, the Numeral Adjectives, three,


father and mother.

four, five, &c.

as telo mianaka,

UOtJNS.

8^

und Mid,

or father and two children, or the mother


in the family
;

and two children, or three

telo

miraha^

lahy, three brothers, telo mirahavavy^

three sisters^

izy telo mirahalahy, the three Itrothers, izy telo mira-

havavy, the three


5.

sisters,

&c.

The Plural number is used, when the Noun refers to more persons or things than two, and is specified by an Adjective of the Plural number
Plural.
as,

olona maro,

many

people, ireo

omby

ireo, these

cattle, ireny
6.

ondry ireny, those sheep

by a

The first person plural of Nouns, is specified Pronominal Affix^ which is both exclusive and
tranow^y,

inclusive;
ixdXiiQntsikia,

our

house
i.

(exclusively),
e.

our house

(inclusively),

mine and
person

yours; the house of the speaker, and the

spoken

to.

GENDER.

THE
lahy,

masculine

and feminine Genders are

dis-

tinguished by different words, or by adding the

words

male,

and vavy, female.

denotes sex.

There are four Genders

The word Gender the Mascu:

line, the Feminine, the


(1).

Common, and the Neuter.


;

By

different

words

as,

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

Kay,

father.

Reny>

mother.

Ikiaky,

father as address- Ineny,

mother

as

ad-

ed by a child.

dressed by a child.

Lahy, husband.
Lehilahy,
man.

Vavy,

wife.

Vbhivavy,

woman.

S8
MASCULINE.

ETYMOLOtSY.
tEMlJJiNE.

Rahalahy,
ed by a

brother.

Rahavavy,
Anabavy,

sister.

Anadahy, brother
sister.

address-

sister address-

ed by a brother^

Andriandahy,
Zaodahy,

prince.

Andriambavy,
Zaobavy,

princess.

brother-in-law.

sister-in-law.

TsiNDRANOLAHA, male
royal attendants.
(2).

TsiNDRANOVAVY, female
royal attendants

By adding
MASCULINE.

the

words lahy, male, vavy, feFEMININE.

male.

ToMPOKOLAHY,

my

lord,

Tompokovavy,
tress.

my

mis-

my

master.
ser-

Mpanompolahy, male
vants.

Mpanompovavy, female
servants.

Andevolahy, male

slaves

Andevovavy, female
slaves.

Lahinomby Ombelahyi
Ondrilahy,
OsiLAHY,

bull.

Ombivavy,

cow.
ewe.

ram.

Ondrivavy,
OsivAVY,

he goat.
cock.
boar.

she goat. hen.

Akoholahy,
KisoALAHY,

Akohovavy,
KisoAVAVY,

sow.
bitch.

Amboalahy, dog. Zanakalahy, son.


Zazalahy,
Ankizilahy,
dren,

Amboavavy,
Zanakavavy,
Zazavavy,
chil-

daughter.

boy.

girl.

male

AiiKizivAVY, female
dren.

chil-

Rainjaza,
child,

father

of a

Reinjaza,
child,

mother of a
mother.

father.

NOUNS.
(3).

W
that
;

The Common Gender denotes Nouns


as,

are either Masculine or Feminine

omby,

cattle,

ondry, sheep, kisoa, pigs, osy, goats, soavaly, horses,

amboa, dogs, zanaka,

offspring, descendents, zaza,

child, ankizy, children, domestics.

Nouns
culine

of the

Common
;

Gender, are rendered mas-

by adding

lahy, male,

and vavy, female, ray,

father, and reny, mother

as,

Zanaka-lahy,

son,

Zanaka- vavy, daughter.

!:nZIv
(4).

^-^'

B^^'OMBY,
is

cor..

The Neuter Gender


;

neither Masculine
earth,

nor

Feminine

as,

lanitra,

heaven, tany,

hazo, trees,

vato, stones,

vary, rice,

ahitra, grass,

ony, river.
5.

The Neuter Nouns become Masculine


denotes firmness, strength, or power,
;

or Fe-

minine Gender, when used figuratively.

When
it is

the

Noun

often

expressed in the Masculine Gender


large, heavy, or
softness, or

as,

vatolahy,
it

hard stone
as,

but when
is

denotes

productiveness,

it

expressed in the
river,

Feminine Gender;
waters.

renirano,

mother of

CASE.

CASE
to

shows the relation in which Nouns stand to

each other, and to the words with which they are

associated.

There are three Cases,


I

Nominative,

Possessive, and Objective.

90
1.

ETYMOLOGY.

Nominative Case.
are in the

or dokng

Nouns spoken of as 5m^, Nominative Case as, miasa ny


;

olona, the people work, mitoetra any an-tsaha

ny om-

by, the cattle stay in the field, matory ny zaza^ the


child sleeps,
2.

The Nominative
is
it

precedes the

Verb,

when
;

the agent

the most emphatic

word

in the sentence
is

but

follows its Verb,


;

when

the act

more emphatic
speak, miteny

than the agent


aho, I speak
;

as,

Izaho miteny,

Izaho mitoetra,

stay, mitoetra aho,

I stay.
3.

Nouns spoken of

as having or possessing are in


;

the Possessive Case, or in apposition


olona,

as, tanan'

a man^s hand, i. e. the hand of him, the man, tendrok'omby, a bullock's horn, i. e. the horn of him, the bullock, ny lalany ny tany, the law of the
land,
4.
last
i.

e.

the law of
final

it,

the land.
if

The
if

vowel A of the preceding Noun,


is

the

syllable

be ka, na, or tra,

changed into y ;

and

the succeeding

Noun
is

begins with a vowel, the

elision of the

vowel y,

specified

by an apostrophe,
k',

and the

last syllable

ky, ny, or try, or rather

n',

or tr', substitutes the pronominal affix

ny

as,

ny

zanak'anabaviko,
her,

my

sister's child,

i.

e.

the child of

my

sister,

ny

taratasiny

ny mpanoratra, the schoof as acted

lars' copies,
5.

i. e.

the copies of them, the scholars.

Objective Case.

Nouns spoken
;

upon, are in the Objective Case

as,

mihiady ny
;

tany ny olona, the people dig the ground

manoratry
copies.

ny

taratasy

ny zazalahy, the hoys write the

ADJECTIVES.

91

Nominative, Ray, father.


Possessive,

An-dray,

of,

or belonging to a father.
father.

Objective,

Ray, or An-dray,

Nominative, Rahalahy, brother, or brothers.


Possessive,

And-rahalahy, of or belonging
brother, or brothers.

to

Objective,

Rahalahy,

brother, or brothers.

Section

vii.

ADJECTIVES.

1.

THE
to
;

Adjective expresses the quality of the


it

Noun
Tiouse
2.

which

is

joined ;

as, trano lehibe, large

olona maro,

many people,
follows the

The Adjective
is

Noun, when the


;

Noun
3.
it

the most emphatic

word

in the sentence
tsara,

as,

lehilahy hendry, wise

man^ lamba
is

good

cloth,

But when the Adjective

the emphatic word,

precedes the
;

Noun

as, lehibe

ny

trano, large is
is

the house
tsara

hendry ny lehilahy, wise


is

the

man

ny lamba, good

the cloth.
it

The Adjective, though

has no form, or termi-

nation to denote either Gender,

Number, or Case, has


it

a verbal inflection, to express the Present, Perfect, and

Future Tenses

as,
it

mafana ny andro,

a hot day,

nafana ny andro,
it

was

a hot day, hafana ny andro,

will he a hot day.

92

ETYMOLOGY.

CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES.

MALAGASY
Glasses,
Participial,

Adjectives

are

divided into

Six

Common, Numeral, Pronominal,


Compound,
Intensive,

Verbal or

and Diminutive, or

Reduplicative.
1.

denote

Common Adjectives. commpn qualities


hitter, tsara,

Common
;

Adjectives

or as

mamy,

sweety

mangidy,

good, ratsy, had, lehibe, great,

kely, small.

^,

NyjSjiERAii

Adjectives.

Numeral
in the

Adjectives
to

express the notion of

number

Nouns
;

which

they are joined


Ordinal.

there are two kinds

Cardinal and

1.

ADJECTIVES.

Cardinals
100, zato.

continued.
400, efa-jato.
500, diman-jato. 600, enin-jato. 700, fiton-jato.
800, valon-jato.

155,

dimy ambydimam-polo

amby

roan-jato.

200, roan-jato. 250, dimam-polo


jato,

amby
tens

roan-

^ve

above

900, sivin-jato.

two hundred,
300, telon-jato.

1000, arivo.

1110, 1111,

folo

1100, zato amby ariv<x amby zato amby arivo. iraika amby ny folo, amby zato amby arivo.

10000, 11000,

alina, iray alina,

a myriad, or ten thomand.


arivo

arivo

21012,

roa

amby iray alina. amby ny folo amby


ten,

amby roa

alina.

100000, hetsy, iray hetsy,

myriads.
so forth to

1,000,000, taprisa, a million,

and

any number required

2.
(1).

Ordinals.

Ordinals uised in counting.


Faharoa-polo,
twentieth.
thirtieth,

Faharoa,
Fahatelo,
Fahefatra,

the second, the third,

Fahatelo-polo,

Fahefa-polo,

fortieth.

the fourth,
the
fifth,

Fahadimy,
Fahenina,
Fahafito,

Fahadimam-polo, fiftieth. Fahenim-polo, sixtieth.


Fahafito-polo,
seventieth.
eightieth.

the sixth,
the seventh,

Fahavalo-polo,
Fahasivi-folo,

Fahavalo,
Fahasivy,

the eighth, the ninth.

ninetieth.

Fahazato, hundredth.
Faharivo,
folo.

Fahafolo, the tenth.

thousandth,

and

Faharaika

amby ny

so foith, prefixing faha.

eleventh, &c.

(2).

Ordinals used in multiplying.


indrai-monja,
signify,

Indrai-mandeha, indrai-maka, at once, at one time.


Indray,
Indroa,
Intelo,

mcs^

once.
twice.
thrice, three timesv

indimy,
Inenina,
Impito,.

five times;

six times.

seven times..
eight timeSi.

Inefatra,

four times.

Imbalo,


94

ETYMOLOGY.
Ordinals used in multiplying

continued.

Intsivy,

nine times.
ten times.

Impolo,

Eoa-polo heny, twenty fold'. Zato heny, hundred fold.


ele-

Indraika

amby ny folo,

ven times.
Indroa-polo,
Injato,

Avy
twenty times.

Arivo heny, thousand fold. folo heny, becoming tenfold.

hundred times.
thousand times.
ten fold.

Avy

roa-polo heny, becoming)

Inarivo,

hundred fold.

Folo heny,
(3).

Ordinals used in expressing Fractional parts

;:

as
Indrai-ampahaxoa, l-hal. Indroa-ampahatelo, 2-thirds.
Intelo-ampahefatra, 3-fourths.

Inenina-ampahafito, 6-7ths.. Impito-ampahavalo, 7-8ths.

Imbalo-ampahasivy,

8-9ths..

Inefatra-ampahadimy, 4-5ths. Indimi-ampahenina, 5-6ths.


(4).
is

Intsivi-ampahafolo, 9-lOths..

Indroa-ampahafolo, 2-lOths.

Ordinals expressing a

Number

of Days
as,

this

done by prefixing ha, and affixing na ;


Hateloana,
three days.

Hafitoana,

seven days.
eight days.

Hefarana,

four days.

Havaloana,
Hasiviana,

Hadimiana,

fve

days.

nine days.
ten days.

Henemana,
3.

six days.,

Hafoloana,

Pronominal Adjectives.
They
are

Pronominal Adjec-

tives are sometimes joined to

Nouns, and sometimes


;.

used alone.

divided into four kinds

Possessives, Distributives, Demonstratives,


finitives.

and ladethe Pro-

(1).

Possessives joined to Nouns, are


affixes,

nominal
viz.

and denote possession^ or ownership,,

ko, nao, ny,

my,

thy, his, or her

nay,

ntsikia,,

or tsikia, nareo, ny, or, njareo,


iheir^

or jareo,

our, your^,

ADJECTIVES.
SINGULAR.
1st.

m
PLURAL,
otir house,

Per. tranoko,

my home,,

tranonay,

(exclu-

sively),

tranontsikia,

our house, (in-

clusively),

2nd. Per. tranonao, thy house,


3rd. Per. tranony,
his, or

tranonareo, your house,

her

tranony, or tranonjareo, their


house.

(2).

When

ka, or tra,

is

the last syllable of a

Noun, they

are
;

changed into ko, tro, and ny, as^


zavatra, zavatro, zanany
;

zanaka, zanako

viz.

SINGULAR.
1st.

PLURAL.
zanakay,

Per. zanako,

my. child,

our child,

(exclu-

sively).

zanatsikia,

our

child, (inclu-

sively).

2nd. Per. zanakao, thy child,


3rd. Per. zanany,
child.
his, or

zanakareo, your child,

her

zanany,

or

zanajareo,

their

child.

SINGULAR.
1st.

PLURAL.
things.

Per. zavatro,

my

zavatray,

our things, (exclu-

sively),

zavatsikia, our things


sively),

(inclu-

2nd. Per. zavatrao, thy things


3rd. Per. zavany, his, or her
things.

zavatrareo,

your things,
zavajareo,
their-

zavany,

or

icings..

When the

Pronominal

Affixes, kg, nao,


to

ny,

nay,

tsikia

NAREO, NY, JAREO are joined

Verbs in the Passive Voice,,


;;

they have the power and signification of Personal Pronouns


as,

no soratako, voa soratro, was written by me, no lazainao, voa.

lazanao,

was said by

thee,

nambarany, va amharaay, was

told lyt

him, or by her^

96
(2).

ETYMOLOGY.
Distributives
denote
the
separate indivi;

duals of a

number

singly considered

viz. avy, aby,

avokoa, isany, manesy, misesy, samy, rehetra, avy,


each, every, na, na, either, or, tsy, tsy, neither, nor,

EXAMPLES.

Samy nahazo ariary avy ny mpiasa, the workmen had a dollar each nomeny kirobo manesy ny ankizy, he gave a shilling to every child samy nande;

ha avokoa ny olona, every one of the people went

away

samy namono omby aby ny


;

isan-trano, every

house hilled a hullock each

na lanitra, na tany, either


tsy biby, neither

heaven or earth

tsy olona,

man

nor beast
(3).

tsirairay,

one by one, tsiroroa, two hy two.


out.
this.

Demonstratives denote a pointing


Ity, itoy, itony, io, izato, izatony,

Sing.
Plural.

Ireto, iretoy, iretony, ireo, izatoana, these.

Sing.
Plural.

Iroa, iny, irikitra, irokatra,

that.

Iretoana, ireny, ireroana,


to both

those.

Common

numbers, Singular and Plural.


this

Izao, izany, ilehy, iny,

or or

these.

that

those.

EXAMPLES.
Ity

lamba

ity, this

cloth

io vola io,
;

this

money

ireo zaza ireo, these children

ireny olon' ireny, those

people

izato lehilahy izato, this


;

man

;^

iny andevo
;

iny, that slave

izao zavatr' izaOy these things

izany

ADJECTIVES.

97
;

omby

izany, that hullock,

or those bullocks

iny on-

dry iny, that sheep, or those sheep.


(4).

Indefinites refer to things spoken of in a

general,
be,
720,

and vague manner ;


;

they are, maro,


;

many

much
none
;

seseheno, several
hafa, other
;
;

vitsy,

^w

tsy misy,
;

anankiray, one,
koa,

certain one

sasany,

some
;

anankiray

another ;
others
;

hafa-koa,

another

samihafa, different
all,

ones^

avokoa,

rehetra, tontolo,
4.

izy avy, izy aby, all, every one,

Verbal, or Participial Adjectives are deMividy,


buying,
nividy,

rived from Verbs.


hividy, about to
tsaraina,

boughty

buy
voa

voa vidy, vidina,

bought
;

judged

hitsy, justified, rectified

voa
;

sandratra,

asandratra, sandratana, exalted, elevated


set at
;

voa

lefa,

alefa, lefana,

liberty,

released

voa

laza, lazaina, said, told

voa lahatra, alahatra, laha-

rana, arranged, set in order.


5.

Compound Adjectives.

compound Adjecbroken hearted ;


dearly
to

tive is

formed from two simple words or more, with


;

an intervening hyphen
maro-soratra,

as, toroto-fo,

many
;

colours

saro-bidy,
difficult

bought

saro-pantarina, mysterious,

be

known
6.

or understood

fotsi-volo, white-haired, aged.

Intensive

Adjectives.

An
its

Intensive
primitive
fotsy,

Ad-

jective enhances the


fixing
Tvhite

meaning of
bad,

by prehafotsy,

HA
;

as,

maro, hamaro,
haratsy,

many,
tsara,

ratsy,

hatsara,
little,

goody
lehibe,

mainty, hamainty, black; kely, hakely,


halehibe, great
;

but to signify that

it is

made

to be

98
SO,

ETYMOLOGY.

ANA is affixed ; as, hamaroana, heing made to he many, hafotsiana, heing made to he white^ hatsarana,
heing
8.

made

to he

good.

Diminutive, or
Adjective,
its

Eeduplicative

Adjectives,
is

The

when doubled, or
;

repeated,

diminu-

tive in

signification

as, kely,

small, kelikely, rather

small,
scaeet,

tsara,

good,

tsaraisaia.,

rather good,

mamy,
hitter^

mamimamy, rather

sweet,

mangidy,

mangidingidy, rather

hitter, or hitterisK

Section

viii.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
ADJECTIVES
which is termed
exist,
first,

in

the

simple

form

their Positive state, and, secondly, in

degrees of Comparison.
1.

Their Simple Form


the

declares the positive state

of

Adjective

as, tsara,

good,

kely, small^
vitsy,

little,

lehibe, great,

large, maro,

many^

few,

mainty, hlack,

fotsy, white,

madio, clean,

maloto,

dirty, unclean, masina,

holy,

marina, just, righte-

ous, mahitsy, straight, upright, equitable, right,


2.

The Degrees
;

of Comparison of Adjectives are

two
3.

the

Comparative and the Superlative.


is

The Comparative Degree

used,

when the
as,
is

quality of one thing, exceeds that

of another;

andro any mangatsiaka noho ny omaly, to-day

colder

than yesterday.

ADJECTIVES.
4.

99

There are

five Classes of

Comparatives

the

Simple, the Eepletive, the Progressive, the Conditional, and the Reduplicative.
(1).

The Simple Comparative


;

is

formed by adding

NOHO
than

to the positive state


Tie
;

as, tsara

noho

izy, better
;

ratsy

noho

hianareo,
;

worse than you


lehibe

kely noho izy, smaller than he

noho ny tany,

larger than the earth.


(2).

The Eepletive
noho
izy,

is

formed

by adding the
;

words, lavitra, far, and kokoa, even more


lavitra

as, tsara-

far
tsara

letter

than he

ny lambanao
is

tsara lavitra

noho ny lambany, your cloth


;

far

better

than his cloth


(3).

kokoa noho
is

izy, better

than he,

The Progressive
as, tsara dia tsara,

formed by inserting dia,

(a

step),
;

between the repetition of the same Adjec-

tive

good even good,


evil

i.

e.

truly

good

ratsy dia ratsy,

bad even bad,


is

even

evil.

(4).

The Conditional
;

formed by adding koa

RAHA

to the Adjective

as,

mahery koa raha mahery,


;

stronger if there be any one strong


tsara, better if there be

tsara

koa raha
koa raha

ratsy,
(5).

worse if there be

any one good ; any thing bad,


is

ratsy

The Reduplicative
as tsaratsara kokoa,

formed by doubling

the Adjective and adding kokoa, more, to the Simple

form

good even
;

better

ratsilittle

ratsy kokoa,

bad even worse

kelikely kokoa,

even

less.

100
5.

ETYMOLOGY.

The Superlative Degree

is

used,when the

quality of orie thing exceeds that of two, or


viz.
POSITIVE.

more

PRONOUNS.
the person speaking, and the person spoken
ye, or you, izy, or izareo, they*
(1).

101
to, hianareo,

The

Inflections of

Pronouns have Number


ialahy,

and Case, except the second person Singular,


Ihou man, and, itena, thou woman,

which are used,


famiUarity, or

when
with
thief,

person
,

is

addressed

with

contempt

as,
;

mpangalatra ialahy, thou art

masculine

mpilefa itena, thou art

a a runa-

Tday, feminine.
SINGULAR.
Nora.
1.

PLURAL,
/.
1.

Per. Izaho, aho,

Izahay, ma, (exclusively).


Isikia, we, (inclusively).

2.

Hianao,

ialahy,

2.

Hianareo, ye, or you.

itena, thou.
3.

Izy, he, she, or it

3.

Izy, or, izareo, they,

Poss.

1.

Per. Ahy,

ny ahy,

1.

Anay, ny anay, ours, {exclusively)

mine,

Antsikia,

ny antsikia, ours

(inclusively).
2.

Per.

Anao, ny anao,
thine.

2.

Anareo, ny anareo, yours.

3.

Azy, nyazy,

his.

3.

AEy,nyazy,Gr,anjareo,ny
anjareo, theirs.

Obj.

1.

Ahy, me.

1.

Anay, m, (exclusively).
Antsikia, us, (inclusively.


2.

Anao,

thee.

2.

Anareo, you.

3.

Azy, him.

3.

Azy, anjareo, them.

(2)

The Pronominal Affixes, ko, nag, ny,

Sin-

gular

nay, ntsikia, nareo, ny, or, njareo, Plural, have

the same power and signification,

when joined

to

102

ETYMOLOGY.

Verbs in the Passive Voice, with that of the Personal

Pronoun

in the Nominative Case


;

with Verbs
write,

in the Active Voice

as,
i.

manoratra aho, I
e.

soratako, written hy me,

I write
i.

mihinana aho,
;

I eat,

haniko,

eaten hy me,

e.

I eat

misotro

hianao, thou drinkest, miasa izy, he works.

Fantray,
(in-

we know,
clusively).
(3).

(exclusively),

fantatsikia,

we know,
its

The

first

Person Plural, izahay, with


it

in-

flections is exclusive, because

excludes

all

others,
first

except the person or persons speaking, and the

person Plural, isikia

is inclusive,

because

it

includes

the person or persons speaking, and the person or per-

sons spoken to
izahay,
isikia,

as,

mivavaka aminao, Andriamanitro,

we worship we preach

thee,

God ; mitory ny
i.

filazantsara

the gospel,

e.

and you, or

as well as you, or,


2.

we both preach

the gospel.

The Eelative Pronouns


are ilehy, or lehy that
that,
;

relate

more

closely

than other Pronouns to an object already mentioned.

They
as,

izay, that which,


;

such

what, and i^any,

which

as,

ny olona ilehy
remained
the

nitoetra teo, the person, or the persons that

there

ny omby izay no vonoiny ny


were
killed

olona, the huli.

locks which

hy

the people,
;

e.

bullocks which the people killed


that is

izany no lazaiko,
is

what

is told

hy me,

i.

e.

that

what I

tell.

Relatives Indefinite.
or

They

are,

na

iza

na

iza,

NA zovT NA zovY, whoso, whosoever, whoever, whichever, whichsoever na inona na inona, what;

; ;

PRONOUNS.
ever, whatsoever, "whichsoever, whichever
;

103

NA HO

AIZA,

wherever,

whithersoever

na aiza na ho Aiza na
IZY, whcrCVCr,

AIZA, or

NA HANKAIZA, NA HANKAIZA
;

or withersoever he will go

na nankaiza, na nankaizA
he went ; na avy taiza

IZY, wherever, whithersoever

NA AVY TAIZA
soever he came.
3.

IZY, henccsoevcr

he came, whence-

The Interrogative Pronouns


;

are

used in

asking questions

they are, IZA, zovy, who, which

INONA, what; NAHOANA, why;

akory,
an'iza,

or

ahoana,
an-jovy,
?

how,

or
;

in

what manner
inona

or

whose

as, iza,

or zovy, no nangalatra akoho

who
what
did

stole the

hen ?

no

mampahory azy ?
izy
?

troubles

him ? nahoana no nanao izany


?

w%
?

he that

an'iza, or an-jovy

uy omby
?

wJiose are the

hulloclcs ? ombin'iza,

or ombin-jovy ireny

whose

are those bullocks

akory hiany
?

how do you do
inona izy
or,
?

ahoana izany
is

how are you ? or how is that ? manao


}

wh^t
or,

he doing ? manao akory hianao


?

manao ahoana hianao


?

how are you

? or,
?

how

is it

with you
4.

how

is it

going on with you

The Eeflective Pronouns


is

signify

that the

action

reflected,

or thrown back on the Agent

they are formed by adding hiany, or tena, or both

hiany and tena, to the Personal Pronouns, and to the Pronominal Affixes ; as, Izaho hiany, I myself, or
I only
;

Izaho tena,
self alone
;

my own

self ; Izaho tena hiany,


;

/ my own
Izaho

fantatro hiany,

tena

mahafantatra,

/ myself know / my own self know

104

ETYMOLOGY.
it is

Izaho tena hiany no mahafantatry izany,


alone that Jcnows
it,

1 myself

or, it is I

my own self

only that

knows

it.

Hiany,
self,

signifies only, or, alone, tena, self, the

very

and tena hiany, self only,


Singular.

or, alone.

Nom.

Per. Izaho hiany, izaho tena, izaho tena hiany.

2.


Per.

Hianao hiany, hianao


hiany.

tena, hianao tena

Poss.

3.
1
.

Izy hiany, izy tena, izy tena hiany.

Ahy hiany, ny ahy hiany,


koa
tena,

ahiko hiany, ny

ahiko hiany, ahy tena, ny ahy tena, ahi-

ny ahiko

tena,

ny ahiko tena

hiany, ny ahy tenahiany, ahy tena hiany.

2.

-^ Anao hiany, ny anao hiany, anao


tena hiany.

tena,

ny

anao tena, anao tena hiany, ny anao

-^

3.

-^

Azy

hiany, ny azy hiany, azy tena, ny


tena.

azy tena, azy tena hiany, ny azy


hiany.

Obj.

1.

Per.

Ahy

hiany, ahy tena, ahy tenahiany.

2.
3.


Per.

Anao hiany, anao tena, anao tena hiany. Azy hiany, azy tena, azy tena hiany.
Plural.

Nom.

1.

Izahay hiany, izahay tena, izahay tena


hiany (exclusively).
Isikia hiany, isikia tena, isikia tena

hiany (inclusively).

PRONOUNS.

105

Nom.

2. Per.

Hianareohiany,hianareo tena, hianareo


tena hiany.

Poss.

3.

Per.

Izy hiany, or, izareo hiany, izy tena, or,


izareo tena, izy tena hiany, or, izareo

tena hiany.
1
.

Anay hiany, ny anay hiany, anay


tena hiany (exclusively).

tena,

ny

anay tena, anay tena hiany, ny anay

Antsikia hiany, ny antsikia hiany, ny


antsikia tena, antsikia tena hiany,

ny

antsikia tena hiany (inclusively).

2.

Anareo hiany, ny anareo hiany, anareo


tena,

ny anareo tena, anareo tena hiany,


or, anjareo hiany,

ny anareo tena hiany.


3.

Azy Many,
hiany, or,

ny azy
tena,

ny anjareo hiany, azy

ny azy

tena, or, anjareo tena,

ny anazy

jareo tena, azy tena,

ny azy

tena, or,

anjareo

tena,

ny anjareo

tena,

tena hiany, ny azy tena hiany, or, anjareo tena hiany, or, ny anjareo tena hiany.

Obj.

Per.

Anay hiany, anay


(exclusively).

tena,

anay tena biany,,

Antsikia hiany, antsikia tena, antsikia:

tena hiany, (inclusively).


2.

Anareo hiany, anareo tena, anareo* tena


hiany, ny anareo tena hiany.

3.

Azy

hiany, or, anjareo hiany,

azy

tena,.

or, anjareo tena,

azy tena hiany, or, an--

jareo tena hiany..


106

ETYMOL06T;.

Section x.

VERBS.
soul

THE VERB
I,

is

the

of language;

as,

ife

expresses action, motion, and life.


ITS SIGNIFICATION.

(1).

It signifies

existence,
exists,
i.

or,^

being;
is

as,

misy^

Andriamanitra,

God

e.

there

a God, misy^

lanitra sy tany, there is

heaven and earth.

(2).

It signifies action, or,


;

doing;

as,

tia

aho,.

I love
(3).

miasa hianareo, you work.


It signifies

BEARING,

or,

enduring;

as, tiana

aho,

am
To
;

loved

toherina hianao, thou art opposed.


II.

ITS USES.

(1).
35,

affirm,

assert, or declare, that


;

or does, or is done

as,

some thing mahery loana, John is

strong miasa ny olona, the people work ; nomeny By olona vola aho, money is given me by the people : or negatively ; Tsy mahery loana^ is not John strong ? Tsy miasa va ny olona, the people do not work;,

tsy

nomeny ny olona

aho,

no money was given

me by

ihe people.
(2).

To command,

invite,

or entreat; as,mande-

hana, go, go away; avia, come; miantra ny mahantra,


jpity,

or commiserate the miserable


not, ox,

or, negatively

Aza mandeha, yo
not
hitJie^, or,

do not go; azamankaty, come


aza miantra ny

do not come hither ;

mahantra, }>ity not the miserable^ or, do not commiserate the miserable.

VERBS.
(3).

107
va ny miaramila
?

To

question

Mahery
?

Are the
arranged
tively
;

soldiers brave
?

Miasa va ny olona
?

Do

the

people work
?

Voa

voatra va ny trano
?

Is the
?

house

Tiana va aho

Am

I loved

or nega-

Tsy

mahery va ny miaramila ? Are not the


?

soldiers brave

Tsy miasa va ny olona

Do
?

not

the-

people work

Tsy voa voatra va ny trano


?

Is not I not.

the house arranged

Tsy

tiana

va aho

Am

loved
(4).

To pray
or,

mandehana soa
;

aman-tsara,

go

^eace,

go and prosper

ho

tahin'

Andriamanitra

anie hiano, may you be blessed of God, i. e. may God bless you r or, negatively; botriamila hianao^ may you never prosper aza mba ho tahin' Andriamanitra anie hianao, may you nt be blessed by God^ may God never bless you* i. e.

III.

ITS DIVISIONS.

Verbs.

Malagasy Verbs are called Simple and Reduplicative The Reduplicative is a repeating of the root
is

of the Simple Verb, and


tion
;

diminutive in
;

its significa-

as,

mandeha, to walk
;

mandehandeha, to walk
to-

about often

miteny^ to speak, to talk ; miteniteny,

be

talkative, to chat, to

be loquacious.

ITS

PRIMARY DIVISIONS.

VERBS
I.

are divided into three kinds, or Classes,.

Active, Passive, and Neuter.

Active Verbs express action^ or

doing, or
;:

gassing the act ftorn the agent to the object

mam-

108
pianatry

ETYMOLOGY.

ny olona aho,

I I

teach the people

mandai.

hatry ny miaramila aho,

arrange the soldiers,


files.

e.

I set the soldiers in order, or in


(1). It
is

called
;

birect,

when the nominative

follows

the

Verb

as,

miteny aho,

speak

miasa

aho,

work.
It is called

(2).

emphatic, when the Nominative


;

precedes the Verb

as,

Izaho miteny,

speak

Izaho miasa,
(3).

work.

It

is

called exclusive,

when
as,

the Repletive
it

no follows the Nominative, because


other Agents but the one acting
teny,
it is
;

excludes

all

Izaho no mi-

that speak,
it is

i.

e.

I speak

and no other
i.

Izaho no mitoetra,
or stay, and
II.

I that remains,

e.

I remain,

nobody

else*

Passive Verbs express bearing, or, enduras,

ing

ampianarina aho, I

am

taught ; toherina aho,


;

/ am
(I).
it is

opposed.

Passive Verbs have three forms

the

Simple, the Adjunctive, and the Circumstantial.

The

First is called the

Simple form, because

formed from the Imperative mood of the Primi-

tive
it

word

as,
i.

root, Sotro, drink


e

imp. sotroy, let

be drunk,

drink

sotroina,
;

is

drunk ;
it

r. laha-

tra, file, order,

row, rank

imp. laharo, let


e.

be

filed,
;

ordered,
laharana,
(2).

or

arranged,

i.

order,

file,

or arrange

is filed, set

in order, or, arranged.


called

The Second is

Adjunctive, because the


it ;

Pronominal Affixes are joined to

as,

ampianariko
i.

ny ankizy, the children


teach the children;

are

taught by me,

e.

I;

nirahiko ny andevo hilaza ami--

VERBS.
nao, the slave was
sent the slave to
(3).
it

lOP-

sent

by

me

to

tell

thee

i.

e.

tell
is

thee.
called

The Third

Circumstantial, because

expresses the circumstan<;e either of time, or place^


;

or of means, instrument, or agency

as,

fangady nihia-

diany ny olona ny tany,


people to dig the ground,

spades were used by the


i.

e.

the people digged the

ground with spades.


olona rano,
it

Tany an-trano nisotroany ny


the people drank water in the

was in the house where water was drunk


i.

by the people,
house.

e.

Omaly nitoerany ny olona teo an-trano, yesterday was spent by the people to stay in the house, i. e.
all

the people stayed in th& house

day

yesterday..

Each of
its

these three forms of the Passive Voice has

subdivisions.

1.

The Simple

Passive has a Direct, Emphatic,.

ajid

Exclusive form.

(I).

The Direct form;

as, tiana

aho, I

am

loved^

toherina aho, I
(2).

am

opposed.
;

The Emphatic form


Izaho toherina, I

as,

Izaho tiana, I

am

loved

am
;

opposed,
as Izaho
is

(3).

The Exclusive form

no
;

tiana. It is

I that is loved, or, I

am
is

he that

loved

Izaho no

toherina, I
2.

am

he that

is

opposed.

The Adjmictive

Passive in form but Active

in Signification.
(1).

The Direct form;


by me,

as,
i.

tiako
e.

ny zanako,

my

children are loved

I love

my

children

Jlalako ny ratsy, I hate wickedness.

HO
(2).

ETYMOLOGY.

The Emphatic form


;

ny zanako
as,

tiako, I love

my

children

ny

ratsy halako,
;

I hate wickedness.

(3).

The Exclusive form


children that love
;

ny zanako no tiako.
no halako,
It is

It is

my

ny

ratsy

wickedness that I hate.


3.

The

Circumstantial
;

Passive in

its

Direct

and Exclusive form


(1).

as

The Direct form; as, fangady nihiadiany ny olona ny tanim-bary, spades were used by the people
to dig the rice ground,
rice
i.
;

e.

the people digged the

ground with spades

kapoaka nisotroany ny olona


to drink water out

rano, cups were used


of,
i.

by the people

e.

the people drink water out of cups.

(2).

The Exclusive form

as,

fangady no nihi-

adiany ny olona ny tanim-bary, spades only were

used by the people to dig the rice ground,

i.

e.

the

people digged the rice ground with nothing but with


spades.

Kapoaka no nisotroany ny ny olona rano,


the people drank water out of nothing but

cups only were used by the people to drink water out


of,
i.

e.

out of cups.
III. to the
alive
2.
;

Neuter Verbs simply


agent alone
:

express action confined


live, or, I

as,

velona aho, I

am

mandeha

hianao, thou walkest.

Neuter Verbs have Active and Passive forms.

(1).

The Active form

as,

mandeha aho,
andehanako,

I walk,.

I go.
(2).

The

Passive form
i.

as,

walk

ctver

by me,

e.

walk over, I go over ; nalehako.

VERBS.
traversed by me,
i.

Ill
;

e.

I traversed
i.

ny lalana nalehako,
tJie

the

way

traversed by me,

e. I

went over

way,

2.

Neuter Verbs have

also their Direct,

Emphatic,

and Exclusive forms


(1).

in the

Active and Passive voice.


;

The Active form Direct


mitoetra aho, I stay.

as,

mandeha

aho,

I walk,
(2).

The Active form Emphatic

as,

Izaho man-

deha, I walk, izaho mitoetra, I stay.


(3).

The Active form Exclusive


It is I that walks, or, I
is

as,

Izaho no
;

mandeha.

am he

that walks

Izaho no mitoetra. It
stays, or, remains.
(I).

I that stays, or,

am

he that

The Passive form Direct

as,

nandehananareo
i.

ny

lalana,

the road was traversed hy you,


;

e.

you

went over the road

nitoeranareo ny trano, the house


i.

was inhabited by you.

e.

you dwelt

in the house.

(2).

The

Passive form

Emphatic

as,

ny
i.

lalana
e.

nandehananareo, the

way

traversed

by you,

the

way you went


you

over

ny trano nitoeranareo, the

Tiouse

inhabited, or, dwelt in.

(3).

The

Passive form Exclusive

as,

ny

lalana

no nandehananareo, the very way traversed by you,


i.

e.

the very

way over which you went

ny trano no
by you,
i.

nitoeranareo, the very house inhabited

e.

the very, or, the only house in which you dwelt.

12

ETYMOLOGY.

THE SECONDARY DIVISIONS.

Malagasy Verbs,
ded
into five classes
;

in the second
viz.

place, are-divi*

The Reflective,
I.

the

Potentive, the Intensive,

the Transitive, and the Reciprocrative.

Reflective

Verbs express

that the

action is

reflected, or

thrown back on the agent, and are formed

by

prefixing mi to the root.


1.

The Active Voice has The Direct form;


or, set
as,

the Direct, Emphatic,

and Exclusive forms.


(1).

milahatra aho,

1 ar-

range myself,
(2).

myself in order.
;

The Emphatic form


myself.

as,

Izaho milahatra,

/ arrange
(3).

The Exclusive form

as,

Izaho no milahatra.

It is I, or, I
2.

am

he that arranges himself.

The

Passive Voice has the Direct, Emphatic,

and Exclusive forms.


(1).

The Direct form


arranged,

as,

Ilaharana aho,

my-

self

am

(2).

The Emphatic form

as,

Izaho

ilaharana,

myself
(3).

am

arranged.
;

The Exclusive form


is

as,

Izaho no ilaharana,

myself am he that
3.

arranged,
is

The Adjunctive
and Exclusive.

Passive in
three

form but Active


;

in

Signification.

It has

forms

Direct,

Em-

phatic,

VERBS.
(1).

lip
as,

The Direct form;

ilaharako,

arranged

by myself, i. e. I arrange myself. The Emphatic form; as, ireny vato ireny (2).
nilaharako,

those stones were arranged,


i.

or,

set in

order by myself,
(3).

e.

myself arranged these stones.


;

The Exclusive form

as,

ireny vato ireny

no nilaharako, those are the very stones that were


arranged by

me

myself,

i.

e.

those very stones I ar-

ranged myself.

The other Tenses have


II.

these

forms,
cxpress

PoTENTATivE Verbs

power,

will,

liberty, or possibility of doing, or


is

accompUshing what

expressed by the word in

its

primitive form,

and

are formed
1.

by

prefixing

maha

to the root.

The Active Voice has

the Direct, Emphatic,

and Exclusive forms.


(1).

The Direct form


i.

as,
;

mahalahatra aho, I

able to arrange or set in order


able to save,
e.

mahavonjy aho, I

am am
and

I have power, will, wisdom,

opportunity to save,
(2).

The Emphatic
;

as,

Izaho mahalahatra,

/am

able to arrange
(3).

Izaho mahavonjy,
;

/ am
;

able to save.

The Exclusive form

as,

Izaho no maha-

vonjy, I
lahatra,
2.

am he that is able to save Izaho no mahaI am he that is able to arrange.


Passive Voice has the Direct, Emphatic,

The

Exclusive, and Adjunctive forms.

114
(1).

ETYMOLOGY.

The Direct form


is
is

as,
;

ahalaharana aho, I

arranged by one that

able

ahavonjena aho, I

am am

saved by one that


(2).

able to save.
;

I I am

The Emphatic form am arranged by one that is


saved by one that
is

as,

Izaho ahalaharana,
;

able

Izaho ahavonjena,

able.
;

(3).

The Exclusive Form

as,

Izaho no ahavonis

jena, I

am he

that

is

saved by one that


that
is

able

Izaho

no ahalaharana, I
order by one that
3.

am he
is able.

arranged or set in

The Pronominal Adjunctive

is

Passive in
its

form, but Active in signification, and has also

Direct,

Emphatic and Exclusive forms.


(I).

The Direct form

as,

ahavonjeko mpanota,
i.

sinners can be saved


sinners
;

by me,
I

e.

am
to

able to save

ny miaramila ahalaharako, the


i.

soldiers can

be

arranged by me,
soldiers.

e.

am
;

able

arrange the

jeko, sinners can be saved

The Emphatic form as, mpanota ahavonby me, i. e. I am able to save sinners ; ny miaramila ahalaharako, the soldiers can be arranged by me, i. e. I am able to arrange the
(2).

soldiers.
(3).

The Exclusive form;


;

as,

mpanota no aha-

vonjeko
be,
i.

sinners are the persons that can be saved

by

e.

am

able to save

none but sinners ; ny mia-

ramila no ahalaharako, the soldiers are the

men

that I

am
1.

able to arrange.

The
wish

POTENTATIVE
it

Because

expresses

all tliat

Verb expresses absolute power. an absolute sovereign could


^

to be, or to possess.

VERBS.
2.

115
is

Because the Noun to which maha


;

prefixed, is

made a
?

Potentative Verb

as,
?

Inona no mahandriamanitra Azy

what

makes him a God


constitutes

Inona no maholona azy ? what makes or


?

him a man ? Inona no mahabiby azy


? it

what makes

him a beast
3.

Because

denotes that the agent has absolute power, persuitable opportunity to act

fect liberty,

and a
as,

or

to

do what

is

expressed

Izaho no mahefa ny sitra-poko, I

am

he that can

do

my own pleasure.
III.

Intensive Verbs express intensity, growth, or

advancement, and are formed from Potentative Verbs

by changing mah into mihi,


better, to

as,

mahatsara, to be able
;

to better, to benefit, to beautify

mihiatsara,
;

to get

become

better,

to

grow better

hendry,

wise

mihiahendry ny olona, the people are getting

wiser, or
1.

becoming wiser.
mihiatsara ny tany,

(I).

The Active Voice. The Direct form


is

as,

the land

improving

mihiahendry ny ankizy, the

children are growing in wisdom.


(2).

The Emphatic form;

as,

ny ankizy mihia;

hendry, the children are growing in wisdom


mihiatsara, the land is improving.
(3).

ny tany

The Exclusive form


it is

as,

ny ankizy no mithe land that

hiahendry,

the children that are growing in wisit is

dom; ny
2.
(1).

tany no mihiatsara,

is

improving.

The Passive Voice. The Direct form;


is

as,

ihiatsarana

ny tany,
the

the land

improved

ihiahendrena ny ankizy,
in

children are

made

to

grow

wisdom.

ETYMOLOGY.
(2).

The Emphatic form


is

as,

ny tany

ihiatsarana,

the land

improved

ny ankizy ihiahendrena, the

made to grow in wisdom. The Exclusive form as, ny ankizy no ihia(3). hendrena, it is the children that are made to grow in wisdom ny tany no ihiatsarana, it is the land that
children are
;

is

improved.
3.

The Pronominal Adjunctive.

(1).

The Direct form


improved by me,

as, ihiatsarako
e.
;

ny

tany, the

land

is

i.

improved the land.

(2).

The Emphatic form


is

as,

ny tany
i.

ihiatsarako,

the land
land.
(3).

improved by me,

e.

improved the

The Exclusive form


is

as,

ny tany no

ihiait is

tsarako, it

the land that

is

improved by me, i. e

the land that I improve.

IV.

Transitive Verbs express the action passing


to the object,

from the agent


fixing

and are formed by preto the

mam, man, mana, mang, and mank, &c.


first

root after the

radical letter

is

rejected

as,

man-

dahatry ny miaramila aho, I arrange the soldiers, or


I set the soldiers in order.

The Passive form of

the transitive
is

Verb expressing the


called cireumstantiaL

circumstance of means, place, or time,

1.

The Active Voice. The Direct form


;

(1).

as,

mandahatry ny mia-

ramila aho, I arrange the soldiers.

VERBS.

117

The Emphatic form as, Izaho mandahatry (2). ny miaramila, / arrange the soldiers.
(3).

The Exclusive form

as,

Izaho no mandasoldiers.

hatry ny miaramila, I
2.
(1).

am

he that arranges the

The Passive Voice. The Direct form


;

as,

andaharana ny miara-

mila, the soldiers are arranged.


(2).

The Emphatic form

as,

ny miaramila anny miaramila no

daharana, the soldiers are arranged.


(3).

The Exclusive form


is

as,

andaharana, It
3.

the soldiers that are arranged.

The Pronominal Adjunctive. The Direct form


;

(I).

as,

andaharako ny miai.

ranila, the soldiers are

arranged by me,

e. I

arrange

the soldiers.
(2).

The Emphatic form


the
soldiers

as,

ny miaramila andai.

harako,

are

arranged by me,

e.

arrange the soldiers.


(3).

The Exclusive form


is

as,

ny miaramila no

andaharako. It

the soldiers that I do arrange.

V.
action,

Reciprocative

Verbs express

a reciprocal

and are formed from Transitive Verbs, by

changing
1.

into mif.

The Active Voice. The Direct form


;

(1).

as,

mifandahatra ny mia-

ramila, the soldiers arrange one another.

118
(2).

ETYMOLOGY.

The Emphatic form

as,

ny miaramila mifanny miaramila no

dahatra, the soldiers arrange one another.


(3).

The Exclusive form


it

as,

mifandahatra,

is

the soldiers that arrange one ano-

ther, or arrange themselves.


2.

The Passive Voice. The Direct form


;

(1).

as,

ifandaharana ny miara-

mila, the soldiers are reciprocally arranged.


(2).

The Emphatic form

as,

ny miaramila

ifan-

daharana, the soldiers are reciprocally arranged.


(3).

The Exclusive form


it

as,

ny miaramila

no.

ifandaharana,

is

the soldiers th^t are reciprocally

arranged,

3.

The Pronominal Adjunctive. The Direct form


that
;

(1).
it

as,

ifandaharanay izany,
(inclusively),

is

which
e.

is

arranged by us

reciprocally,
(2).

i. we arrange it The Emphatic form


;

reciprocally.
as,

izany ifandaharai.

nareo, that

is

arranged by you reciprocally,

e.

you

arrange
(3).

it

reciprocally.
;

The Exclusive form


is

as,

izany no ifandait is

harantsikia, that

the very reason


i.

arranged by
reciprocally

us (exclusively) reciprocally,

e.

we

arranged

it

on that very account.

Its Subdivisions

or Additional Classifications.
divisions of the

Tub secondary

Malagasy Verbs

ai?e^

VERBS.

H&
1.

subdivided into three classes.

Causative.

2.

Ke-

ciPROcATivE Causative.
I.

3.

Potentative Causative.

CLASS.

I.

Causative Verbs express the making of another and are formed by prefixing mamp
the Reflective Verb.
to the

to act, or to do,

and AMP
1

Simple Verbs.

The Causative of
to be

A. Mampilahatra, to cause to arrange themselves.


P. Ampilaharana,
themselves.
2.

caused to be arranged of

Causative of the Potentative Verb.

A. Mampahalahatra, to cause to be able to arrange.


P. Ampahalaharana, to be
3.

made

able to be arranged.

The Causative

of the Intensive Verb.

A. Mampihiatsara, to cause to better, to beautify, ta


benefit himself, or
itself.

P. Ampihiatsarana, to be caused to be improved, or


bettered.
4.

The Causative

of the Transitive Verb.

A. Mampandahatra, to
in order.

cause to

arrange, or to set

P. Ampandaharana, to be caused to be arranged.


5.

The Causative of

the Reciprocative Verb.

A. Mampifandahatra, to cause to arrange reciprocally.


P. Ampifandahaxana, to be caused to be reciprocally

arranged.
If.

CLASS.

II.

Reciprocative

Causative

Verbs

express theto act

causing, or, the

making of persons, or things

120
reciprocally,

ETYMOLOGY.
and are
formed

by

changing m,
into mif.

of

the Causative of the Transitive


1

Verb

The Reciprocative Causative of

the Reflective

Verb. A. Mifampilahatra, to cause reciprocally to arrange


themselves.
P. Ifampilaharana,
to

be caused reciprocally

to.

be

arranged.
2.

The Reciprocative Causative of

the Potentative

Verb.

A. Mifampahalahatra, to cause reciprocally


to arrange.

to

be able

P. Ifampahalaharana, to be reciprocally

made

able to

be arranged.
3.

[Verb.
of the Intensive

The Reciprocative Causative


become
better.

A. Mifampihiatsara, to cause reciprocally to better,


or, to

P. Ifampihiatsarana, to be reciprocally caused to be


bettered, or improved.
4.

The Reciprocative Causative of

the Transitive

Verb.

A. Mifampandahatra, to cause reciprocally to arrange,


P. Ifampandaharana, to be reciprocally caused to be

arranged.

III.

CLASS.

III.

The Potentative Causative of

the Verbs

express power, or ability to cause to act or to do.

VERBS.
1

121
Keflective Verb.
ability to

The Potentative of the Causative

A. Mahampampilahatra, to have power or


cause to arrange themselves.

P. Ahampampilaharana, to be
procally arranged.
2.

made

able to be reci-

The

Potentative of the Causative Potentative

Verb.

A. Mahampampahalahatra, to have power to cause to


be able to arrange.
P. Ahampampahalaharana, to be endowed with power
to
3.

be made able to be arranged.

The Potentative of the Causative Intensive Verb


better, to

A. Mahampampihiatsara, to have power to cause to

grow

become

better of themselves.

P. Ahampampihiatsarana, to be endowed with power


to
4.

be caused to become better.

The

Potentative of the Causative Transitive Verb.

A. Mahampampandahatra, to have power to cause to


arrange.

P. Ahampampandaharana, to be endowed with power


to be caused to be arranged.
5.

The

Potentative of the Causative Reciprocative

Verb.

A. Mahampampifandahatra, to have power to cause


to arrange reciprocally.

P. Ahampampifandaharana, to be endowed with power


to

be caused to be reciprocally arranged.


Verbs, like the Primitive have their Direct,
all

The preceding

Emphatic, and Exclusive forms in both Active and Passive voices.

the

Moods and Tenses of


; ;

522

ETYMOLOGY.

IV.

ITS MOODS.
Moods,
or

THERE

are five

Modes, which are

usually called,

the Indicative,

the Imperative, the

Subjunctive, or Conditional, and the Infinitive.


1.

The Indicative Mood

declares, or questions

miasa aho,

/ worTi ;
?

antsoina hianao, tkou art called ;

nandeha
reo,
2.

v' izy

did he go ? mampianatra
?

moa hianaexhorts

do you teach

The Imperative
permits;
confess

Mood commands,
sins,

entreats,

mandehana,
i.
;

begone; mivaloza,
for

repent,
tahio

thy

and cry
e.

mercy
avelao

aho, let

me

he blessed,

bless

me ;

handeha
let

izy, allow

him

to

go

aoka aho hanoratra,

me

write.

1.

The Imperative Mood


is

expresses prohibition,
;

when

the

negative word, aza,


latra hianao^

placed before the Verb


steal,
i.

as,

aza manga-

thou shalt not

e.

steal not thou.

Aza mii.

ampanga

laingia hianao, thou shalt not bear false witness,

e.

bear thou not false witness.


2.
sis,

The Imperative Mood changes


and
transfers
is
it

the position of the

Emphaas,

into the last syllable, but


it

when a

vowel, or

a syllable

added,

is

placed

on

the

Penultimate;

mandrara, to forbid, to prohibit ;

mandrara,
to go

forbid, prohibit

mandeha,
3.

to go, to

walk

mandehdna,

away, begone.
vary in both

As

the terminations of the Imperative

Mood

the Active

and Passive

voices, the following classification of the

Verbs ending in each Consonant, should be thoroughly learnt

and remembered.

VERBS.

123

EXAMPLES.
The Emphasis
English
Signification.
is

on the

Italic

vowel a of the Imperative.


Imperative
Passive.

Infinitive

Imperative
Active.
;

Present.

B.

Ba,be,by, bo

ha, beaza,

bao, beazo, bazo, boy.

baza, boa

To

adhere,

Momba,
Mahabe,

mombo,
mahabeaza,

ombao.
ahabeazo, lehibeazo.

magnify,
hire,
flatter,

Manamby,
Mandrobo,

manambaza,
mandroboa,

anambazo, tambazo.
androboy, roboy.

D.

Da, dy, do

da, dava, dia, dao, davao, lavao, die,

doa

doy.

To

cry out,

Midadadada, midadadada, dadadadao,


dao.

idadada-

deny, Manda, command, Mandidy, run, Midodododo,


Dra, dry, dro
;

mandava,
mandidia,

andavao, lavao.
andidio, didio.

midodododoa, idodododoy,
doy.
dra, dria, drasa,

dododo-

drao, drio, droy, draso.

droa

To look

up,

Miandrandra, miandrandra, iandrandrao, andrandrao.

be in chains, Migadra, down, Mandry, wait, Miandry,


lie

migadra
mandria,
miandrasa,

igadrao, gadrao.
andrio.

to

iandraso, andraso.

watch,

bathe,
F.

Mandro,
Fa,

mandroa,
foa,

androy.
fao,

fy, fo, foy, fa, faza,

fazo,

foy,

izo,

oy;

iza, foiza;

foizo.

To wipe,

Mamafa,

mamafa,
mamafaza,

amafao, fafao. amafazo, fafazo.

sow, bespeak, despond, forsake,

Mamafy,
Mamofo,

mamofoa,
mamoiza,
mahafoiza,

amofoy, fofoy.
amoizo.
ahafoizo, foizo.

Mamoy,
Mahafoy,

124

ETYMOLOGY.
Examples (continued).

Engflish
Signification.

Infinitive

Imperative
Active.

Imperative
Passive.

Present.

G.

Ga, gy, go;

ga, gia, goa;

gao, gio, goy.


igagao, gagao.

cry loud,
H.

Tobe amazed, Migaga, visit, Mamangy,


Migogogogo,

migaga,

mamangia,
migogogoa,

amangio, vangio,
igogogogoy,
goy.

gogogo-

Ha, hy,ho;
Mivaha,

ha, heza, hoa

hao, hezo, hoy.


ivahao, vahao.

To

get loose,
tie,

mivaha,

show,
J-

Mamehy,
Maneho,
Ja, jy, jo

mameheza,
manehoa,
ja, jia, joa;

amehezo, fehezo.
anehoy, sehoy.

jao, jio, joy.

To

respect,

Manaja,

manaja,
mikiajia,

anajao, hajao.
ikiajio, kajio.

examine, Mikiajy, be wanton, Mijejo,


K.
Ka, ky, ko
Manjaka,
;

mijejoa,

ijejoy, jejoy.

ka,ha,ke,koa; kao, ho, keo, koy.

To

reign,

manjaka,
mangataha,

anjakao, zakao.

askafavor,Mangataka, consent, Maneky, Manoko,


portion,

angataho.

maneke,

anekeo, ekeo.

manokoa,

anokoy, tokoy.

L.

La,

lao, ly, lo

lava,laova,le- lavao, laovy, lezo,


zo, lia, loa

lio,

loy.

To be

able to

deny,

Mahala,
Milalao, or milaolao,

mahalava,
milalaova,

ahalavao, alavao,
ilalaovy, lalaovy.

play,

answer, Mamaly, Mamely, replace or Manolo,


strike,

mamalia,

amalio, valio.

mameleza,
manoloa,

amelezo, velezo.
anoloy, soloy.

substitute.

VERBg.
Examples (continued).
English
Signification,
Infinitive

125

Imperative
Active.

Imperative
Passive.

Present.

To

pass by,
spin,

Mandalo,

mandalova,

andalovy, lalovy.

To

Mamoly,

mamoleza

amolezo, folezo.

M.

Ma, me, my, ma,meza,mia, mao, mezo, meo, mio,

cry aloud,

mo moa moy. Mimamama- mimamama- iraamamamao.


ma,

ma,

-give,

;;

126

ETYMOLOGY.
Examples
(continued).
Imperative
Active.
ra,

English
Signification.

Infinitive

Imperative
Passive.

Present.

R.

Ra,

re,

or re;

renesa,

rao, reneso, rio,-roy.

ny, ry, ro

ria,

roa
andrarao, rarao.

To

forbid,

Mandrara,

mandrara,
niandrenesa,

hear,

Mandre, or mandreny,
Mandrary,

andreneso, reneso.

plait mats,

mandraria,

andrario, rario.

bum, point
S.

Mandoro
out,

mandoroa,
manoroa,

andoroy, doroy.
anoroy, toroy.

Manoro,
Sa, sy, so,

sa, sia, soa,

sao, sio, soy, soavy.

soa;

soava
manisa, manisa,
manisia,
anisao, isao,
isao, sisao.

To reckon,
To
create,

to Manisa,

leave a residue, manisa.

Manisy,

anisio, isio.

upbraid,
bless, to

Maneso,

manesoa,

anesoy, esoy.

Mahasoa,

mahasoava,

hasoavy, soavy.

benefit,

T.

Ta,

te, ty,

to

ta, teva, teza, tao, tevo, tezo, toavy.

toava

To

cry for in- Mihanta,

mihanta,

ihantao, hantao,

dulgence,

drop obey,
shear,

as

Mitete,

miteteva,

itetevo, tetevo.

water,

Manety,

maneteza,

anetezo, hetezo.

Mankato,
Tra,

mankatoava,

ankatoavy, toavy.

Tr.

titra, hi-

tra, tara, tera, trao, taro, tero, hero,

tra, nitra

hera, nera

nero.
iantrao, antrao.

Tocommise- Miantra,
rate,

miantra,

know, send a
present,

Mahafantra,
Manatitra,

mahafantatara,hafantaro, fantaro.

manatera,

anatero, atero.

VERBS.
Examples (continued).
English

127

128
4.

ETYMOLOGY.

The Subjunctive

or Conditional

Mood

implies
is

doubt, uncertainty, or condition, and the Verb

pre-

ceded by a Conjunction, either expressed, or understood


I
;

as,

raha avy hianao, dia faly aho,


;

if

you come,

shall

be glad

raha tonga izy, dia handeha aho,

when he arrives, I will go. V. The Infinitive Mood


indefinitely without

is

simply the Radical

form of the Verb, and expresses existence or action


any reference to number, or persell,

son

as,

mividy, to buy, mivarotra, to


;

misy, to

be, or to exist
to

mandeha,

to walk,

mangataka, to ask,

beg a favour.
The Verb has
the

same form

in the Infinitive

Mood, Present
and of the

Tense, with the Present Tense of the Participle,

Verb in the Indicative Mood.

VI.

TENSES, OR TIMES.

VERBS
Tenses.
1.

have three Simple and three Compound


are the Present, Perfect,

The Simple Tenses The Present Tense


is

and Future.
(1).

represents what

is

now

passing, or existing, and


its

expressed by the Verb in


;

Primitive State

as,
;

misotro aho, I drink

mifaly

hianareo,

you

rejoice

miasa izareo, they work


is

eo iso-

troany ny rano, the water


(2).

drunk by them

there.
is past,

The

Perfect Tense represents what


is

or

completed, and
the

expressed by the letter n, in both


:

Active and Passive Voices

as,

nisotro aho,

VERBS.

129
;

drank ; nomeko, was given by me rano, the water was drank by them
(3).

teo nisotroany

ny

there.

The Future Tense

represents an action, or
is

event, as yet to come, and


H, in both the Active

expressed by the letter


;

and Passive Voices


;

as hisotro

aho, I shall or will drink

homeko,

shall or will

be

given by

me

eo hisotroany ny rano, the water will be

drank by them there.


(4).

The

letter

m, the sign, or characteristic of the


is

Present Tense in the Active voice


letter n,

changed into the

to express the Perfect Tense,

and into the

letter h, to express the

Future Tense in both Active


misotro aho, I drink, nisotro

and Passive Voices


ahoj I drank
2.
;

as,

hisotro aho, I shall, or will drink.

The Compound Tenses

are the

Present Per-

fect, the Pluperfect, and the


are formed

Future Perfect, and


Present, Perfect

by the word efa, done, completed, and

precedes

the

Verb

in

its

and

Future Tenses.
(1).

The Present

Perfect

Tense

represents an

Action, or event as commenced, but


as, efa

is still

going on

miasa aho, I began working or I have worked.

(2).

The

Pluperfect Tense represents an action, or

event as perfectly passed long ago ; as, efa niasa aho,


I

had worked.
(3).

The Future

Perfect Tense represents the cer-

tainty of an action being done, or

an event coming to

pass immediately

as,

efahandeha aho, I
about going, I

am on

the

point of going, I

am

am

going.

130

ETYMOLOGY.
VII.

AUXILIARIES.

THE
1.

Auxiliaries consist of Verbs, Adjectives,

and Adverbs.

Of Verbs.

They

are efa, voa, tafa,

mahay,

mety, mahazo, avelao, aleo.


(1).
it

Efa

signifies

done, effected, completed; and


Tenses, the Present Perfect,

forms the

Compound
shot,

the Phiperfect, and the Future Perfect Tenses.


(2).

Voa,

struck, killed

and tafa, which

implies perfection, as to union and completion.

Both

these Auxiharies are prefixed to roots,

and render

Nouns and
Indefinite
written,
(3).

Adjectives,

Verbs and Participles in the

Passive Voice.

Voa, forms an imperfect Tense, or


;

Past Tense

as,

voa

soratra, is

or

was

voa

soratra,

is,

or was written by me. or a Perfect past

Tafa forms a Pluperfect Tense,


and
iray,

tense ; as, tafaray ny olona, the people have been perfectly united together, from tafa,

one

tafangona
all as-

ny olona, the people had come together, or had


sembled, from
(4).
tafa,
is

complete, and angona, gathering.


able or capable
;

Mahay,
suitable,

mety,
;

is

proper,
is

lawful,

expedient,

or wiUing

mahazo,

attainable,

may, or can have, or

obtain, are often used

as Auxiliaries to express the Potential


(5).

Mood.
one thing to

Avelao,

let

he,

granted, permitted, alloned,

and

aleo, is preferable, a wish to prefer

another, are often used as Auxiliaries to Verbs in the


1st.

and 3rd. persons of the Imperative Mood.

VERBS.
2.

131
are

Of Adjectives.
Of Adverbs.
it

They

tokony,

worthy,

expedient, and mendrikia, proper, suitable, becoming.


3.

They
;

are, aza,

let not,

he not

aoka, enough,
maitsy,

let it suffice

mainkia, rather, and tsy

signifies

absolutely necessary,

must be of

necessity.
(1).

Aza

is

used as an Auxiliary, principally to

Verbs of the 2nd. Person in the Imperative

Mood

and expresses an absolute prohibition.


(2).
1st.

Aoka

is

used as an Auxiliary to Verbs of the

and 3rd. Persons in the Imperative Mood.

(3).

Mainkia and

tsy maitsy

are used as Auxi-

liaries to

Verbs, either in the Indicative, Subjunctive,

or Potential Mood.
VIII.

PARTICIPLES.
like

THE

Participles,

the

Verbs, have
It
is,

three

Simple and three

Compound
is

Tenses.

because

they have no nominative case that they are called


Participles, for

there

nothing else to distinguish

them from the Verbs.


tenses.
1

Present Active.
Passive.

Mandahatra, arranging.

Andaharana, arranged.
Nandahatra, having arranged.

2. Perfect Active.

Passive.

Nandaharana,
ranged.

having

been

ar-

3.

Future Active.

Handahatra, being about to


range.

ar-

132

ETYMOLOGY.
Tenses (continued).

3.

Future Passive. Handaharana, being about to be


arranged.

4. Present Perfect Active.

Efa

mandahatra, begin-

ning to arrange.
Passive.

Efa andaharana, beginning to be arranged.

5. Pluperfect Active.

Efa nandahatra,
arranged.

having

had

Passive.

Efa nandaharana, been arranged.


Efa

having had

6.

Future Perfect Active.

handahatra,

having

been about to arrange.


Passive.

Efa handaharana, having


been about
to

be arranged.

2.

There are

six

Tenses belonging to Participles

of the Potentative Passive Voice,

Present,

Perfect,

Future, Present Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect.

Present Passive.
Perfect

Alahatra, arranged.

Nalahatra, having been arranged.

Future

Hahahatra, being about to be arranged


and.

Perfect Passive.

Voa lahatra, having been


arranged.

arranged.

Pluperfect

Tafalahatra, having been completely

3.

All

Participles

become

Participial

Common
i,

Nouns by
Proper
them,
viz.

prefixing the Article

ny

to

them, and the


or

Names by

prefixing the Articles

ra

to

VERBS.

133

Participial Nouns.

Common Nouns

as,

ny mandahatra, he

that arranges.

ny nandahatra, he that arranged,

ny handahatra, he that
range.

is

about to ar-

ny voa
Proper Names
;

lahatra, they that were arranged.

as,

Imandahatra, or Kamandahatra,

the

name

of a person.
or

Ilahatra,

Ealahatra,

name

of a

person.

IX.

VERBAL NOUNS.
Classes

THERE

are three kinds or

of

Verbal
specified

Nouns, formed from Regular Verbs, and are

by the Prefixes p and


dahatra, to arrange.
1.

f,

and the

aflSx

na, viz.

Man-

Mpandahatra, arranger, or the person, or per;

sons that arrange


2.

mpanoratra, writer.
;

manner of arranging^ fanoratra, mode of writing. or of setting in order Eandaharana, parade. The former is formed 3.
Fandahatra

mode^
;

or

by changing m,
the

into f,

and the

latter

by prefixing p

to

Circumstantial Verb,

and by

affixing

na

to

the

Imperative of the Active Voice.

X.

CONJUGATIONS.
is

THE
the
tenses.

Conjugation of a regular Malagasy Verb,


its

arrangement of

various forms, moods, and


First,

There are four Conjugations.

the

34
;

ETYMOLOGY.
second, the Passive
;

Active

third, the

Pronominal

Adjunctive

fourth, the Circumstantial.

The
as,

first

is

called Active Voice, because

it

shows

the Inflections of Eeflective and Transitive Verbs

manpianatra, to teach.

The second
plest

is

called

Passive Voice,

because

it

shows the Inflections of Passive Verbs in their simform


;

as,

ampianarina, to be taught.

The
cause

third is called the


it

Pronominal Adjunctive, be-

shows the Inflections of

Verbs with the

Pronominal Afiixes, which are Passive in form, but


Active in signification;
i.

as, soratako,

written

by me,

e.

I write.

The
it

fourth

is

called the

Circumstantial,

because

shows the Inflections of Verbs which express the

circumstance of means used, or of place where, or of


time,

when a

thing

is

done

and which are Passive in


nanoratako ny taratasy, I
i.

form, but Active in signification, for they govern the

Objective Case

as, penisily

wrote the letter with a pencil,

e.

pencil

is

the in-

strument employed, or the means used; omaly nanoratako izany, I wrote


it

yesterday.

VERBS.

135

First Conjugation.

The Conjugation
mampianatra,

of

a regular

Verb
alone

Active
the
is

to teach.

The English of
dijQferent tenses

first

person Singular of the

given

in the conjugation of the verbs.

Indicative Mood.

Direct Form.

Present Tense.
Singular.
\st Person.

Plural.
I

Mampiantra aho,
teach.

\st

Person

Mampianatra izahay. Exclusive.

Mampianatra

isi-

kia. Inclusive.

2nd
Zrd

Mampianatra hianao. 2nd

Mampianatra

izy.

3rc?

Mampianatra Manareo. Mampianatra


izareo.

Perfect.
1.

Nampianatra

alio,

I taught.

1.

Nampianatra izahay. Ex.


Nampianatra
isikia. In.

2.

Nampianatra hianao. Nampianatra


izy.

2.

Nampianatra hianareo.
Nampianatra
izareo.

3.

3.

Future.
1.

Hampianatra aho,
will teach.

I shall, or

1.

Hampianatra izahay. Ex. Hampianatra


isikia. In.

2.

Hampianatra hianao. Hampianatra


izy.

2.

Hampianatra hianareo.
Hampianatra
izareo.

3.

3.

Present Perfect.
1.

Efa mampianatra aho,


taught.

have

1.

Efa mampianatra izahay. Ex. Efa mampianatra isikia. In.

2. 3.

Efa mampianatra hianao.


Efa mampianatra
izy.

2.
3.

Efa mampianatra hianareo.


Efa mampianatra
izareo.

136

ETYMOLOGY.

Conjugation (Continued).
Pluperfect.

Singular.
1.

Plural.
I

Efa nampianatra aho,


taught.

had

1.

Efanampianatraizahay.Ex. Efa nampianatra isikia. In.

2.

Efa nampianatra hianao.


Efa nampianatra
izy.

2.
3.

Efa nampianatra hianareo. Efa nampianatra


izareo.

3.

Future Perfect.
1.

Efa hampianatra aho, or will have taught.

I shall

L
2.
3.

Efahampianatraizahay.Ex. Efa hampianatra isikia. In.

2.'

Efa hampianatra hianao.

Efa hampianatra hianareo.


Efa hiampianatra izareo.

3.

Efa hampianatra

izy.

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Izaho mampianatra, J teach.

1.

Izahay mampianatra. Ex. Isikia mampianatra. In.

2.

Hianao mampianatra.
Izy raampianatrara.

2. 3.

Hianareo mampianatra.
Izareo mampianatra.

3.

Exclusive Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Izaho no mampianatra,
I

It is

1.

that teaches, or I

amhe
2.

Izahayno mampianatra. Ex. Psikia no mampianatra. In.

that teaches.
2.
3.

Hianao no mampianatra.
Izy no mampianatra.

Hianao no mampianatra.
no mampianatra.

3. Izareo

Note.

By

retaining the letter n,

for the Perfect Tense,

and

H, for the Future, the other Tenses follow in like manner.

VERBS.

137

Conjugation (continued).

Imperative Mood.
Direct Form.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
let
1.

Aoka hampianatra

aho,

me
2.

teach.
2.

Aokahampianatraizahay.* Aoka hampianatra isikia.

Mampianara hianao.

Mampianara hianareo.

3.

Aoka hampianatra

izy.

3.

Aoka hampianatra

izareo.

Emphatic Form,
1.

2.

3.

Aoka aho hampianatra, let me teach. Aoky hianao hampianatra. Aoky izy hampianatra.

1.

2.

3.

Aoky izahay hampianatra. Aoky isikia hampianatra. Aoky hianareo hampianatra. Aoky izareo hampianatra.

Exclusive Form.
1.

Aoky
let

izaho no hampianatra,

1.

me be he that is to teach.
2.

2.

Aoky hianao no hampianatra. Aoky


izy no hampianatra.

Aoky izahay no hampianatra. Aoky isikia no hampianatra. Aoky hianareo no hampianatra.

3.

3.

Aoky izareo no hampianatra.

Subjunctive Mood.

Direct form.

Present Tense.

1.

Raha mampianatra
I teach.

aho, If

1.

Raha mampianatra izahay, Raha mampianatra isikia.

2.

Raha mampianatra hianao.

2.

3.

Raha mampianatra

izy.

3.

Raha mampianatra Raha mampianatra

hianareo.
izareo.

The

first

line of the Plural is Exclwive, the

second Inclusive.

138

ETYMOLOGY.
CONJUGATION.
Ferfect.

Singular.
1.

Plural.

Raha nampianatra Raha nampianatra

aho, if I

1.

taught, or did teach.


2. 3.

Raha nampianatra izahay. Raha nampianatra isikia.

hianao.

2. 3.

Raha nampianatra
Raha nampianatra

hianareo.
izareo.

Raha nampianatra izy.

Future.

'

1.

Raha hampianatra Raha hampianatra


Raha hampianatra

aho, If I

1.

shall or will teach.


2.
3.

Raha hampianatra Raha hampianatra

izahay.
isikia.
!

hianao,
izy.

2. 3.

Raha hampianatra Raha hampianatra

hianareo.
izareo.

Present Perfect.

1.

Rehefa mampianatra aho, If I have taught.

1.

Rehefa mampianatra izahay. Rehefa mampianatra isikia. Rehefa mampianatra hianareo. Rehefa mampianatra izareo.

2.

Rehefa mampianatra hianao.


Rehefa mampianatra
izy.

2. 3.

3.

Pluperfect.

1.

Rehefa nampianatra aho.


If I

1.

had

taught.
2.
3.

Rehefa nampianatra izahay. Rehefa nampianatra isikia.

2. 3.

Rehefa nampianatra hianao.


Rehefa nampianatra
izy.

Rehefa nampianatra hianareo. Rehefa nampianatra izareo.

Fviure Perfect.

1.

Rehefa hampianatra aho,


I shall or will

if

I.

have taught.
2. 3.

Rehefahampianatraizahay. Rehefa hampianatra isikia.

2.

Rehefa hampianatra hianao.


Rehefa hampianatra
izy.

Rehefa hampianatra hianareo. Rehefa hampianatra izareo.

3.

VERBS.

139

CONJUGATION.

Emphatic and Exclusive Foim.


Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Raha izaho no mampianatra,


if I

be he that

is

teaching.

Rahaizahaynomampianatra. Rahaisikianomampianatra.

2.
3.

Raha hianao no mampianatra.2. Raha hianareo no mampianatra Raha


izy no mampianatra.
3.

Raha'izareo no mampianatra.

Present Perfect.
1.

Rehefa izaho no mampianatra,


if I

1.

Rehefa izahay no mampianatra.

be he that

is to

have been

teaching.
2.

Rehefa
2.

isikia

no mampianatra.

Rehefa hianao no mampianatra.

Rehefa hianareo no mampianatra.

3.

Rehefa izy no mampianatra.

3.

Rehefa izareo no mampianatra.

See the note page 136.

Potential

Mood.

Direct Form.

Present Tense.
1.

Mahampianatra aho, lean


teach,
teach.
or I have ability to

1.

Mahampianatra izahay. Mahampianatra isikia. Mahampianatra hianareo.


Mahampianatra
izareo.

2.
3.

Mahampianatra hianao. Mahampianatra


izy.

2. 3.

Perfect.
1.

Nahampianatra aho, I could teach, or I had power to


teach.

1.

Nahampianatra izahay. Nahampianatra isikia. Nahampianatra hianareo.

2.

Nahampianatra hianao.
Nahampianatra
izy.

2. 3.

3.

Nahampianatra

izareo.

40

ETYMOLOGY.
CONJUGATION.
Future Perfect.
Singular.
Plural.
1.

1.

Hahampianatra aho, I shall or will be able to teach. Hahampianatra hianao. Hahampianatra


izy.

Hahampianatra izahay. Hahampianatra isikia.


Hahampianatra hianareo.

2. 3.

2.

3.

Hahampianatra

izareo.

Present Perfect.
1.

Efa mahampianatra aho, I could have taught, or I have had ability to teach.
Efa mahampianatra hianao. Efa mahampianatra
izy.

1.

Efa mahampianatra izahay. Efa mahampianatra isikia.

2.
3.

2. 3.

Efa mahampianatra hianareo.


Efa mahampianatra
izareo.

Pluperfect.
1.

Efa nahampianatra aho,


I

1.

Efa nahampianatra izahay. Efa nahampianatra


isikia.

had had

ability to teach.
2. 3.

2.
3.

Efa nahampianatra hianao. Efa nahampianatra


izy.

Efa nahampianatra hianareo. Efa nahampianatra


izareo.

Future Perfect.
1.

Efa hahampianatra aho, I shall or will have had


ability to teach.

1.

Efa hahampianatra izahay. Efa hahampianatra isikia.


Efa hahampianatra hianareo. Efa hahampianatra
izareo.

2.
3.

Efa hahampianatra hianao.

2. 3.

Efa hahampianatra

izy.

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Izaho mahampianatra, /have


ability to teach, or

1.

Izahay mahampianatra.
Isikia

/ can teach.
2.
3.

mahampianatra.

2. 3.

Hianao mahampianatra.
Izy mahampianatra.

Hianareo mahampianatra.
Izareo mahampianatra.

VBRBS.

141

CONJUGATION.
Exclusive Form.
Present Tense,
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Izaho no mahampianatra,
I

am

he, or

it is I

that is able

Isikia

Izahay no mahampianatra. no mahampianatra.

or have
2.
3.

power

to teach.
2. 3.

Hianao no mahampianatra,
Izy no mahampianatra.

Hianareo no mahampianatra.
Izareo no mahampianatra.

See the note page 136.

Infinitive

Mood,

or Participles.

142

etymology.
second eonjugation.

The Simple

Passive.
I

Ampianarina aho, or izaho ampianarina,


Indicative Mood.

am

taught.

Direct Form.

Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
I

Ampianarina aho,

am

1.

taught.
2. 3.

Ampianarina izahay.* Ampianarina isikia.

Ampianarina hianao.

2. 3.

Ampianarina hianareo. Ampianarina izareo.

Ampianarina

izy.

Perfect.
1.

Nampianarina aho,
taught.

was

1.

Nampianarina izahay. Nampianarina isikia.


Nampianarina hianareo.
Nampianarina
izareo.

2. 3.

Nampianarina hianao. Nampianarina


izy.

2. 3.

Future.
1.

Hampianarina aho, I shall or will be taught. Hampianarina hianao.


Hampianarina
izy.

1.

Hampianarina izahay. Hampianarina isikia.

2.
3.

2.

Hampianarina hianareo. Hampianarina


izareo.

3.

Present Perfect.
1.

Efa ampianarina aho, been taught.

have

1.

Efa ampianarina izahay. Efa ampianarina isikia. Efa ampianarina hianareo. Efa ampianarina
izareo.

2.
3.

Efa ampianarina hianao. Efa ampianarina


izy.

2.

3.

* The

first line

of the Plural

is

exclusive, the

second inclusive.

VERBS.

143

Second Conjugation,
Pluperfect
Singular.
1.

Plural.

Efanampianarinaaho, Ihadl. Efa nampianarina izahay. Efa nampianarina isikia. been taught.

2.
3.

Efa nampianarina hianao.

2. 3.

Efa nampianarina

liianareo.

Efa nampianarina

izy.

Efa nampianarina

izareo.

Future Perfect.
1.

Efa hampianarina aho, I shall have been taught. Efa hampianarina hianao.

1.

Efa hampianarina izahay. Efa hampianarina isikia.

2.

2.

Efa hampianarina hianareo.


Efa hampianarina
izareo.

3.

Efa hampianarina

izy.

3.

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Izaho ampianarina,
taught,

lam

1.

Izahay ampianarina.
Isikia ampianarina.

2. 3.

Hianao ampianarina.
Izy ampianarina.

2.
3.

Hianareo ampianarina.
Izareo ampianarina.

Exclusive Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Izaho no ampianarina, It
that
that
is is

is I

1.

taught, or I

am

he

Isikia

Izahay no ampianarina. no ampianarina.

taught.
2.
3.

2.
3.

Hianao no ampianarina.
Izy no ampianarina.

Hianareo no ampianarina.
Izareo no ampianarina.

See the note page 136.

44

ETYMOLOGY.
Second Conjugation.
Imperative Mood.
Direct Form.

Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.

Aoka hampianarina
let

aho,

1.

me

be taught.
2.

Aoka hampianarina Aoka hampianarina


Ampianaro.

izahay.
isikia.

2.
3.

Ampianaro.

Aoka hampianarina

izy.

3.

Aoka hampianarina

izareo.

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Aoka aho hampianarina,


let

1.

me

be taught.
2. 3.

2.

Aoky hianao no hampianarina.

3.

Aoky

izy hampianarina.

Aoky izahay hampianarina. Aoky isikia hampianarina. Aoky hianareo hampianarina. Aoky izareo hampianarina.

Exclusive Form.
Future.
1.

Aoky izaho no hampianarina, let me be the one that shall


be taught.

1.

Aoky izahay no hampianarina.

2.

Aoky isikia no hampianarina. Aoky hianao no hampianarina. 2. Aoky hianareo no hampianarina.

3.

Aoky izy no hampianarina.

3.

Aoky izareo no hampianarina


Direct Form.

Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense.
aho,
1.

1.

Raha ampianarina
if I

Rahaampianarina izahay.

be taught.
hianao.
izy.
2.

Raha ampianarina Raha ampianarina

isikia.

2.
3.

Raha ampianarina
Raha ampianarina

hianareo.
izareo.

3.

Raha ampianarina

VERBS.

145

Second Conjugation.
Terfect.

Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Baha nampianarina aho,


if I

were taught.

2.
3.

Baha nampianarina hianao. Baha nampianarina izy.

Baha nampianarina izahay. Baha nampianarina isikia. 2. Baha nampianarina hianareo. Baha nampianarina
izareo.

3.

Fidwre Tense.
1.

Baha hampianarina
if I shall

aho,

1.

Baha hampianarina Baha hampianarina

izahay.
isikia.

he taught.
2.

2.
3.

Baha hampianarina hianao. Baha hampianarina


izy.

Baha hampianarina hianareo.

3.

Baha hampianarina

izareo.

Present perfect,
1.

Behefa ampianarina aho,


if I

1.

Behefa ampianarina izahay. Behefa ampianarina isikia.

have been taught.


2.
3.

2. 3.

Behefa ampianarina hianao. Behefa ampianarina


izy.

Behefa ampianarina hianareo. Behefa ampianarina izareo.

Vluperfect.
1.

Behefa nampianarina aho,


if I

1.

Behefa nampianarina izahay.

had been taught.


2. 3.

Behefa nampianarina isikia.


Behefanampianarinahianareo*

2. 3.

Behefa nampianarina hianao. Behefa nampianarina


izy.

Behefa nampianarina

izareo.

Future perfect.
1.

Behefa hampianarina aho,


if I shall

1.

Behefa hampianarina izahay.


Behefa hampianarina isikia.

have been taught.


2.

2.
3.

Behefa hampianarina hianao.

Behefa hampianarinahianareo.

Behefa hampianarina

izy.

3.

Behefa hampianarina

izareo.

H6

ETYMOLOGY.
Second Conjugation.

Emphatic and Exclusive Form.


Tresent.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Rahaizaho no ampianarina,
if I

Raha izaho no ampianarina. Raha


isikia

be he that is tanght.
2. 3.

no ampianarina.

2.

Raha hianao no ampianariaa.

Raha hianareo no ampianarina.

3.

Raha

izy no ampianarina.

Raha

izareo

no ampianarina.

Fresent perfect.
1.

Rehefa izaho no ampianarina,


if I

1.

Rehefa izahay no ampianarina.

be he that

is to

be taught.

Rehefa
2.

isikia

no ampianarina.

Rehefa hianao no ampianarina.


Rehefa izy no ampianarina.

2.

Rehefa hianareo no ampianarina.

3.

3.

Rehefaizareo no ampianarina.

See the note page 136.

Infinitive
Present.
Perfect.

Mood

or Participles.
Pre. Per.
Pluperfect.
Futu]:e Per.
lEfa ampianarina.

Ampianarina.

Nampianarina.

Efa nampianarina. Efa nampianarina.

Future.

Hampianarina.

The Paj-ticipal Nouns are formed by placing KY before the Participles of the different Tenses.

the

VERBS.

147

Second Conjugation.

Potential Mood.

Direct Form.

V resent
Singular.
1.

Tense.
Plural.

Ahampianarina aho,
I

1.

Ahampianarina izahay.

can be taught.
2.
3.

Ahampianarina

isikia.

2.
3.

Ahampianarma hianao.
Ahampianarina
izy.

Ahampianarina hianareo. Ahampianarina


izareo.

Verfect.

1.

Nahampianarina aho,
I

1.

Ahampianarina izahay.
Ahampianarina
isikia.

could be taught.
2.
3.

2. 3.

Nahampianarina hianao.
Nahampianarina
izy.

Ahampianarina hianareo.
Ahampianarina
izareo.

Future.

1.

Hahampianarina aho,
I shall

1.

Hahampianarina izahay.

be able to be taught.
2. 3.

Hahampianarina

isikia.

2.

Hahampianarina hianao. Hahampianarina


izy.

Hahampianarina hianareo. Hahampianarina


izareo.

3.

Present perfect.
1.

Efa ahampianarina aho,


I

1.

Efa ahampianarina izahay.

can have been taught.


2. 3.

Efa ahampianarina

isikia.

2.

Efa ahampianarina hianao.


Efa ahampianarina
izy.

Efa ahampianarina hianareo. Efa ahampianarina


izareo.

3.

148

ETYMOLOGY.
Second Conjugation.
Pluperfect.

Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Efa nahampianarina aho,


I

Efa nahampianarina izahay.

could have been taught.


2. 3.

Efa nahampianarina
Efa nahampianarina

isikia.

2.
3.

Efa nahampianarina hianao. Efa nahampianarina


izy.

Efa nahampianarina hianareo.


izareo.

Future perfect.

1.

Efa hahampianarina aho,


I shall

1.

Efa hahampianarina izahay. Efa hahampianarina


isikia.

have been able to be

taught.
2.

Efa hahampianarina hianao. Efa hahampianarina


izy.

2. 3.

Efa hahampianarina hianareo.


Efa hahampianarina
izareo.

3.

Emphatic Form.
Present.
1.

Izaho ahampianarina,

1.

Izahay ahampianarina.
Isikia ahampianarina.

/ can be
2.

taught.
2. 3.

Hianao ahampianarina.
Izy no ahampianarina.

Hianareo ahampianarina.
Izareo ahampianarina.

3.

Exclusive Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Izaho no ahampianarina,
it is

1.

Izahay no ahampianarina.
Isikia

I that

can be taught.
2.
3.

no ahampianarina.

2.
3.

Hianao no ahampianarina.
Izy no ahampianarina.

Hianareo no ahampianarina.
Izareo no ahampianarina.

See the note page 136.

VERBS.

149

Second Conjugation.

POTENTATIVE VERB, PASSIVE VOICE.


Subjunctive Mood.
Direct Form.

Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
aho,
1.

Raha ahampianarina
if I

Raha ahampianarina izahay.

can be taught.
hianao. 2.
izy.
3.

Raha ahampianarina Raha ahampianarina

isikia.

2.
3.

Raha ahampianarina

Raha ahampianarina hianareo.


izareo.

Raha ahampianarina

Perfect.

1.

Raha nahampianarina
if I

aho,

1.

could be taught.
2. 3.

Raha nahampianarina izahay. Raha nahampianarina isikia.


Rahanahampianarinahianareo.

2.
3.

Raha nahampianarina hianao. Raha nahampianarina


izy.

Raha nahampianarina

izareo.

Future Tense.
1.

Raha hahampianarina
I shall

aho,

1.

be able to be taught.
hia2.

Raha hahampianarina izahay. Raha hahampianarina isikia.

2.

Raha hahampianarina
nao.

Raha hahampianarina hianareo.

3.

Raha hahampianarina

izy.

3.

Raha hahampianarina

izareo.

Present perfect.
1.

Rehefa ahampianarina aho,


if I

1.

Rehefa ahampianarina izahay. Rehefa ahampianarina


isikia.

can have been taught.


2.

2.

Rehefa ahampianarina hianao.

Rehefa ahampianarina hianareo

3.

Rehefa ahampianarina

izy.

3.

Rehefa ahampianarina izareo.

150

ETYMOLOGY.
Second Conjugation.
Pluperfect
Singular.
Plural.
1.

1.

Rehefa nahampianarina aho,


if I

Rehefanahampianarinaizahay

could have been taught.


2.

Rehefa nahampianarina isikia.


Rehefa nahampianarina hianareo.
3.

2.

Rehefa nahampianarinahianao.

3.

Rehefa nahampianarina izy.

Rehefa nahampianarina izareo^

Future p&rfect,
1.

Rehefa hahampianarina aho,


I shall

1.

Rehefa hahampianarinaizahay. Rehefa hahampianarina isikia.

have been able to be

taught.
2.

Rehefa hahampianarina hianao.

2.

Rehefa
nareo.

hahampianarina hia-

3.

Rehefa hahampianarina

izy.

3.

Rehefa hahampianarina izareo.

Emphatic and Exclusive Form.


Present.
1.

Raha izaho no ahampianarina,


if I

1.

Rahaizahaynoahampianarina.

be he that can be taught.


2.

Raha isikia no ahampianarina.

2.

Raha hianao no ahampianarina.

Raha hianareo no ahampianarina.

3.

Raha

izy no ahampianarina.

3.

Raha

izareo

no ahampianari-

na.
Presefni p&rfect.
1.

Rehefa izaho no ahampianarina, if I be he that can

1.

Rehefa izahay no ahampianarina.

have been taught.


2.

Rehefa isikia no ahampianarina.


2.

Rehefa hianao no ahampianarina.

Rehefa hianareo no ahampianarina.

3.

Rehefa izy no ahampianarina.

3.

Rehefa izareo no ahampianarina.

See the note page 136.

VERBS.

151

SECOND CONJUGATION,

Infinitive
Present.
Perfect.

Mood

or Participles.
Pre. Per.

Ahampianarina.

Efa ahampianarina.

Nahampianarina.

Pluperfect. Efa nahampianarina.

Future.

Hahampianarina.

Future Per. Efa hahampianarina.

THIRD CONJUGATION.

THE PRONOMINAL ADJUNCTIVE.


Indicative Mood.
Direct Form.

Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Ampianariko ny ankizy,
the children are taught
i.

Ampianarinay ny ankizy.*
Ampianarintsikia ny ankizy.

by me,

e. I

teach the children.


2.
3.

2. 3.

Ampianarinao ny ankizy.

Ampianarinareo ny ankizy.

Ampianariny ny ankizy.

Ampianarinao ny ankizy.

Perfect
1.

Nampianariko ny ankizy,
the children were taught by me,
i.

1.

Nampianarinay ny ankizy.
Nampianarintsikia ny ankizy.

e. I

taught the children.


2.
3.

2. 3.

Nampianarinao ny ankizy.

Nampianarinareo ny ankizy.
Nampianarinjareo ny ankizy.
second inclmive.

Nampianariny ny ankizy.

The

jfirst

line of the Plural is exclusive, the

152

ETYMOLOGY.

Third Conjugation.

Future.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Hampianariko ny ankizy,
the children shall be taught

Hampianarinay ny ankizy.
Hampianarintsikia ny ankizy,

by

me,

i.

e. I

will teach the chil-

dren.
2.

Hampianarinao ny ankizy.

2. 3.

Hampianarinareo ny ankizy.
Hampianarinjareo ny ankizy.

3.

Hampianariny ny ankizy.

Present perfect.

1.

Efa ampianariko ny ankizy,


the children have been taught

1.

Efa ampianarinay ny ankizy,


Efa arapianarintsikia ny ankizy.

by me,
2.

i.

e. I

have taught the

children.

Efa ampianarinao ny ankizy. Efa ampianariny ny ankizy.

2.

Efa ampianarinareo ny ankizy.

3.

3.

Efa ampianarinj areo ny ankizy.

Pluperfect.

1.

Efa nampianariko ny ankizy,


the children

1.

Efa nampianarinay ny ankizy.

had been taught


I

Efa nampianarintsikia ny ankizy.

by me,

i.

e.

had taught the

children.
2.

Efanampianarinao ny ankizy.

2.

Efa nampianarinareo ny ankizy-

3.

Efa nampianariny ny ankizy.

3.

Efa nampianarinjareo ny ankizy.

VERBS.

153

Third Conjugation.

Future Perfect.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Efa hampianariko ny ankizy.


the children shall have been

Efa hampianarinay ny ankizy. Efa hampianarintsikia ny ankizy.

taught by me,

i.

e. I shall

have

taught the children.


2.

Efa hampianarinaony ankizy.

2.

Efa hampianarinareo ny ankizy.

3.

Efa hampianarinyny ankizy.

3.

Efa hampianarinjareo ny ankizy.

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.

1.

Ny
me,

ankizy ampianariko,

1.

the children are taught


i.e.
I

by

Ny ankizy ampianarraay. Ny ankizy ampianarintsikia^

teach the chil-

dren.
2. 3.

Ny Ny

ankizy ampianarinao.
ankizy ampianariny.

2.
3.

Ny ankizy ampianarinareo. Ny ankizy ampianarinjareo.

Pi^fect.

1.

Ny
me,

ankizy nampianariko,

1.

the children
i.e. I

were taught by
taught the chil-

Ny ankizy nampianarinay. Ny ankizy nampianarintsikia*

dren.
2.

3.

Ny ankizy nampianarinao. Ny ankizy nampianariny.

2. 3.

Ny Ny

ankizy nampianarinareo
ankizy nampianariiy weo.

154

ETYMOLOGY.
Exclusive Form.
Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural.
1.

1.

Anareo no ampianariko,
it is

Anareo no ampianarinay,
Anareo no ampianarintsikia,

you
i.

that are taught


it

by

me,

e.

is

you

that I

teach.
2.
3.

Anareo no ampianarinao. Anareo no ampianariny.

2.

Anareo no ampianarinareo. Anareo no ampianarinjareo.

3.

See the note page 136.

Subjunctive Mood.

Direct form.

Present Tense.
1.

Raha ampianariko
if if I

anareo,
i.

1.

Raha ampianarinay

anareo.

you be taught by me,


teach you.

e.

Raha ampianarintsikia anareo.


2.

2. 3.

Raha ampianarinao

anareo.

Raha ampianarinareo

anareo.

Raha ampianariny anareo.

3.

Raha ampianarinjareo anareo.

Perfect.
1.

Raha nampianariko anareo.


if
i.

1.

Raha nampianarinay
reo.

anareo.

you were taught by me,


e. if I

Raha nampianarintsikia ana2. 3.

taught you.

2. 3.

Raha nampianarinao anareo. Raha nampianariny


anareo.

Raha nampianarinareo anareo.


Rahanampianarinjareoanareo.

Future.
1.

Raha hampianariko
if

anareo,

1.

Raha hampianarinay
reo.

anareo.

you
i.

shall

be taught by
teach you.
anareo. 2.
3.

Raha hampianarintsikia anaRaha hampianarinareo anareo.

me,
2. 3.

e. if I shall

Raha hampianarinao
Raha hampianariny

anareo.

Raha hampianarinjareo anareo.

VERBS.

155

Third Conjugation.

Present Perfect,

Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Rehefa ampianariko anareo,


if

Rehefa ampianarinay anareo.


Rehefa ampianarintsikia anareo.

you have been taught by


i.

me,
2.

e. if I

have taught you.


2.

Rehefa ampianarikao anareo.

Rehefa ampianarinareo anareo.

3.

Rehefa ampianariny anareo.

3.

Rehefa ampianarinjareo anareo.

Pluperfect.

1.

Rehefa nampianariko anareo,

1.

Rehefa nampianarinay anareo.


Rehefanampianarintsikia anareo.

you might have been


i.

taught by me,

e. I

might

have taught you.


2.

Rehefa nampianarinao anareo.

2.

Rehefa nampianarinareo anareo.

3.

Rehefanampianariny anareo.

3.

Rehefa nampianarinjareo anareo.

Future Perfect.

1.

Rehefa hampianariko anareo, if

1.

Rehefa hampianarinay anareo.

you

shall
i.

have been

Rehefa hampianarintsikia anareo.

taught by me,

e. if I shall

have taught you.


2.

Rehefa harapianarinao anareo.

2.

Rehefa hampianarinareo anareo.

3:

Rehefa harapianariny anareo.

3.

Rehefa hampianarinjareo anareo.

156

ETYMOLOGY.
Third Conjugation.

Emphatic and Exclusive Form.


Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Raha anareo no ampianariko.


if
it

Raha anareo no ampianarinay. Raha anareo no ampianarintsikia.'

be you that are


i.

to

be be

taught by me,

e. if it

you
2.

that I

am to

teach.
2.

Raha anareo no ampianarinao.

Raha anareo no ampianarinareo.

3.

Raha anareo no ampianariny.

3.

Raha anareo no ampianarinjareo.

Present Perfect,
1.

Rehefa anareo no ampianariko, if


it

1.

Rehefa anareo no ampianarinay.

be you that have


i.

been taught by me,


it

e. if

Rehefa anareo no arapianarintsikia.


2.

be you that I have taught.

2.

Rehefa anareo no ampiana*


rinao.

Rehefa anareo no ampianarinareo.

3.

Rehefa anareo no ampianariny.

3.

Rehefa anareo no ampianarinjareo.

The

other Tenses follow in Uke

manner by

retaining

their characteristics.

Imperative Mood.
Direct Form.
1.

Aoka hampianariko
let
i.

anareo,

1.

you be taught by me,

Aoka hampianarinay anareo. Aoka hampianarintsikia anareo.

e. let

me

teach you.
2.

2. 3.

Aoka hampianarinao anareo.


Aoka hampianariny
anareo.

Aokahampianarinareo anareo.
Aokahampianarinjareo anareo.

3.

VERBS.

157

Third Conjugation.

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Aoka anareo hampianariko,


let

you be taught by

me,]

Aoka anareo hampianarinay. Aoka anareo hampianarintsikia.

^.
2.

e. let

me

teach you.
2. 3.

3.

Aoka anareo hampianarinao. Aoka anareo hampianariny.

Aoka anareo hampianarinareo.


Aokaanareohampianarinjareo

Exclusive Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Aoka anareo no hampianariko, let you be they that are

1.

Aoka anareo no hampianarinay.

taught

by me,

i.

e.

let

me
2.

Aoka anareo no hampianarintsikia.

teach only you.


2.

Aoka anareo no hampianarinao.

Aoka anareo no hampianarinareo.

3.

Aoka anareo no hampianariny.

3.

Aoka anareo no hampianarinjareo.

See the note page 136.

Potential Mood.

Direct Form.

PresejU Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Ahampianariko anareo,

Ahampianarinay anareo.
Ahampianarintsikia anareo,

you can be taught by me,


i.

e. I

can teach you.


2.

2.
3.

Ahampianarinao anareo.

Ahampianarinareo anareo.
Ahampianarinjareo anareo.

Ahampianariny anareo.

3.

158

ETYMOLOGY.
Third Conjugation.
Perfect.

Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Nahampianariko anareo.

Nahampianarinay anareo.
Nahampianarintsikia anareo.

you could be taught by me,


i.

e. I

could teach you.


2.

2.
3.

Nahampianarinao anareo.

Nahampianarinareo anareo.
Nahampianarinjareo anareo.

Nahampianariny anareo.

3.

Future.
1.

Hahampianariko anareo,

1.

Hahampianarinay anareo.
Hahampianarintsikia anareo.

you
me,

shall
1.

be well taught by be able


to

e. I shall

teach you.
2. 3.

Hahampianarinao. anareo.

2. 3.

Hahampianarinareo anareo.
Hahampianarinjareo anareo.

Hahampianariny anareo.

Present Perfect.
1.

Efa ahampianariko anareo,

1.

Efa ahampianarinay anareo. Efa ahampianarintsikia anareo.

you may have been taught

by me,
2. 3.

i.

e.

may have
2.
3.

taught you.

Efa ahampianarinao anareo.

Efa ahampianarinareo anareo.


Efa ahampianarinjareo anareo.

Efa ahampianariny anareo.

Pluperfect.
1.

Efa nahampianariko anareo,

1.

Efa nahampianarinay anareo. Efa nahampianarintsikia anareo.

you could have been taught

by me,
2.

i.

e.

I could

have

taught you.

Efa nahampianarinao anareo.

2.

Efa nahampianarinareo anareo.

3.

Efa nahampianariny anareo.

3.

Efa nahampianarinjareo anareo.

r'

VERBS.

159

Third Conjugation.

Fwftire perfect.

Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Efa hahampianariko anareo,

Efa hahampianarinay anareo.

you

shall

have been able


i.e.

to
I

Efa hahampianarintsikia anareo.

be taught by me,
shall

have been able to

teach you.
2.

Efa hahampianarinao anareo.


Efa hahampianariny anareo.

2.

Efa hahampianarinareo anareo.

3.

3.

Efa hahampianarinjareo ana-

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Anareo ahampianariko, you


can be taught by me,
I
i.

1.

Anareo ahampianarinay. Anareo ahampianarintsikia.

e.

can teach you.


2. 3.

2.
3.

Anareo ahampianarinao. Anareo ahampianariny.

Anareo ahampianarinareo.

Anareo ahampianarinjareo.

Exclusive Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Anareo no ahampianariko,
It is

1.

Anareo no ahampianarinay. Anareo no ahampianarintsikia.

you
i.

that can
e.
it is

be taught

by me,

you alone

that I can teach.


2.
3.

Anareo no ahampianarinao. Anareo no ahampianariny.

2.
3.

Anareo no ahampianarinareo.

Anareo ahampianarinjareo.

See the note page 136.

160

ETYMOLOGY.

FOURTH CONJUGATION.

The Conjugation
which
is

of the

Circumstantial

Verb
;

Passive in form, but Active in signification,

has two forms, the ErnpTiaiic and the Exclusive

and

has the vowel A, in the Penultimate syllable instead


of
I,

as the Simple
;

and

also

a Verbal Circumstantial

Noun

as.

Simple Passive.
CiR. Passive.

Ampianarina, to be taught.

Ampianarana, to be taught by

means

of.

Verbal Noun.

Fampianarana, doctrine.

Indicative Mood.

Emphatic Form.

Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Solatra ampianarako anareo

Solatra ampianaranay anareo

marikia,

slates

are

the

marikia.*
Solatra ampianarantsikia anareo marikia.

means used by me,


you you
figures,
i.

to teach
I

e.

teach

figures

on

slates.

2. Solatra

ampianarinao ana-

2. Solatra

ampianaranareo anaampianaranjareo ana-

reo marikia.
3. Solatra

reo marikia.
3. Solatra

ampianarany ana-

reo marikia.

reo marikia.

The

first

line of the Plural is exclusive, the

second

inclusive.

VERBS.

161

Fourth Conjugation.
Exclusive Form.
Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Solatra no ampianarako a-

Solatra no ampianaranay ana-

nareo marikia, slates alone


are used

reo marikia.
Solatra

by me
i.

to
I

teach

no ampianarantsikia

you

figures,

e.

have

anareo marikia.

nothing but slates to teach

you
2.

figures.

Solatra

no

ampianaranao

2.

Solatra

no

ampianaranareo

anareo marikia.

anareo marikia.
3. Solatra

3 Solatra no ampianarany anareo marikia.

no

ampianaranjareo

anareo marikia.

This verb

is

conjugated in

all

the

Moods and Tenses,

like the third conjugation of the


tive, as in

Pronominal Adjunc-

pages from 155 to 160.

Participle Present.
for teaching.

Ampianarana, means, being used

Verbal Noun.

Fampianarana,

doctrine,

it signifies,

either words, books, place, or time, taken


for teaching.

and used

See pages 151, 152, and 153.

162

ETYMOLOGY.

THE INFLECTIONS OF A REGULAR VERB.

The

principal inflections are found in the Present,

Perfect,

and Future Tenses, and the Verbal Nouns.


;

1.

The Reflective Verb

milahatra, to arrange

himself.
Future

Active Present
hilahatra.
iilahatra.

milahatra.
;

Perfect

nilahatra.

Imperfect

milahara.

Verbal

Noun ;

mpilahatra,

Passive Present ; Ilaharana.


rana.

Per.
;

nilaharana.

Fut.

hilaha-

Imp.

ilaharo.

V. N.

filaharana.

2.

The PoTENTATiVE Verb

mahalahatra, to be

able to arrange.
Active pre.
lahatra.
;

mahalahatra.
;

Per.

nahalahatra.

Fut.

haha-

Imp.
;

mahalahara.

V. N. ; mpahalahatra, fahalahatra.

Pas. pre.
harana.

ahalaharana.
;

Per ; nahalaharana.
V. N.
;

Fut.

hahala-

Imp.

ahalaharo.

fahalaharana.

3.

The Intensive Verb

mihiatsara, to improve

himself, to better himself.


Per.
;

Active pre.

mihiatsara.

nihiatsara.

Fut.

hihiatsara.

Imp.

mihiatsara.
;

V. N.

mpihiatsara, fihiatsara.
;

Pas. pre.

ihiatsarana. Per.

nihiatsarana. Fut.

hihiatsarana.

Imp.;

ihiatsarao.

V.N.

fihiatsarana

; ;

VERBb.

163

4.

The Transitive Verb;

mandahatra,

to

ar-

range, to set in order.


Active pre.
hatra.

mandahatra.

Per.

nandahatra.

Fut.

handa-

Imp.

mandahara.
;

V. N.
Per.

mpandahalra, fandahatra.
nandaharana.
;

Passive pre.

andaharana.
;

Fut.

han-

daharana.

Imp.

andaharo.

V. N.

fandaharana.

5.

The Reciprocative Verb

mifandahatra, to

arrange one another.


Active pre.
hifandahatra.
fifandahatra.
;

mifandahatra.

Per.

nifandahatira.

Future

Imp.; mifandahara.

V.

N.

mpifandahatra.

Passive pre. ; ifandaharana.


hifandaharana.
6.

Per.

nifandaharana.
;

Future

Imp.

ifandaharo.

V. N.

fifandaharana.

The Causative

of

the Reflective

Verb;

mampilahatra, to cause a person to arrange himself.


Active pre.
hampilahatra.
fampilahatra.
;

mampilahatra.

Per.

nampilahatra.

Future

Imp.

mampilahara.

V. N.

mpampilahatra,

Passive pre

ampilaharana.

Per.

nampilaharana.
;

Future

hampilaharana.
7.

Imp. ampilaharo.

V. N.

fampilaharana.

The Causative

of the Potentative

Verb;

mampahalahatra, to cause to be able to arrange.


Active pre.
ture
;

mampahalahatra.

Per.

nampahalahatra.

Fu-

hampahalahatra.

Imp.

mampahalahara.

V. N.

mpam-

pahalatra, fampahalahatra.

Passive pre.;

ampahalaharana.

Per.;
;

nampahalaharana.
V. N.
;

Future

hampahalaharana.

Imp.

ampahalaharo.

fampahalaharana.

; ;

164

ETYMOLOGY.

8.

The

Causative

of

the

Intensive

Verb;

mampihiatsara, to cause to improve.

Active pre

mampihiatsara.

Per.

nampihiatsara.

Future

hampihiatsara.
fampihiatsara.

Imp. mampihiatsara.

V. N.

mpampihiatsara,

Passive pre.

ampihiatsarana. Per.
;

nampihiatsarana. Future;
;

hampihiatsarana. Imp.

ampihiatsarao. V. N.

fampihiatsarana.

9.

The

Causative

of the Transitive

Verb

mampandahatra,
Active pre.

to cause to arrange.

mampandahatra.
Imp.
;

Per. nampandahatra.

Future

hampandahatra.

mampandahara.

V. N.

mpampanda-

hatra, fampandahatra.

Passive pre.

ampandaharana.

Per.

nampandaharana.

Fu-

ture; hampandarana.

Imp.; ampandaharo.

V,N.; fampan-

daharana.

10.

The Causative of

the Reciprocativb
to

Verb

mampifandahatra,
another.

to cause persons

arrange one

Active pre.

mampifandahatra.

Per.
;

nampifandahatra.

Future

hampifandahatra.

Imp.

mampifandahara.

V. N.

mpampifandahatra, fampifandahatra.
Passive pre. ;

ampifandaharana.

Per.
;

nampifandaharana.
V. N.
;

Future

hampifandaharana.

Imp.

ampifandaharo.

fampifandaharana.

; ; ; ;

VERBS.

165

1 1

The Reciprocative
;

Causative of the Reto

flective Verb

mifampilahatra,

cause recipro-

cally to arrange themselves.


Active pre.
;

mifampilahatra.

Per. nifampilahatra.

Future

hifampilahatra.
tra,

Imp.

mifampilahara.

V. N.

mpifampilaha-

fifampilahatra.
;

Passive pre.
ture;

ifampilaharana.

Per.

nifampilaharana.

Fu-

hifampilaharana.

Imp.; ifampihalaro.

V. N.

fifampi-

laharana.

12.

The Reciprocative Causative of the Poten;

tative Verb
cally to

mifampahalahatra,

to

cause recipro-

have power to arrange, or


;

to set in order.
;

Active pre.

mifampahalahatra.

Per.

nifampahalahatra.

Future

hifampahalahatra.

Imp.

mifampahalahara.

V. N.

mpifampahalahatra, fifampahalahatra.
Passive pre.
;

ifampahalaharana.

Per.
;

nifampahalaharana.

Future

hifampahalaharana.

Imp.

ifampahalaharo.

V. N.

fifampahalaharana.

The Reciprocative Causative of the Intensive Verb mifampihiatsara, to cause reciprocally to


13.
;

improve, or to grow better.


Active pre.
;

mifampihiatsara. Per

nifampihiatsara.

Future

hifampihiatsara.

Imp.;

mifampihiatsara.

V. N.

mpifampi-

hiatsara, fifampihiatsara.

Passive pre.;

ifampihiatsarana.

Per.
;

nifampihiatsarana.

Future

hifampihiatsarana.

Imp.

ifampihiatsarao.

V. N.

fifampihiatsarana

;;

166

t^tUGtGGt,

14.

I^he

Reciprocative Causative of the Tran;

sitive

Verb

mifampandahatra,

to

cause recipro-

cally to arrange.
Active pre.;

mifampandahatra.

Per.;

nifampandahatra.

Future

hifampandahatra.

Imp.

mifampandahara.

V. N.

mpifampandahatra, fifampandahatra.
Passive pre.
;

ifampandaharana.

Per*
;

nifampandaharana.

Future

hifampandaharana.

Imp.

ifampandaharo.

V. N.

fifampandaharana.

15.

tive

The PoTENTATiVE Causative of the ReflecVerb mahampilahatra, to have power to cause


;

persons to arrange themselves.


Active pre.
ture
; ;

mahampilahatra.

Per.

nahampilahatra.

Fu-

hahampilahatra.

Imp.

mahampilahara.

V. N,

mpa-

hampilahatra, fahampilahatra.

Passive pre.
ture
;

ahampilaharana.

Per.
;

nahampilaharana.

Fu
;

hahampilaharanai

Imp.

ahampilaharo.

V. N.

fa-

hampilaharana*

16.

Tative

The PotentatiVe Causative of the PotenVerb mahampahalahatra, to have power to


;

cause other's to be able to arrange.


Active
-pre.
;

mahampahalahatra.

Per.

nahampahalahatra.
V. N.

Future

hahampahalahatra.

Imp,

mahampahalahara.

inpahampahalahatra, fahampahalahatra.
Passive pre.
;

ahampahalaharana.

Per.
;

nahampahalaharana.
V. N.

Future

hahajnpahalaharana.

Imp.

ahampahalaharo.

fahampahalaharana^

; ;

VERBS.

167

17.

sive

The PoTENTATivE Causative of the IntenVerb ; mahampihiatsara, to have power to cause

persons to improve, or to better themselves.


Active pre.
ture
; ;

mahampiliiatsara.

Per.
;

nahampihiatsara.

Fuj

hahampihiatsara.

Imp.

mahampihiatsara.

V. N.

mpaham pihiatsara,
Passive pre.
;

fahampihiats ara.

ahampihiatsarana.

Per.
;

nahampihiatsarana.

Future

hahampihiatsarana.

Imp.

ampihiatsarao.

V.

fahampihiatsarana.

18.

tive

The PoTENTATiVE Causative of the TransiVerb ; mahampandahatra, to have power to

cause to arrange.
Active pre.
;

mahampandahatra.
Imp.
;

Per.

nahampandahatra.
V. N.

Future

hahampandahatra.

mahampandahara.

mpahampandahatra, fahampandahatra.
Passive pre.
;

ahampandaharana.
Imp,
;

Per.

nahampandaharana.
V. N.

Future

hahampandaharana.

ahampandaharo.

fahampandaharana.

19.

The PoTENTATivE Causative

of the Recipro-

cative

Verb

mahampifandahatra, to have power to

cause persons to arrange one another.


Active pre.
tra.
;

mahampifandahatra.
hahampifandahatra.

Per.

nahampifandaha-

Future
;

Imp.

mahampifandahara.

V. N.

mpahampifandahalra, fahampifandahatra.
;

Passive pre.

ahampifandaharana. Per.

nahampifandaharana.

Future; hahampifandaharana, Imp.; ahampifandaharo. V.N.;


fahampifandaharana.

168

ETYMOLOGY.

SECOND CONJUGATION.
The Conjugation
of a Passive Verli in
its

simplest

form.

Indicative Mood.

Direct Form.

Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.

Terena aho,

am

pressed.

1.

Terena izahay.* Terena


isikia.

2.

Terena hianao.
Terena
izy.

2.

Terena hianareo.
Terena
izareo.

3.

3.

Perfect.
1.

No

terena aho,

was

2.

3.

No terena hianao. No terena izy.

No terena izahay. No terena isikia. 2. No terena hianareo. 3. No terena izareo.


1.

Future.
1.

Ho Ho Ho

terena aho,

I shall,

or

1.

will be pressed.
2.
3.

terena hianao.
terena izy.

Ho terena izahay. Ho terena isikia. 2. Ho terena hianareo. 3. Ho terena izareo.

Present Perfect.
1.

Efa terena aho,

have

1.

Efa terena izahay.


Efa terena
isikia.

been pressed.
2.

Efa terena hianao. Efa terena


jfirst

2.

Efa terena hianareo.

3.

izy.

3.

Efa terena

izareo.

* The

line of the Plural is exclusive, the

second inclusive.

VERBS.

169

Conjugation

continued
Plural.
1.

Pluperfect,

Singular.
1.

Efa no terena aho,


I

Efa no terena izahay.


Efa no terena
isikia.

had been pressed.


2.
3.

2. 3.

Efa no terena hianao.


Efa no terena
izy.

Efa no terena hianareo. Efa no terena


izareo.

Future Perfect.
1.

Efa ho terena aho,

I shall

1.

Efa ho terena izahay.

or will have been pressed.


2.
3.

Efa ho terena
2.
3.

isikia.

Efa ho terena hianao. Efa ho terena


izy.

Efa ho terena hianareo.

Efa ho terena

izareo.

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Izaho terena.

1.

Izahay terena.
Isikia terena.

I am
2.
3.

pressed.
terena.
2.

Hianao

Hianareo terena.

Izy terena.

3. Izareo terena.

Perfect.
1.

Izaho no terena,

1.

Izahay no terena.
Isikia

I was
2. 3.

pressed.
2. 3.

no

terena.

Hianao no terena
Izy no terena.

Hianareo no terena.
Izareo no terena.

Future.
1.

Izaho ho terena,

1.

Izahay ho terena.
Isikia

I
2.
3.

shall or will

be pressed.
2.
3.

ho

terena.

Hianao ho

terena.

Hianareo ho terena.
Izareo ho terena.

Izy ho terena.

170

ETYMOLOGY.
Conjugation

continued.
Plural.
1.

Present Perfect,
Singular.
1.

Izaho efa terena,

Izahay efa terena.


Isikia. efa terena.

/ have been
2. 3.

pressed.
2.

Hianao efa

terena.

Hianareo efa terena.

Izy efa terena.

3. Izareo efa terena.

Pluperfect.

1.

Izaho efa no terena,

1.

Izahay efa no terena.


Isikia efa

I had been
2.
3.

pressed.
terena.
2.

no terena.

Hianao efa no

Hianareo efa no terena.


Izareo efa no terena.

Izy efa no terena.

3.

Future Perfect,
Izaho efa ho terena, I shall
or will have been pressed.
2. 3.

1.

1.

Izahay efa ho terena.


Isikia efa

ho terena.

Hianao efa ho

terena.

2. 3.

Hianareo efa ho terena.


Izareo efa ho terena.

Izy efa ho terena.

Exclusive Form.
Present Tense,

1.

Izaho no terena,
is

it is

I that

1.

Izhay no terena.
Isikia

pressed, or,
is

am

he

no terena.

that
2. 3.

pressed.
2.

Hianao no terena.
Izy no terena.

Hianareo no terena.

3. Izareo

no

terena.

VERBS.

171

Conjugation

continued.
Plural.

#
Singular.
1.

Perfect.

Izaho no terena, It

is I that

1.

Izahay no terena.
Isikia

was
that
2.

pressed, or I

am he
2.

no terena.

was

pressed.
terena.

Hianao no

Hianareo no terena.

3.

Izy no terena.

3. Izareo

no

terena.

Future.

Izaho no ho terena,

It is I

1.

Izahay no ho terena.
Isikia

that shall or will be pressed, or I

no ho terena.

am he

that shall

or will be pressed.

Hianao no ho

terena.

2.

Hianareo no ho terena.

Izy no ho terena.

3. Izareo

no ho terena.

Present Perfect.

1.

Izaho no efa terena,

it

is I

1.

Izahay no efa terena.


Isikia

that has been pressed, or


I

no efa terena.

am

he that has

been

pressed.
2.

Hianao no

efa terena.

2.

Hianareo no efa terena.

3.

Izy no efa terena.

3. Izareo

no efa terena.

Pluperfect.

1.

Izaho no efa no terena,


is
I,

It

1.

Izahay no efa terena.


Isikia

or I

am
efa

he that had

no efa no terena.

been pressed.
2.
3.

Hianao no

no terena.

2.
3.

Hianareo no efa no terena.


Izareo no efa no terena.

Izy no efa no terena.

172

ETYMOLOGY.
Conjugation

continued.
Plural.
1.

Future Perfect.
Singular.
1.

Izaho no efa ho terena,


I that, or I

it is

Izahay no efa ho terena.


Isikia

am he
efa

that shall

no efa ho terena.

or will have been pressed.


2.
3.

Hianao no

ho terena.

2. 3.

Hianareo no efa ho terena.


Izareo no efa ho terena.

Izy no efa ho terena.

Imperative Mood.

Direct Form.

Present Tense.
1.

Aoka ho

terena aho, let

me

1.

be pressed.
2.

Aoka ho Aoka ho Aoka ho

terena izahay.

terena isikia.

Tereo, or tereo hianao.

2.

Tereo, or tereo hianareo.


terena izareo.

3.

Aoka ho

terena izy.

3.

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Aoka aho ho terena,


be pressed.

let

me

1.

2.

Aoky hianao ho
Aoky
izy

terena.

2.
3.

3.

ho terena.

Aoky izahay ho terena. Aoky isikia ho terena. Aoky hianareo ho terena. Aoky izareo ho terena.

Exclusive Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Aoky izaho no ho terena, let me be he that shall be


Aoky hianao no ho terena. Aoky izy no ho terena.

1.

Aoky izahay no ho terena. Aoky isikia no ho terena.

2. 3.

2.

3.

Aoky hianareo no ho terena. Aoky izareo no ho terena.

VERBS.

173

C onj ugation

continued
Direct Form.

Subjunctive Mood.

Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
if I

Raha terena Raha

aho,

be

1.

Raha Raha
Raha Raha

terena izahay. terena isikia. terena hianareo. terena izareo.

pressed.
2.
3.

terena hianao.
izy.

2. 3.

Raha terena

Perfect.
1.

Raha no Raha no Raha no

terena aho,

if

1.

Raha no Raha no Raha no

terena izahay.

were pressed.
2. 3.

terena isikia.

terena hianao.

2.

terena hianareo.
terena izareo.

terena izy. -

3.

Raha no

Future.
1.

Raha ho

terena aho,

if I

1.

Raha ho Raha ho Raha ho Raha ho

terena izahay. terena isikia. terena hianareo. terena izareo.

shall or will
2. 3.

be pressed.
2.

Raha ho Raha ho

terena hianao.

terena izy.

3.

Present perfect.
1.

Rehefa terena aho,

if I

have

1.

Rehefa terena izahay.


Rehefa terena
isikia.

been pressed.
2. 3.

Rehefa terena hianao. Rehefa terena


izy.

2.
3.

Rehefa terena hianareo. Rehefa terena izareo.

Pluperfect.

1.

Rehefa no terena aho,

if I

1.

Rehefa no terena izahay.

had been pressed.


2.
3.

Rehefa no terena
2. 3.

isikia.

Rehefa no terena hianao.


Rehefa no terena
izy.

Rehefa no terena hianareo. Rehefa no terena izareo.

174

ETYMOLOGY.
Conjugation

continued
Plural.

Future perfect.
Singular.
1.

Rehefa ho terena
shall

alio,

if I

1.

Rehefa ho terena izhay.


Rehefa ho terena
isikia.

or will

have been

2.
3.

Rehefa ho terena hianao.


Rehefa ho terena
izy.

2.
3.

Rehefa ho terena hianareo. Rehefa ho terena izareo.

Emphatic and Exclusive Form.


Present Tense.
1.

Raha izaho no
be he that

terena,

if I

1.

Raha izahay no
Raha
isikia

terena.

is to

be pressed.
terena.
2.
3.

no terena.
terena.

2. 3.

Raha hianao no Raha

Raha hianareo no Raha

izy no terena.

izareo no terena.

Perfect.

1.

Raha izaho no
if I

efa terena,

1.

Raha izahay no

efa terena.

be he that was pressed.


efa terena.
2.

Raha
3.

isikia

no efa terena.
efa terena.

2. 3.

Raha hianao no Raha

Raha hianareo no
Raha

izy no efa terena.

izareo no efa terena.

Future.

Raha izaho no ho
if I

terena,
shall

1.

be he that

be

Raha izahay no ho terena. Raha isikia no ho terena. Raha hianareo no ho


terena.

2. 3.

Raha hianao no ho

terena,

2.

Raha

izy no ho terena.

3.

Raha

izareo no ho terena.

VERBS.

175

Conjugation

continued.
Plural.
1.

Present perfect.
Singular.
1.

Rehefa izaho no terena,

if I

Rehefa izahay no terena.


Rehefa
isikia

am
2.

he

that

has

been

no terena.

Rehefa hianao no terena. Rehefa izy no terena.

2.

Rehefa hianareo no terena.


Rehefa izareo no terena.

3.

3.

Pluperfect.
1.

Rehefa izaho no efa no terena,


if I

1.

Rehefa izahay no efa no terena.

be he that could or

Rehefa

isikia

no efa no terena.

should have pressed.


2.

Rehefa hianao no efa no


terena.

2.

Rehefa

hianareo no

efa

no

terena.
3.

3.

Rehefa izy no efa no terena.

Rehefa izareo no efa no terena.

Future perfect.
1.

Rehefa izaho no ho terena,


if I

1.

Rehefa izahay no ho terena.

be he that

shall

have

Rehefa

isikia

no ho terena.

been pressed.
2.
3.

Rehefa hianao no ho terena.

2.
3,

Rehefa hianareo no ho terena. Rehefa izareo no ho terena.

Rehefa izy no ho terena.

Infinitive
Present.

Mood

or Participles.
Present perfect.

Terena, pressed.

Efa terena,

having been pressed.


Perfect.

Future.

No Ho

terena.
terena.

Pluperfect.

Efa no terena.
Efa ho terena.

Future Perfect.

Note.

By

placing the Article

ny

before the Participles, they

become

Participial

Nouns.

176

ETYMOLOGY.
Conjugation

continued.
Direct Form.

Potential Mood.

Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.

Atery aho,

can or

may

1.

Atery izahay.

be pressed.
2.
3.

Atery
2. 3.

isikia.'

Atery hianao.
Atery
izy.

Atery hianareo. Atery izareo.

Perfect.

1.

Natery aho,

could or

1.

Natery izahay.

might be pressed.
2.

Natery
2.

isikia.

Natery hianao.
Natery
izy.

Natery hianareo. Natery


izareo.

3.

3.

Future.

1.

Hateryaho,

I shall

be made

1.

H atery izahay.
Hatery
isikia.

able to be pressed.
2.

Hatery hianao.
Hatery
izy.

2.

Hatery hianareo.

3.

3.

Hatery izareo.

Present Perfect.

1.

Efa atery aho,

can or may

I.

Efa atery izahay. Efa atery


isikia.

have been pressed.


2. 3.

Efa atery hianao.


Efa atery
izy.

2. 3.

Efa atery hianareo. Efa atery


izareo.

VERBS.

177

C onj ugation

continued
Plural.
1.

Pluperfect.
Singular.
1.

Efa natery aho,

might or

Efa natery izahay.


Efa natery
isikia.

could have been pressed.


2.
3.

Efa natery hianao.

2.

Efa natery hianareo. Efa natery izareo.

Efa natery

izy.

3.

Future perfect.
1.

Efa hatery aho,


will
to

shall or

1.

Efa hatery izahay. Efa hatery


isikia.

have been made able

be pressed.
2. 3.

2.

Efa hatery hianao. Efa hatery


izy.

Efa hatery hianareo.

3.

Efa hatery izareo.

Emphatic Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Izaho atery,

I may

or can

1.

Izahay atery.
Isikia atery.

be pressed.
2.
3.

Hianao

atery.

2,
3.

Hianareo atery.
Izareo atery.

Izy atery.

Perfect.

1.

Izaho natery,

I might

or

1.

Izahay natery.
Isikia natery.

could be pressed.
2.

Hianao natery.
Izy natery.

2.

Hianareo natery.

3.

3. Izareo natery.

Future.
1.

Izaho hatery,

I shall or will

I.

Izahay hatery.
Isikia hatery.

be made able to be pressed.


2.

Hianao hatery.
Izy hatery.

2.

Hianareo hatery.

3.

3. Izareo hatery.

178

ETYMOLOGY.
Conjugation

continued.
Plural.
1.

Present perfect.
Singular.
1.

Izalio efa atery,

/ may

or

Izahay efa atery.


Isikia efa atery.

can have been pressed.


2. 3.

Hianao

efa atery.

2.

Hianareo efa atery.


Izareo efa atery.

Izy efa atery.

3.

Pluperfect.
1.

Izaho efa natery,

I might

1.

Izahay efa natery.


Isikia efa natery.

or could have been pressed.


2.

Hianao

efa natery.

2.
3.

Hianareo efa natery.


Izareo efa natery.

3.

Izy efa natery.

Future Perfect.
1.

Izaho efa hatery, /shall or


will

1.

Izahay efa hatery.


Isikia efa hatery.

have been able

to

be

pressed.
2.

Hianao

efa hatery.

2. 3.

Hianareo efa hatery.


Izareo efa hatery.

3. Izy efa hatery.

Exclusive Form.
Present Tense.
1.

Izaho no atery,

It is I that

1.

Izahay no atery,
Isikia

can be pressed.
2. 3.

no

atery. atery.

Hianao no

atery.

2. 3.

Hianao no

Izy no atery.

Izareo no atery.

Perfect.
1.

Izaho no natery,

am he that

1.

Izahay no natery.
Isikia

could be pressed.
2.
3.

no natery.

Hianao no natery.
Izy no natery.

2.

Hianareo no natery.
Izareo no natery-

3.

VERBS.

179

Conjugationed

continued.
Plural.

Fviure.
Singular.
1.

Izaho no hatery,

am

he

1.

Izahay no hatery.
Isikia

that shall, or will be

made
2.

no hatery.

able to be pressed.
2.

Hianao no hatery.
no hatery.

Hianareo no hatery.
Izareo no hatery.

3. Izy

3.

Present Perfect.

1.

Izaho no efa atery,

am

1.

Izahay no efa atery.


Isikia

he that may, or can have

no efa atery.

been pressed.
2.
3.

Hianao no efa

atery.

2. 3.

Hianareo no efa atery.


Izareo no efa atery.

Izy no efa atery.

Pluperfect.

1.

Izaho no efa natery,

am

1.

Izahay no efa natery.


Isikia

he that might

or could

no efa natery.

have been pressed.


2. 3.

Hianao no

efa natery.

2. 3.

Hianareo no efa natery.


Izareo no efa natery.

Izy no efa natery.

Future Perfect.
Izaho no efa hatery,

1.

am

I.

Izahay no efa hatery.


Isikia

he

tliat shall

or will have

no efa hatery.

been able
2. 3.

to

be pressed.
2. 3.

Hianao no

efa hatery.

Hianareo no efa hatery.


Izareo no efa hatery.

Izy no efa hatery.

180

ETYMOLOGY.
Conjugation

continued.
Participles.

The
Present.
Perfect.

Infinitive

Mood, or

Atery.

Present Perfect.
Pluperfect.

Efa

atery.

Natery. Hatery.

Efa natery.

Future.

Future Perfect.

Efa hatery.

THIRD
The
tion.

CONJUGATION.

Conjugation of the Pronominal Adjunctive,

of the Simple Passive in form, but Active in significa-

Indicative Mood.
Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Tercko,
i.

pressed by me,
I press.

Terenay.*
Terensikia.

e.

2.

Terenao.

2. 3.

Terenareo.
Terenjareo.

3.

Tereny.

Perfect.

1.

No

tereko, pressed
i.

by me.

e.

pressed.

2.

3.

No terenao. No tereny.
first line

No terenay. No terentsikia. 2. No terenareo. 3. No terenjareo.


1.

* The

of the Plural is exclusive, the second inclusive.

VERBS.

181

Conjugation

continued.
Plural.

Future,
Singular.
1.

Ho

tereko,

will or

shall,
i.

I.

be pressed by me,
shall or will press.
2.
3.

e.

Ho Ho

terenay.
terentsikia.

Ho Ho

terenao.
tereny.

2.
3.

Ho terenareo. Ho terenjareo.

Present Perfect.

1.

Efa tereko, has been pressed by me,


i.

1.

Efa terenay. Efa


terentsikia.

e.

have

2. 3.

Efa terenao. Efa tereny.

2.

Efa terenareo. Efa terenjareo.

3.

Pluperfect.

1.

Efa no tereko,
pressed

had been
i.

1.

Efa no terenay. Efa no


terentsikia.

by me,

e. I

had

2.
3.

Efa no terenao. Efa no tereny.


,

2. 3.

Efa no terenareo.

Efa no terenjareo.

Future Perfect.

1.

Efa
will

ho

tereko,

shall or

1.

Efa ho terenay.

have been pressed by


i.

Efa ho

terentsikia.

me,

e.

I shall

or will

have pressed.
2.
3.

Efa ho terenao. Efa ho terenay.

2. 3.

Efa ho terenareo. Efa ho terenjareo.

182

ETYMOLOGY.

C onj ugation

continued

Subjunctive Mood.
Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.

Raha
me,

tereko,
i.

if

pressed by

1.

Raha Raha

terenay.
terentsikia.

e.

if I

press.*
2.
3.

2.
3.

Raha

terenao.
tereny.

Raha
Raha

terenareo.
terenjareo.

Raha

Pei^ect.

1.

Raha no Raha no Raha no

tereko, if I might

1.

or could press.
2. 3.

Raha no Raha no Raha no

terenay.
terentsikia.

terenao.
tereny.

2. 3.

terenareo.
terenjareo.

Raha no

Future.

1.

Raha ho Raha ho

tereko, if I shall

1.

Raha ho

terenay.
terentsikia.

or will press.
2. 3.

terenao.
tereny.

2.
3.

Raha ho Raha ho Raha ho

terenareo.
terenjareo.

Raha ho

Present Perfect.

1.

Rehefa tereko,

if

have

1.

Rehefa terenay.

Rehefa
2.
3.

terentsikia.

Rehefa terenao.

2.
3.

Rehefa terenareo. Rehefa terenjareo.

Rehefa tereny.

The English meaning

of the other tenses

is

given without the

literal translation.

VERBS.

183

Conjugation

continued.
Plural.

Pluperfect.

Singular.
1.

Rehefano

tereko, if I

had

1.

Rehefa no terenay.

pressed.
2.
3.

Rehefa no
2.
3.

terentsikia.

Rehefa no terenao.

Rehefa no terenareo. Rehefa no terenjareo.

Rehefa no tereny.

Future Perfect.
1.

Rehefa ho tereko,

if I shall

1.

Rehefa ho terenay. Rehefa ho terentsikia.

have pressed.
2.
3.

Rehefa ho terenao.
Rehefa ho tereny.

2.

Rehefa ho terenareo. Rehefa ho terenjareo.

3.

Potential Mood.
Present Tense.
Singular.
1.

Plural.
1.

Ateriko, I

may or can press.

Aterinay.
Aterintsikia.

2. Aterinao.
3. Ateriny.

2.

Aterinareo.

3. Aterinjareo.

Perfect.

1.

Nateriko, I might or could


press.

1.

Naterinay.
Naterintsikia.

2. 3.

Naterinao.
Nateriny,

2. Naterinareo.
3. Naterinjareo.

184

ETYMOLOGY.
[Conjugation

continued.
Plural.

Future.
Singular.
1.

Hateriko,

I shall

or will

1.

Haterinay.
Haterintsikia.

be able to press.
2. Haterinao.
3.
2.

Haterinareo.

Hateriny.

3. Haterinjareo.

Present perfect.

1.

Efa ateriko,

may

or can

1.

Efa aterinay.

have pressed.
2.
3.

Efa
2.
3.

aterintsikia.

Efa aterinao.

Efa aterinareo,

Efa

ateriny.

Efa

aterinjareo.

Pluperfect.

1.

Efa nateriko,

might or

1.

Efa naterinay.

could have pressed.


2.
3.

Efa
2.

naterintsikia.

Efa naterinao.
Efa nateriny.

Efa naterinareo.
Efa naterinjareo.

3,

Future perfect.

1.

Efa nateriko,

I shall or will

1.

Efa haterinay. Efa


haterintsikia.

have been able


2.

to press,
2.

Efa haterinao. Efa hateriny.

Efa haterinareo. Efa haterinjareo.

3.

3,

VERBS.

1^

SPECIMEN GF A VERB CONJUGATED NEGATIVELY AND INTERROGATIVELY.


PRINCIPAL PARTS.

Pjesent, Inf. or Part.

Tsy raangataka, not


ing, or not asking.

to

be ask^

Perfect,

Tsy nangataka,
asked, or asked.

not to have

Future.

Tsy hangataka, not about


Indicative Mood.

to ask.

Present, Neg.

Tsy mangataka aho,


do not
ask.

I ask not, or I

'

Neg. and

Inter.

Tsy mangataka va aho ?


?

do
Perfect,

I not ask

Neg,

Tsy nangataka hianao, thou didst not


Inter.

Neg. and
Neg.

Tsy nangataka va hianao,


?

didst thou not ask.

Future,

Tsy hangataka
Inter.

izy,

he

will

not ask.
will

Neg. and

Tsy hangataka
?

v' izy,

he not ask
Present Perfect Neg.

'

Tsy efa mangataka izahay, we have not asked. Ex. Neg. and Inter. Tsy efa mangataka v' isikia, have we not asked. In. R

186

ETYMOLOGY.

Pluperfect Neg.

Tsy

efa

nangataka hianareo,

you

had not asked.


Neg. and
Future Perfect Neg.
Inter.

Tsy

efa

nangataka
?

va hianareo, had not you asked

Tsy

efa hangataka izareo,

they

have not been about to ask.

Neg. and

Inter.

Tsy

efa

hangataka

v' izareo,

have not they been about

to ask

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Singular.
1.

Aoky
let

tsy hangalaka aho, let


ask.

me

not ask, or do not

me

2.

Aza mangataka
not ask.

hianao, ask not thou, or thou shalt

3.

Aoky

tsy hangataka izy, let

him not

ask.

Plural.
1.

Aoky

tsy hangataka izahay.

Ex.

Let us not
let

ask,

or aza mangataka izahay, or do

us not ask.
ask.

2.

Aoky tsy hangataka isikia. In. Let us not Aza mangataka hianareo, do not you ask,
not you.

or ask

3.

Aoky tsy hangataka izareo, Aza mangataka izareo, do

let

them not
let

ask,

or

not

them

ask.

VERBS.

187

Specimen op Irregulab, Defective, and Impersonal


Verbs.

1.

Irregular Verbs do not admit the regular


ovana, changed
avy,
vidina, bought.
;

terminations of Passive Verbs with that of their Participles


;

as,
;

They are
gotten^

atao,

done
;

come

tonga, arrived

dJio^

obtained

hay,
;

is able,

capable

seho,
;

manifested,

appeared

efa,

effected,

perfected
;

vita,

finished

tanteraka, fulfilled, accomplished

voky, satiated,

2.

Defective Verbs are such as are used only in

certain Tenses.
is

They

are,
;
;

hoy

izy,

he says : bono,
is,

it

said,

or
it

is

reported

misy,
tafa,
tafa,
it

there
is

or eivists
;

lavorary,

is

well done

complete

voa, is

done, perfected.
Primitive word,
voice
;

When
makes

or voa,

precedes

it

a Participle of the Passive


Affix, a
;

and with a Pronominal


from

Verb Passive
united,

in form, but Active in signification

as, tafaray,

become one
tion
;

tafa

and iray one ; avotra, redemp;

voa avotra, redeemed

voa
;

soratro,

is
is

or was or was

written

by me,
i.

i.

e.

I wrote

voa vidjko,

bought by me,

e.

I bought.

3.

Impersonal Verbs are such

as

have no person
;

for the Nominative.


it

They
it

are,
is

hoe, saying

tamy,

comes

tokony, should,
;

worthy of ;

tsy maitsy,
;

ought, must

vao,

begins, just

commenced

bono

188
reported, said ;

ETYMOLOGY.
hanky,
is

is it

so ? manko, is it that T
;

Aleo, would rather,

preferable

leo, is
;

equal

to,

match
to,

to,

able to do, or to endure


it,

tsileo, is

unable

or to bear

not equal to the task.

Ho,

to

become, to be,
;

is

a characteristic of the

Future Tense

No,

is
it
;

or was,
is

when

it

follows an In-

terrogative Pronoun,
signifying
is,

a Eepletive Interrogative,

or was

and an Exclusive confining the

action entirely to the person acting, or acted


as,

upon

Iza no nanao izany


it is

who
it,

did that ?
or I

Izaho no
that did
it.

nanao izany,
It is also
is

I that did

am he

an Auxiliary to Verbs expressing an act that

passed, and signifies, was, or has been.

Section xi.

ADVEEBS.

Adverbs
aho, I

are words joined to Adjectives, to Verbs^

to Participles,

and
;

to other

Adverbs ;
izy,

as,

miasa tsara
is

work
;

well

maditra tolioa

he

obstinate

indeed
ally,

mangataka mandraliariva, asking continubegging


;

or always
;

ankehitriny

Many,

evenr

now

ankehitriny izao, this very

moment.

ADVERBS.

189

The Classification op Adverbs.


Adverbs
are divided into the following Classes.

I.

adverbs of number.
hiany, iray monja, only one;

1.

Cardinal

as, iray

indray, indrai-mandeha, indrai-maka, once, or in one


time.
2.

See page 93.


Ordinals;
as,

voalohany,

first;

indroa, twice;

intelo, thrice.

See page 93.

II.

adverbs op time.
ankehitrio,

1.

Present.

Ankehitriny,

now;

an-

kehitriny izao, ankehitriny izao hiany, this very

moi.

ment; omo, to-day


this very

anio hiany, andro any, to-day,

e.

day ;

miarakaminizay, instantly,
i.

immedivery

ately

anio dia anio, to-day, even to-day,


raha,

e. this

day
i.

when, while ; anio tontolo andro, to-day,


long.

e.

all

day

2.

Past.

Sahady, already
;

rahateo, before hand*,


;

vao

lasa, lately

fahiny, formerly

aloha, taloha, be-

fore, aforetime

efahiny,
;

in time past,

at

former
afak'o-

times, in ancient times

omaly, yesterday
;

maly,

before

yesterday
;

andro

afak'omaly,
;

day

before yesterday

loak' andro,

day ago
at

ankeho, just

now,

recently

taminizao,

this

moment

; ;

190

ETYMOLOGY.

niarakaminizao, with that moment, or at that


fony, since
hitherto
;
;

moment j
i.

ela,

long

ago

mandrak'ankehitriny,.
e.

hatrizay niainana, long time ago,

from

one's existence.

3.

Future.
;

Hatrizay, hereafter

arakizao, hence^

forth

hiarakaminizao,
;

presently

hiarakaminizay,
rampitso,

immediately
ramaraina,

faingiana,

soon

ampitso,
;

to-morrow, on the morrow


;

afak'ampitsOj

afaka-maraina, after to-morrow


tsy intsony,

intsony,

any more j

no more.

4.

Indefinite

Eepetition.

Matetikia,

oft,
;

often

mahalana, mahalankalana, seldom, not often


indray,
viana,

indra-

now and
when.

then^

occasionally;

oviana,

raho-

5.

Definite Eepetition.

Indray,

oncOj

again;

indroa,

twice;

intelo,

thrice;

isan'andro, daily;
;

isan'alina, nightly,
f

every

night
;

isan-kerinandro^

weekly isam-bolana, monthly

isan-taona, yearly.

6.

Eelative.

Aloha, before

araka, aoriana, after


dia vao, then
;

oviana, rahovianaj

when

dia,
;

man;

draka, ambaraka,
rivahariva, late,

till,

until

maraina-koa, early
;

haall

towards evening
all

mandrak'alina,

night long

mandrak'andro,

day long*

7.

Absolute.

Mandrakariva, always, continually,


;

perpetually, constantly

mandrakizay, ever, for ever

ADVERBS.

91

Mandrakizay mandrakizay,

for ever

and ever
;

mandra;

kizay doria, eternally, everlastingly


no, never
tria,
;

eny, yes

tsia,

tsy intsony, not


forbid.

any more, no more

sana^

God,

ill.

ADVERTS OF PLACE*

To Adverbs
Future Tenses.

of Place belong Present, Perfect and

is

prefixed to express the Perfect

Tense, and ho to denote the Future Tense*

1.

Answering
Ao,

to w^er^,

aiza?

Present.

eo, eto, aty, ety, here.

Per.

Tao, teo^

tato, teto, taty, tety,

was here,

Fut.

Ho
.

aO)

ho

eo,

ho

eto,

ho

aty,

ho

ety, will

be

Tiere.

Pre.

Any, eny,
there.

ery, there.

Per.

Tany, teny, tery^

was
Fut.

Ho

any,

ho eny^ ho

ery,

will

be there

eny

tontolo eny, every where.

Pre.

Ambony, above,

aloft,

on high.

Per*

Tam^

bony, was above,


Fut.
Pre.

aloft.

Ho

ambony,

will

be above or
beneath.

aloft.

Ambany,

below,

Pre*

Tambany,

was below or beneath.


Fut.
Pre.

Ho

ambany,

will

be below or beneath.

Erikitra, erokatra, eroany, yonder, there yonder*

Per.

Terikitra, terokatra, teroany,

was yonder, ot

there yonder*

192
Fut.

ETYMOLOGY.

Ho

erikitra,

ho erokatra, ho eroany,

will

be

yonder, or there yonder.


Pre.

Aiza, where.

Per. Taiza, where


will be.

was or were.

Fut.
Pre.

Ho

aiza,

where

Manodidina, around.
around.

Per.

Nanodidina, was

Fut.
Pre.

Hanodidina, will be around.


Anaty, within.
Per.

Tanaty,

was within.

Fut.
Pre.

Ho

anaty, will be within. anaty,

Any

there within.

Per.

Tany

anaty,

was there within.


Fut.
Pre.

Ho
Any

any anaty,

will

be there within.
Per.

ivelany, there without.

Tany

ive-

lany,

was there without.


will

Fut.
Pre. Pre.

Ho

any ivelany,

be there without.

An-dafy,

on the other side of the water.

Tan-dafy, was on the other side of the water.

Fut.

Ho

an-dafy, will be on the other side of the

water.

Pre

Any an-dafy, there on


Tany an-dafy, was
water.

the other side

of the water.

Per.

there on the other side of the

Fut.

Ho

any an-dafy,

will

be there on the other

side of the water.

Pre.
Per.

An-koatra, on the other side of the bank or

hill.

Tan-koatra, was on the other side of the bank,


or
hill.

Fut.

Ho

an-koatra, will be on the other side of the


hill.

bank or

ADVERBS.
Pre.

193
side of the

Any
Tany

an-koatra, there
hill.

on the other

bank or
Per.

an-koatra, was there on the other side of


hill.

the bank, or

Put.

Ho

any an-koatra,

will

be there on the other

side of the bank, or hill.

Pre.

An-drano, in the water; an-trano, in the house;


an-tanana, in town, or in the town.

Per.

Tan-drano,

was in the water


;

tany an-trano,

was in the house


Put.
Pre.

tan-tanana, was in the town.


will

Ho

any an-drano,
any an-drano,

be there in the water.

Tany an-drano, was

there in the water.

Put.
Pre. Per.

Ho
Any

will

be there in the water.

an-trano, there in the house.


an-trano, was there in the house.
will

Tany

Put.
Pre.
Per.

Ho

any an-trano,

be there

in the house.

Any

an-tanana, there in the town.


there in the town.

Tany an-tanana, was

Put.

Ho

any an-tanana,

will

be there in the town.

2.

Answering

to whither,

na aiza na

aiza.

Pre.

Per.

Na Na

aiza

na

aiza, whither, whithersoever.


izy,

taiza

na taiza

whither he would be,

or

whithersoever he was.

Put.

Na ho

aiza

na ho aiza

izy,

whithersoever he

will go.

Pre.

Mankao, mankeo, mankaty, mankato, mankety


izy,

he comes hither.

194
Per.

ETYMOLOGY.
Nankao, nankeo, nankato, nanketo, nankety
he came hither.
izy,

Fut.

Hankao, hankeo, hankato, hanketo, hankety izy,


he
will

come

hither.
thither.

Pre.
Per.

Mankany, mankeny, mankery, go


Nankany, nankeny, nankery, gone
Hankany, hankeny, hankery,
will

thither.

Fut.
Pre. Per.

go

thither.

Na Na

ao na eo, whether here, or here about.


tao

na teo

izy,

whither he was here, or here

about.

Fut.

Na ho
Na Na

ao na ho eo,

whether

will

be here, or

here about.
Pre.
Per. aty na any.
tato

whither here or there.


izy,

na tany

whether he was here or

there.

Fut.

Na ho

aty na

ho any, whether he

will

be here

or there.

Pre.
Per.

Na ato na eny, whether here or there. Na tato na teny izy, whether he was
there.

here or

Fut.

Na ho

ato na

ho eny

izy,

whether he

will

be

here or there.
Pre.

Per.

Na ety na ery, whether here or there yonder. Na tety na tery izy, whether he was here
there yonder.

or

Fut.

Na ho

ety na

ho

ery,

whether he

will

be here

or there yonder.
Pre.

Per.

Na ambony na ambany, whether above or below. Na tambony na tambany izy, whether he was
above or below.

ADVERBS.
Pre.

195

Per.

Na aloha na aoriana, whether before or behind. Na taloha na taoriana izy, whether he was before or behind.

Fut.

Na ho

aloha na ho aoriana izy, whether he will

be before or behind.
Pre.

Na
Na

eo anatrehany na eo ivohony,
fore his face or behind his back.

whether be-

Per.

teo anatrehany na teo ivohony izy, whether

was before
Fut.

his face or behind his back.

Na ho

eo anatrehany na ho eo ivohony izy,


will

whether he
his back.

be before his face or behind

Pre.

Na

eo imasony na eo anilany,

whether there

before his eyes, or by his side.

Per.

Na teo Na
Na Na

imasony na teo anilany


his eyes, or

izy,

whether he
his side.
izy,

was there before


Fut.

by

ho eo imasony na ho eo anilany
will

whether

he
Pre.
Per.

be there before his eyes, or by his side. na akeky, whether


far or near.
izy,

lavitra

teny

lavitr'

eny na tety akeky


near here.

whether

he was
Fut.

far off, or
lavitr'

Na ho

eny

eny na ho ety akeky


far off or near here.
izy,
i.

izy,

whether he
Per.

will

be

Na

tafiditra

na tafavoaka
or

whether he
e.

is

gone

in

gone

out,

inside

or

outside.

Per.

Na

tafakatra,

na tafidina

izy,

whether he has

ascended on high, or descended below, or

whether he

is

gone up, or gone down.

1^
3.

ETYMOLOGY.

Answering

to

whence, avy aiza.

Pre.

Per.

Fut.
Pre.

Avy aiza izy, whence he comes. Avy taiza izy, whence he came. Avy ho aiza, whence he will come. Avy ao, avy eo, avy aty, avy eto
he comes.

izy,

hence

Per.

Avy

tao,

avy

teo,

avy

taty,

avy

tety,

avy teto

izy,

hence he came.
ao,

Fut.

Avy ho Avy Avy

avy ho eo, avy ho


izy,

aty,

avy ho

ety,

avy ho eto
Pre.

hence he

will

come.

any, avyeny, avy ery izy, thence he comes.


tany, avy teny, avy tery izy, thence yonder

Per.

he came.
Fnt.

Ho

avy any, ho avy eny, ho avy ery


will

izy,

thence

he

come.
;

Lasa, gone away

afaka, off; tafavoaka,

gone

out.

III.

ADVERBS OF QUANTITY.
Be, hehe, much, ^reatli/
;

1.

Abundance.

bebe-

kokoa,

much more
;

kokoa,
;

more

even more
not

afa-tsy, besides

omhy, fully
all,
;

raha

tsy, except, if
;

lavitra,/ar

avokoa,

completely

indrindra, very,

exceedingly, especially
2.

indrindr' indrindra, infinitely.


;

Equality.
fitly,

Aoka, enough
;

ampy,

sufficiently
;

sahaza,
as
if,

suitably
;

sahala,

alike, equally

toa,

as equal
dia,

toy, tahaka, like as, or

in like

man-

jaer

even

araka, accordingly.

; ;

ADVERBS.
3.

Ifft

Defective.

Latsaka,

less,
;

sJwrtof;

vaiky,

almost ;

saiky, hardly, scarcely

madiva, nearly^

IV.

ADVERBS OP QUALITY.
Tsara

1.

Manner.
la,

la,

well-,

tsara

hiany, very
la,

well; ratsy

had; ratsy hiany, very had; loza


;

bravely, awfully

haingiana, haingiana
;

la,

quickly

malakia, quickly, with speed

malakilaky, speedily
softly
;

miadanadana, slowly

moramora, gently,
;

man-

gingina, quietly, secretly

madiditra, stupidly, obsti-

nately
2.

adaladala, foolishly.

Affirmation.
;

Eny,

yes,

yea

eany, aye
;

mari-

na, truly, justly

tokoa, indeed, surely, verily

marin-

tokoa,
3.

truly, verily verily,

very true.
;

Negation.
;

Tsy, not

tsia,
all
;

no

tsy

akory,
;

nowise

tsia tsy

akory, not at
forbid
;

aza, not, let not

sanatria, never,
4.

God

kanja, kanjo, hut not.

Doubt.
;

Angaha, angamba, anganja, kinanja,


;

perhaps

kinamba, possibly, peradventure


;

tahiny,

perchance
5.

mosala,

toatoa,

at

random, accidently.

Eelation.

Ambany,
;

together with, amana, toapart


;

gether

unitedly
;

tafatokana,
;

tafasaraka,

asunder
6.

ahoana, however

ala-trano, out of doors.


;

Degree.

Koa and
;

kosa, also, likewise

koa

signifies

an addition of the same kind, and kosa, an


kokoa, more and more, or
exceedingly, es-

addition of another kind

more even more;


pecially
;

indrindra, very,

indrindr'indrindra, extremely, infinitely.

198
7.

ETYMOLOGY.
Cause, or Interrogation.
;

Nahoana, rohy^ whereor in what

fore

ahoana,
;

how

manao ahoana, how


Anie,

manner
8

no, va, moa, are interrogative signs.

Prayer or intercession.
;

may

engehe,

would

inay, enga ka,

oh

that.

Section xii.

PREPOSITIONS,

CONJUNCTIONS, INTERJECTIONS, AND


REPLETIVES.

I.

PREPOSITIONS.

PREPOSITION

is

a word placed

before Nouns,

and Pronouns,

to connect

them with other words, and


;

to express the relation that they bear to one another


as,

andeha hiaraka ami-ko hianao, come thou with

me.
1.

Amy,

is

the principal, and, in reality, the only


It is

preposition in the Malagasy language.

used to
to,

express several prepositions

as,

from, with,
to,

unto,

into, about, concerning, with regard

and

its

precise
it

meaning
as,

is

determined by the Verb that precedes

miasa ny tanim-bary
ro'iih

amy ny
I

fangady aho, I work

the rice ground

a spade.

Niala tamy ny

omby

hankany amy ny ondry aho,


to the sheep.

went

from

the cattle

CONJUNCTIONS.
2.

199

Amy

expresses the Present Tense, and

when
is

is

prefixed,

the Perfect Tense

and when ho

prefixed, the Future Tense.

Its tense is

determined

by the Tense of the Verb with which it is connected. Izaho niala tamy ny tanana hankany amy ny tanimbary,
I went from the town to

go into the rice

ground.
3.

The apparent want of


is

Prepositions in the Mala-

gasy language

abundantly suppUed by using the

Circumstantial form of the Passive

Verb

as, andria-

manitra itokiako,
I put
4.

I confide in

God ;
as

I trust in

God
are

my
;

trust in

God.
words
used
Prepositions

The

other
as

Adverbs

any

w-trano,

there in

the

house

amhony
heaven
;

tany,

ujpon earth;

arnbany
hefore

lanitra,

under
people;

alolia

ny

olona,

the

aoriana ny omby,

after or

behind the

cattle.

II.

CONJUNCTIONS.

Conjunctions
tany sy lanitra
;

connect words and sentences;


earth

as

and heaven ; miasa ny

olona,

fa

milalao ny ankizy, the

men

work, but the children

play, or are playing.

Conjunctions are divided into

three Classes

the Copulative, the Disjunctive, and

the Compound.
1.

The

first

is

termed Copulative, because they

join words in form, and meaning.


dition, cause, consequence,

They express ad-

and supposition.

200
(1).

ETYMOLOGY.
Addition;
as,

ry, and; sy, and;

/feoa,

also;

Icosa, likewise. (2).

Cause.
of,

Satria, because,

fa,

for,

noho, on

account
(3).

for the sake of, because of.

Consequence.

Dia, then,

lea,

and then,

Tea

dia,

and so then, mha,


Supposition.

in order, for the purpose of.

(4.)

Eaha,

if,

when, while, noni/y


happening.

as

if,

as

when, mha,

if that, if so

2.

The second

are termed Disjunctive,

because

they disjoin in meaning, though they conjoin in form.

They denote
(1).

separation, concession, opposition, choice

and exception.
Separation.
;

JSTa,

na,

neither, nor;

tsy, tsy,

neither, nor
(2).

sa, sa, either, or.

Concession.
;

JVa

dia,

although

nefa,

ka-

nefa, but yet

andrefa, though,

kandrefa, however,

notwithstanding,
(3).

Opposition.

Andrao,

androa,

lest,

fandrao,

fandroa,
(4).

unless, sao, soa, lest, noho, than.

Choice.

Mhola,
would

yet,

fa, but, inay, oh


anie,

that,

engy,
it

enga ka,

that,

hany,

may

be.
(5).

Exception.

Afatsy,

save,

except, besides,

raha tsy, except, if not.


3.

The

third

is

termed Compound, because they

are formed of two or


so, Tia

more words.
then,
therefore,
yet,

Ka ndhoana, why
;

ahoana,

how

koa amininy izany, whereand wherefore


so then,
toa,

fore, ary

aminy izany,
and

as

if,

ary anefa,
dia,

fandeha,

fa nefa,

but yet, ka

and so then, nadia, although, ary koa.

;; ! !

INTERJECTIONS.

201
as when, as if

and

also,

ka

mba

so

that
it is

nony^
;

rehefa, after that,

when

done

kandeha, and then,


either,
or,

na

tsia,

whether or not,

sa, sa,

na, na,

neither, nor, tsy, tsy, neither, nor, toy izao, thus, toy

izany hiany, thus and thus,

ny aminy izany, about

that, concerning, regarding, respecting that.

Ill,

INTERJECTIONS.

Interjections express some sudden impulse of the

mind, to denote admiration, amazement, wonder, surprise


;

attention,

welcome, joy

fear, sorrow, regret

dislike, hate, disgust, contempt, horror.


1.

Admiration,
!

amazement,
re
! !

wonder,
!
!

surprise;

Endry
Bravo
!

Oh

Endrey
la
!

Akory

Ha

Ha Hia Huzza Lozala Ho Hoa Akory izao


!

Heyday
2.

Attention,
!

welcome, joy.

Indro
!

Behold
!

Indry

Lo By
!

Ere
!

Oh
!

Lozala
!

Bravo
!

Ehe

Hia

Endrey
re
!

re

Hark
!

Avia
3.

Maitia re

Hanky Oh come
!

Oh
!

Andeha re
Indrisy
!

Fear, sorrow, regret.


!

He
!
!

re

Ah
!

Indrisy la
anie aho
4.
!

Indrisy ka la
!

Alas

maty aho
disgust,

mateza

Mahita loza
hate,
!

Alack

"Woe

Dislike,
!

contempt,
!

horror.
!

Hia

Hia

pooh,

Hush Isy Mahitaloza Woe!


la
!

Pooh

Sia

Siasia

Pooh

202

ETYMOLOeT.

IV.

KEPLETIVES.

Eepletives are joined to words to enhance their


signification.

There are Interrogatives, Intensive and

Optative Eepletives.

1.

The
?

Interrogative are,
is

No, moa,

va.

Inona no
?

ataony
is to

What
?

he doing ? Iza moa no handeha


?

Who
?

go

Manoratra va hianao

Art thou writing

2.

The
tsia,

Intensive are, Hiany, akory, mha.

Tsara
very
all

hiany izy,
well
;

he
tsy

is

well,

i.

e.

he

is

even
i.

well, or

akory, no, no no,


will go,
i.

e.

not at

mba
3.

handeha, I

e.

I will even go.

The

Optative are,

anie, hany,

inay, enga ka.


bless

Ho
you

tahin Andriamanitra anie hianao,


;

may God
!
!

hany malalako.
!

Oh my
!

beloved

Inay ka ho

hendry izareo

Oh

that they

would be wise

Enga ka
would

ho heveriny ny olona izany


consider this

Oh

that the people

SYNTAX.

203

PART

III.

SYNTAX.

SYNTAX

teaches

the proper

arrangement

and

construction of words, and sentences.

Section

i.

Syntax of Articles.

USE OF THE articles.

Eule
only,

1.

Articles
limit

are prefixed to general words

to

the
;

extent of their meaning


the
cattle.

as,

ny
or

andro,

the day

ny omby,

Itsara,

Ratsara, the

name of
full,

a person either

man

or

woman
e.

from

tsara,

good.

Ifenoarivo, the

name

of a town
i.

from feno,
thousand.

and

arivo,

thousand,

full

Rule

2.

The

Article I is prefixed to the


villages;

names of

places, towns

and

and

also

to the

name

204
of persons,

SYNTAX OF

when they

are addressed with familiarity,

inferiority or

contempt.

lambohipeno, the name of


Ifaralahy,

the village called Ambohipeno.

the
;

name
from

of a
fara,

man

Ifaravavy, the

name of a woman

last,

or last born,

and lahy, male, and vavy,

female.

Eule 3. The Article ba is only prefixed to the names of persons, when they are addressed with respect, or with a consideration of superiority
;

as,

Mr.
a

and Mrs.
lahy, male,
first

in

Enghsh.

Ralahimatoa, the
;

name of

man, Ramatoa, the name of a woman


matoa,
first

from Ra, Mr.

born

and Ra, Mrs. matoa,

born.

Rule

4.

The

Article

ny

is

prefixed to

all

Nouns,
;

when
tsara

the Adjective or the Verb precedes

them

as,

ny

trano, a

good house

hendry ny olona, wise

people, or wise men.

Rule

5.

The

Article

ny
;

is

prefixed to Adjectives,

Participles,

and Adverbs

and render them

Common

Substantives.

Ny

tsara, the
;

good

ny mividy, the

person that buys, buyer

ny ankehitriny, the present

moment.
Rule
6.

The

Article

ny

is

always prefixed to the

Noun
silver
;

following a degree of Comparison.


volafotsy, gold
is is

Volamena

mavesatra noho ny

heavier than

vola tsara noho ny vy, silver

more valuable

than iron.

NOUNS.

205
usually omitted

Rule

7.

The

Article

ny
i.

is

when
beall

Nouns

are used in a general or unlimited manner.


e.

Olo-miaina, living man,


;

every living

human
i.

ing omby manan-tandroka, horned homed cattle.

cattle,

e.

Rule
the

8.
is

The

Article

ny

is

frequently omitted,
;

when
rano

Noun

used in partitive sense


;

as, nisotro

aho,
rice.

I drank water

mihinam-bary hianareo, you eat

Section

ii.

Syntax of Nouns.

the nominative and the verb.


Rule

1.

Every Noun,

Pronoun,

or

Nominative

Case, must have a

Verb expressed, or understood.


the people
speak.

Miteny ny

olona,

Mivovo ny

amboa, the dogs bark.


is

Mangatsiaka ny andro, the day

cold.

Mianatra taratasy ny ankizy, the children

learn their books.

Manoratra izareo, they write.


the Nominative Case do

Rule

2.

The Adjunct of
its

not control

agreement with the Verb.

Niandry

henemana
telo taona

izareo, they waited six days.


izy,

Nitoetra teo

he remained there
miaramila,

for three years.

Voa sakan-drano ny
vented by the water.

the soldiers were pre-

Rule
lective

3.

Substantives, being for the most part Col-

Nouns,

require

Numeral and

Pronominal

206

SYNTAX OP
Lehilahy iray,
i.

Adjectives to express their number.

a man,

i.

e.

one man.
Ity

Lehilahy maro, men,


this bullock.

e.

many men.
ireo,

omby

ity,

Ireo _omby

these bullocks.

Ireny vato ireny, those stones.

Kule

4.

The

latter

Noun

that

is

joined by a hy-

phen, or an Apostrophe, qualifies the preceding Noun.

Tanim-bary, rice ground.


nan'olona, man's hand,
i.

Tanim-boly, garden.
e.

Ta-

human hand.

Tandrok'-

omby, bullock's horn.


Eule
fixed to
5.
it.

Every

definite

Noun

has an Article preit

Itrano, or Ratrano, then

signifies

the

name

of a person, and not a house.


i.

Ny

lehilahy,

the man,

e.

a certain man, or certain men.

Ny

hazo, the trees.

Ny omby,

the cattle.

Rule

6.

One Noun governs another in the


Case
;

Genitive

or Possessive

the latter
affix

is

put in apposition

with the Pronominal

of the preceding Noun.


i.

Volany ny olona, the people's money,

e.

money
i.

of
e.

them the

people.

Tranon' olona,

a man's house,

a house of
glish ship,

him the man.


i.

e.

Sambon' Angilisy, an Ena ship of them the English.


signify time, or distance, are

Rule

7.

Noims which

put in the Objective Case after Neuter Verbs.


etra teo roa taona aho, I

Nito-

remained there for two years.


I

Nandeha
ney.
for one

lalan-kerinandro aho,

went a week's jour-

Naharitra zato taona ny trano, the house lasted

hundred

years.

NOUNS.

207

Rule
is

8.

The

Possessive case of Personal Pronouns

often a Nominative case to a Verb, either expressed,

or understood.

Ny

ahy nangalariny ny olona, what

is

mine, or

my

property, was stolen


is

by the
or

people.

Ny

ahy mitoetra hiany, what


still

mine,

my

property,

remains.

Rule
case.

9. Nouns in Apposition are put in the same Radama, mpanjaka nanjaka valo amby ny folo

taona,

Radama, the king reigned eighteen years.


lanitra sy

le-

hovah Andriamanitra, no Tompony ny


tany,

ny

Jehovah God,

is

the

Lord of heaven and

earth,

lesio Kiraisity

Mpamonjy, Jesus Christ the Saviour.


the Repletive

Rule

10.

When
case.

no
it

follows the
is

No-

minative and precedes the Verb,

the Exclusive

Nominative
writes.

Izaho no manoratra, I
it

am

he that

Izy no miasa,
it is

is

he that works.

Hianareo

no miteny,
Rule
11.

you that speak.


the last syllable of the preceding
is

When
;

Noun
into

is

ka, na, or tra, the final vowel A,

changed

KY ky, ny or try substitutes the Pronominal Y affix NY. Mpanapaky ny olona, the ruler of the peoor
ple.

Fihaonany ny olona, meeting of the people,

i.

e.

a place for the people to meet.


the people's writing,
i.

Soratry ny olona, the

e.

writing of

them the

people.

208

SYNTAX OF

Section hi.

Syntax op Adjectives.

Rule

1.

Every Adjective

qualifies a

Noun, ProTrano
cattle.

noun, or a Phrase, expressed or understood.


lehibe,

a large house.
vitsy,

Omby

maro,

many

Olona
wise.

few people.

Hendry

hianareo,

you are

Rule
its

2.

The Adjective

is

generally placed after

Noun.

Lehilahy antitra, an old man.

Vehivavy

tsara-tarehy, a pretty

woman.

Olona mazoto, diligent

people.

Rule

3.

Adjectives are often used as Substantives,

and are then termed Absolute.

Ny

tsara,

the good,

Ny

hendry, the wise.

Ny

halalina, the depth.

Ny

ratsy, the bad.


4.

When
good
is

the Adjective
it is

is

the Emphatic word in

the sentence,
trano,

placed before

the house.

its Noun. Tsara ny Hendry ny olona, wise are

the people.

Mahagaga ny

asanao, wonderful are thy

works.

Rule

5.

The

Intensive Adjective
it

does invariably

precede the

Noun which
the land
!

qualifies.

Hatsara ny tany
olona,

how good
money

is

Hahendry ny
!

how
is

wise
the

are the people


!

Hakely ny vola

Havitsy ny mpanoratra

How How

little

few are the

scholars, or

what a few

scholars.

ADJECTIVES.

209

The same Adjective Pronouns precede and Nouns. Ity lehilahy ity, this man. lo vehivavy io, this or that woman, (that is near). Ireo
Eule
6.

follow their

olona ireo,
cattle.

these people.

Ireny

omby

ireny,

those

Eule
qualify

7.

Adjectives, joined to Verbs and Participles,


as Adverbs.

them

the people call out loud.

Miantso mahery ny olona, Mitomany mafy ny ankizy,

the children weep bitterly.

Miasa

fatatra,

working

hard.

Eule
itony,

8.

The

Adjectives, iray, anankiray, ity, itoy,

irery, isany,

avy, samy,

manesy and misesy,

qualify
iray,

Nouns

in the Singular
i.
i.

Number.
Vehivavy

Lehilahy
ananki-

a man,

e.

one

man.

ray, a

woman,

e.

a certain

woman.

Ity vato ity,

this stone.

Itoy zaza itoy, this child.

Itony rano

itony, this water.

Io

omby

io, that

bullock.

Samy

nandeha avy ny olona, every one of the people went.

Samy nahazo

ariary

avy ny

isan' olona,

every one of

the people had a dollar each.

manesy izahay, we had a

dollar

Samy nahazo ariary each. Samy nahazo


had a bullock each.

omby

iray misesy, every one of us

Eule
any,

9.

The

Adjectives, Ireo, ireny, ireto, ireto-

maro, be, betsaka,

samihafa, rehetra, tontolo


in the Plural

avokoa, marobe, quahfy


Ireo
those

Noims

number.
cattle.

olona ireo, these people.


children.

Ireny ankizy ireny,


ireto,

Ireto

omby

these

Iretoany ondry iretoany,

those sheep.

Olona maro,

210

SYNTAX OF
people.

many
tsaka,

Omby

be,

many

cattle.

Ondry be-

many
all

sheep.

Olona marobe, great many peoall

ple, multitude.

Olon-drehetra,

people.
all

Tany
went.

tontolo,

lands.

Nandeha avokoa, we
languages,
or

Teny

samihafa,

different

different

speeches, or words.

Rule

10.

A Noun

with

its

Adjective taken as a
additional Adjective.
i.

compound word admits of an


thing of very high price.

Zava-tsaro-bidy indrindra, a very dear thing,

e.

Teni-soa mahafaly, joyful

good news,

i.

e.

good words affording joy.

Marina

mahitsy tokoa, very true indeed.

Section

iv.

Syntax of Pronouns.

Rule

The Nominative

case

must have a Verb

expressed, or understood.

Izaho manoratra,

write.

Miasa aho, I work,

Miteny hianao, thou speakest.

Mandeha

he walks. Nanoratra izahay, we wrote. we worked. Hiteny hianareo, you shall Niasa Handeha izareo, they shall or will or will speak.
izy,
isikia,

walk.

Rule

2.

The Nominative
is

case precedes the Verb,

when

the emphasis
is

on the agent, but when the


Verb.

emphasis

on the

act, it follows the

miteny we speak ; miteny izahay,


isikia,
tell
;

we speak.
tell.

Izahay Niasa

we worked,

Hilaza

izareo, they shall or will

izareo hilaza, they shall or will

PRONOUNS.

211
governed by a Verb,
;

Rule

3.

The Objective

case

is

Participle, Preposition, or

Adverb
he

Singular.

Miantso ahy

izy,

calls

me.
him.

Niantso anao izy, he called thee.

Hiantso azy izy, he will or shall

call

Plural.

Miantso anay

izy,

he

calls us.

Ex.

Miantso antsikia

izy,

he

calls us. In.

Niantso anareo izy, he called you.

Hiantso anjareo, he

shall or will call you.

Miteny aminareo aho,

I speak unto you.

Niaraka tamiko hianareo,

you went with me.


you dwell on
earth.

Milaza teny aminareo, saying a word to you.


Mitoetra

ambony tany

hianareo,

Rule

4.

The

Possessive case has the same form as


is

the Objective case, and

often a Nominative case to

a Verb expressed or understood.


cattle are

Ahy ny omby,
the house

the

mine,

Anao ny

trano,

is thine.

Anjareo ny vary, the rice

is theirs.

Rule

5.

The

first

person singular, Izaho precedes


it.

the Verb, but aho follows

Izaho miteny,

/ speak.
Niasa

Miteny aho, I speak.


aho, I worked.
Note,
say.

Izaho niasa, I worked.

Izaho follows

the irregular Verb hoy.


I,
i.

Hoy

izaho,

Izaho, from izy, he, and aho

e. I

am

he, or I

am

the

person

who

speaks, or acts.

212

SYNTAX OF
6.

Kule

The Pronominal

affixes that are

joined to

Verbs of the Passive Voice, have the same power and

meaning

as the Personal

Pronouns have, when they are


Manoratra
e.

Nominatives to Verbs of Active voice.


aho, I write,

Sorako, written by me,


izy,
i.

i.

I write.
it

Nanao izany
done by him,

he did
e.

it.
it.

Nataony izany,

was

he did

Nitory izany izahay,


it

by

we proclaimed it ; no torinay izany, us, i. e. we proclaimed it,


Kule
7.

was proclaimed

The Pronominal
is

Affix of a
i.

the Possessive or Genitive case,


follows
it,

e.

Noun governs the Noun that

put in Apposition.
i.

Volany ny olona, the


of

people's money,

e.

money

them, the people.


i.

Tranony ny ankizy, the


of them, the children.

children's house,

e.

house

Kule
to

8,

The Pronominal

Affixes

that are joined

Nouns, have the same

signification with the English

Adjective Pronouns of the Possessive kind.

Singular.
"

Tranoko,

my house,
his cattle,

i. i.

e.

house of me.

Volanao, thy money,

e.

money

of thee.

Ombiny,
Plural.

i.

e.

cattle of him.

Tokinay,
us.

our confidence,

i.

e.

confidence of

Ex.

Soratsikia, our writing, i.e. writing of us. In.

Asanareo, your work,

i.

e.

work of you.
i.

Taninjareo, their country,

e.

country of

them.

PRONOUNS.

213
is

Eule
case
to

9.

The
the

Relative

Pronoun

the Nominative

Verb,
the

when
Verb.

no Nominative

between

it

and

comes Tonga ny miaramila


soldiers

izay nankany
into the

an-tafikia.

The

that went

war are arrived.

Ny

olona izay nividy


anio,

ny

lamba

fahiny, nividy

omby

the

people that

bought the cloth formerly, bought

cattle to-day.

Ny

olona izay namafy ny vary no nijinja ny vary indray, the

same people that sowed the


Rule 10.

rice,

reaped the rice again.

The
agent

Passive Participle ending in

na

is

changed into ny, and becomes the Pronominal Affix,

when
11.

the

is

expressed

as,

vidina, bought,

vidiny bought by him, or by them.

The

Relative,

2;2?^2^,

and
if

ilehy,

or lehy, often
is

precede their Antecedents,

a reference to them

expressed, or understood in the sentence;


article

but thd
rejected,

ny

prefixed to the

antecedent

is

Tongsi. izay olona nividy

omby

taminay,
i.

the

that bought bullocks of us are arrived,


as

e.

such

men men

bought bullocks of us are arrived.

Niditra tany an-

tranoko ny olona ilehy niaraka tamiko fahiny, the per-

son that went with


or, niditra

me

formerly came into

my

house,

tany an-tranoko ilehy olona niarako tamiko

fahiny, such person as


into

went with

me

formerly

came
first

my
in

house.
12.

Rule

The
?
i.

Interrogative

is

generally the
?

word

the

sentence.
e.
is

Inona no ataonao
art

what

is

done by thee
anaranao
?

what

thou doing
?

Iza

moa no
hianao
?

what
?

your name
?

Izovy
are

moa
?

who

art thou

Akory hiany

how

you

214

SYNTAX OF
13.

Rule

The

Interrogative follows the Verb,


is

the state, or action the person or thing.


art thou

when more the subject of inquiry than

doing ?
?
?

akory hianao
of thy health

Manao inona moa hianao ? what Manao ahoana moa hianao ? manao how art thou ? i. e. what is the state

Section

v.

The Syntax op Verbs.

Rule

1.

A Verb must have a Nominative expressed


Miasa ny olona,
the people work.
loves.

or understood.

Tia

izy,

he

Miteny izareo, they speak.

Rule

2,

Transitive Verbs govern


case.

Nouns and Proizy,

nouns in the Objective


thee,

Tia anao

he loves

Mihiady ny tanimhary ny olona, the people

dig the rice ground.

Nanome ahy

vola ny havako,

my

relations

gave

me some money.
the Infinitive

Rule

3.

One Verb governs another in

Mikiasa hanoratra aho, I intend to write. Mood. Mandeha hanao zavatra izy, he goes to work. Miangona
hitora-bato azy

ny ankizy, the children are coming

together to throw stones at him.

Rule
three

4.

Verbs have

six

Tenses

three Simple and

Compound.

The Simple Tenses

are the Present, the Perfect,


letters

and the Future, and are specified by the

m, n,

VSBBS.

215

and H

in the Active voice

in the Passive voice

is

rejected, but

n and h are

retained.

Active Pres.
Perfect.

Mangataka aho, I
Nangataka
izy,

ask.

he asked.

Future.
Pas. Pres.

Hangataka izahay, we will or shall ask.

Angatahina hianao, thou art asked.

Per.

Nangatahina hianareo, you were asked.

Fut.

Hangatahina izareo, they


asked.

will or shall

be

2.

The Compound Tenses

are the Present Perfect,

Pluperfect,

and Future Perfect, and are formed by


;

prefixing efa to the Simple Tenses


Pres. Per.

as,

Efa mangataka aho,

have asked.

Pluperfect.

Efa nangataka, thou hadst asked.

Fut. Per.

Efa hangataka izahay, we


have asked.

shall

or will

Rule

5.

The

Transitive Passive

with the Pronoin the


is

minal Affixes govern


Objective case.
written

Nouns and Pronouns


I write the letter.

Soratako ny taratasy,
i.

the letter

by me,

e.

Voa
i.

soratro
I wrote

ny

taratasy, the letter

was written by me,


azy ny vola,
the
I gave

e.

the letter.

Nomeko
to

money was

given by

me

him,

i.

e.

him the money.

Rule

6.

The

Circumstantial Verbs place Nouns,

and Pronouns in double Objective cases.


tany ny havako azy,

Vola nanavorelatives

money was given by my

216
to

SYNTAX OP
i.

redeem him,

e.

my

relatives

redeemed

Mm with
anto

money.
tsikia,

Eany
us,
i.

lesio

anavotan'
is

Andriamanitra

the blood of Jesus


e.

means used by God

redeem
Jesus,

God redeems

us by the hlood of

Rule

7.

The Nominative
lesio ifaliako,

case

is

the object of the

act expressed

by the Eeflective Passive with PronoJesus


is

minal Affixes.

rejoiced in

by

me,

i.

e.

I rejoice in Jesus.

Jesus

is

the subject and


rice is

object of

my

joy.
i.

Vary ivelomako,
e.

used by

me
in

for support,

I live
shall

upon

rice.

Andriama-

nitra hitokiako,

God

be entrusted, or confided

by me,

i.

e.

I will trust in

God

meaning God

shall

be the object of

my

trust.

Rule

8.

The
is

final syllable

of the Verb that governs


is

another in the Infinitive

Mood

often cut

ofi",

and

one Verb

joined to the other in the same tense by a

Hyphen.
Present.

Miara-mandeha

isikia,
i.

with one another,


Perfect.

we go e. we go
we went

in

company

together.

Niara-nandeha

isikia,

together.

Future.
miaraka,

Hiara-handeha, we shall go together


to

from
go.

accompany,

and mandeha,
;

to

Mitsaha-miasa, cease to work


cease,

from mitsahatra, to

and

raiasa, to

Work.

VERBS.

217
is

Eule
Verb,

9.

The

Infinitive

Mood

governed by a

Participle,
is

Noun, Adjective or an Objective

case and
(1).

put in the Future Tense.


a Verb.

By

Mangataka handeha aho,


or I

I ask to go.

to go.

Tahandeha, I wish to go,

hke

Tehisotro rano aho, I desire or wish to drink water.


Note.

Ta and te
is

is

a contraction of the Verb,


first

tia,

to love.

The former
vowel
I

prefixed to Verbs whose


latter, to

syllable has the

vowel a ; and ihe


i.

Verbs, whose
I

first

syllable has

the

Tahampianatra aho,

like to teach.

Tehitenyaho,

wish

to speak.

(2).

By

Participle.
it is

Mahafinaritra hizaha ny

olona miasa tsara,


well.

pleasing to see people working

(3).

By

a Noun.
eat.

Tsy manam-bary ho hanina


cloth.

izy,

he has no rice to
izareo, they
(4).
it

Tsy manam-bola hividy lamba

have no money to buy a


an Adjective.
to

By
it is

Tsara hahafaly ny havanay,

is

good

cheer up our friends.


to

Ratsy haneso

olona,
(5).

bad

mock

people, or to laugh at people.

By an

Objective Case*

Nanery ahy handeha


Nananatra ahy hiato learn well.

izareo, they pressed

me

to go.

natra tsara izy, he exhorted

me

Rule
to a

10.

The

Infinitive Absolute is a

Nominative
izay

Verb expressed or understood.


no mety hatao, to do what

Hanao

ma-

rina

is just, is

what ought

218
to

SYNTAX OP
Misotro rano, mahafa-ketaheta, to drink

be done.

water, quenches thirst.

Eule

11.

Every Verb

signifying doubt,

supposi-

tion, or condition,

and preceded by a Conjunction,

or Adverb, must be put in the Subjunctive Mood. Eaha mandeha aho, dia ho avy izy, if I go, he will come. Eaha tonga izy, dia handeha aho, when he arrives, I will go. Eaha manao izay mety izareo, ho
faly aho,
if

they do what

is

right

and proper, I

shall

be glad.
Note.

The Verb has

all its

Tenses in the Subjunctive Mood,

as in every other

Mood.

Eule

12.

The Verb
is

is

in its Exclusive form,

when

NO

intervenes between the Nominative and the Verb,


entirely confined to the agent exall

because the act

pressed to the exclusion of

others,

Izaho no
that writes.
it,

manoratra,

It is

I that writes, or I

am he

Hianareo no nanao izany, thou art he that did


it is

or

thou that did


13.

it.

Eule

The Nominative, when


Objective case.
;

it

is

after

the

Verb

follows the

Nivarotr'

omby

aho, I sold

some

cattlle

nividy lamba izy, he bought


?

a cloth.

Avy any

an-tsena va hianao

Dost thou come

from the market.

Eule

14.

Active Verbs of Polysyllables ending in

KA, NA, and TRA

with the Article

when governing the Objective Case ny prefixed, change ka, na, and tra.

ADVERBS.
into KY, NY,

219

and try.

obeys the law.


are collecting

Manaraky ny lalana izy, he Mampiangony ny olona hianareo, you the people, i. e. you cause the people to

assemble,

Mahafantatry ny omby, I

know

the cattle.

Section

vii.

Syntax op Adverbs.

Rule

1.

Adverbs qualify a whole sentence, Verbs,

Adjectives and Participles, Pronouns, Adverbs, Prepositions

and Conjunctions.

Examples,

1.

The Adverb

quaUfies a whole sentence.

Anke-

triny

no andro fankasitrahana, ankehitriny no andro


2 Cor.
vi. 2.

famonjena.
2.
izy,

Now

is

the day, &c.

The Adverb
he writes

qualifies a

Verb.

Manoratra tsara

well.

Miasa

fatratra,

he works hard.

Miantso mafy izareo, they


3.

call

out loud.

The Adverb

qualifies

an Adjective and ParRatsy

ticiple.

Tsara dia tsara, very well, very good.

indrindra, exceedingly bad.

Tsara

filaza,

well told.

Miteny
4.

tsara,

speaking well.

The

Adverb
is

quaUfies

Pronoun.

Tsara
?

hiany izy, he

very well.

Akory hiany hianareo

How are

you ?

5. The Adverb qualifies a Preposition. Saiky namaky ny tanana izy, he went almost through the

220
city.

SYNTAX OF

Any amikOf

is

there with me.

Amiko

anke-

hitriny, with
6.

me

now.
qualifies

The

Adverb

Conjunction.

Ary

dia nandeha izy, and then he went.


fa hianareo kosa, not

Tsy
also.

izy hiany

he only, but you

Eule

2.

to qualify, but

The Adverb follows the word, it is intended when it is emphatic, it precedes the
it

word or sentence which


izany,
it is

quahfies.

Hita marimarina

quite evident.
there.

Ela nitoeranay tany, we

stayed

a long time
3.

Rule

Adverbial Prepositions govern Nouns in

the Objective Case.

Tany an-trano

aho, I

was

in the

house.

Nitoetra tambony tany izy, he dwelt on earth,

Izao rehetr' izao

ambony tany ambany

lanitra, all

on

earth under heaven.

Rule

4.

Adverbs have Tenses.

is

prefixed to

them
will

as the sign of the Perfect Tense,

and ho of the

Future.

Any,

is

there.

Tany, was there.

Ho

any,

be there.

Mitoetra any an-trano aho, I stay in the

house.
house.

Nitoetra tany on-trano aho, I stayed in the


Hitoetra any an-trano aho, I will stay in the

house.

Rule

5.

The Tense
when

of Adverbs must agree with

the Tense of the Verbs with which they are connected, except,
the

word

that follows the

first

Adverb

signifies

present existence, then the latter

is

ADVERBS.
put in the Present Tense.

221

Nitoetra tany Itoamasina


at

any Madagasikara aho, I remained


Madagascar.

Tamatave in

Nitoetra tamy ny manam-boninanitra


I

any Itoamasina aho,

stayed with the Officers at

Tamatave.

Rule

6.

Interrogative Adverbs begin the sentence,


is

when

the person, or thing,

inquired, but they follow

the Verb when the

action,

or motion,

is

inquired.

Inona no izany

was there

What is it ? Iza moa no teo ? Who ? Ho aiza izy, or hankaiza izy ? Where will he
?

go

Mankaiza izareo ? Where are they going


?

Han-

deha rahoviana izy

When

will

he go

Section

vii.

Syntax op Prepositions.

Rule

1.

Prepositions govern the Objective Case.

Mangataka

aminaxeo aho,

beg of you.

Niala

tamiko ny olona,

the people went away from me.


will

Hiaraka aminaxeo aho, I

go with you.

Rule

2.

The meaning
If the

of the Preposition am^/ deit

pends on the signification of the Verb with which


is

connected.

Verb
out

signifies to
;

go to a place,
signifies

or from a place, or with a person


to,

then am?/

unto, into,

from,

of,

with,

together with.

Mivoaka amy ny tanana


town.

izy,

he

is

going out of the

Niaraka tamy ny olona hianareo, you went

with the people.

Hankany amy ny olona

aho,

I will

go unto the people.

222

SYNTAX OP
3.

Eule

Prepositions

have Tenses

like

Adverbs,
to ex-

and have the same


press the Perfect,

signs, t prefixed to

them

and ho, the Future.

Amiko ny

ankizy, the children are with me. the children were with me. children shall be with me.

Tamiko ny ankizy,

Ho

amiko ny ankizy, the

Rule

4.

Prepositions should be placed as near as

possible to the words which they govern.

Nitoetra

tany w-trano aho,

I stayed in the house.

Aoky

hiaraka aminao aho, let

me

go with thee.

Rule

6.

Many

Prepositions are expressed by Verbs.


the
are

Nandeha namaky ny tany aho, I passed through land. Manohitra azy ny olona, the people
against him.

Rule

7.

Prepositions which signify agency, instru-

mentality, purpose, object, time, or place, are expressed

by the Circumstantial form of the Passive voice. Tanana mahery namoahany ny olona, with a strong hand did he bring the people out. Fangady nihiadiany ny olona ny tany
with spades.
;

the people digged the ground


for this
;

Izany no nanandratako azy ;

purpose I raised him up.


stayed there a long time.

Ela nitoerako tany

Ny

trano nitoerako; the

house where I dwelt.

CONJUNCTIONS.

223

Section

vii.

Syntax op Conjunctions.

Rule

1.

Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or

sentences together.

Tany sy lanitra, earth and heaNandeha izahay, fa nitoetra hianareo, we went away, but you remained.
ven.

Rule

2.

Conjunctions connect the same

Moods
sell.

and Tenses of Verbs, and cases of Nouns and Pronouns.

Mivarotra sy mividy aho,

buy and

Nivarotra

omby sy ondry

hianareo, you sold bullocks

and sheep.
Rule
tive
3.

Izaho sy izy nandeha, I and he went.

Some
after

Conjunctions require the Subjunc-

Mood

them.

Rdha manota aminao ny

rahalalinao,

anaro izy, ary raha mibebaka izy, dia


;

mamela ny helony
rebuke him ; and

If thy brother sin against thee,

if

he repent, forgive him.


or Argumentative

Rule

4.

The Conditional

Con-

junction, does not admit the Nominative to intervene

between

it

and the Verb, when

it

is

not used in the


hianareo,

Emphatic and Exclusive form.


dia faly aho,

Raha mody

when you
I shall

return home, I shall rejoice.

Raha mahazo
I receive

vola aho, dia handoa

ny volanao aho,

If

money,

pay your money.


it

Raha izy no
stays,

mitoetra, dia ho faly aho, If


shall

be he that

then I

be glad.

224
Eule
5.

SYNTAX OP
Conjunctions after an Objective case, or

a degree of Comparison, do often require that the

Noun, or Pronoun should agree with the Verb, or


Preposition expressed or understood.
izy, ary hianao,

Nanavotra ahy
i.

he redeemed

me

and you,

e. na'oO'

tany,

is

understood.
sell

Nahalafo be aho noho hianareo,


sell,

I was able to
is

more than you could

nahalafo,

understood.
Observations,

Obs.

1.

The Copulative Conjunction ary


the
first

is

often

used

as

word of a sentence,
and the
last

to connect

phrases, or sentences,

word or sentence.

Ary

nandeha izahay, dia tonga tany Itoamasina, and


arrived at Tamatave.

we went and
ary lava ny
long.

Fohy ny

andro,
is

alina, the

day

is

short,

and the night

Lanitra, sy tany,

ary ny ranomasina, heaven

and

earth,

and the

sea.

Obs. 2.

The Copulative Conjunction

sY, connects

Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs.


ondry, cattle and sheep.

Omby

sy

Marina sy mahitsy, just

and righteous.

Izaho sy izy, I and he.


sells.

Mividy sy

mivarotra izy, he buys and

Obs. 3.
nects
father

The Copulative Conjunction Amana conwords that have co-existence. Ray aman-dreny,
and mother.
Andriana amam-bahoaka, king
riches.

and people.

Vola aman-karena, money and

CONJUNCTIONS.
Obs.
4.

225

The Copulative Conjunction ambany conaccompany other per-

nects persons or things, which

sons or things.

Nandeha ny miaramila ambany ny

manam-boniahitra, the soldiers went with the officers.

Lasa ny lehilahy ambany ny vehivavy, the men went


together with the

women.

Obs.

5.

The Copulative Conjunction sady, conTsara sady


correlative
pretty.

nects words that are nearly synonymous.


soa,

good and

But

it

often has

its

NO,

when

the words which

it

connects are Emphatic.


12.

Masina ny didy, sady marina no tsara. Eom. vii.

The

commandment
death,
i,

is

holy, just,
it

and good.

Sady mahaand causes

velona no mahafaty izany,


e.
it

makes

alive

revives and

kills.

Obs. 6.

The Copulative Conjunction

dia, connects

words that are put in apposition, and Verbs that imply motion, progress, or advancement.

Izaho miva-

vaka aminy lehovah, dia Andriamanitra, Tompony ny


lanitra sy

ny tany, I worship Jehovah, even God, the

Lord of heaven and earth. Niala ny olona, dia nankany an-tsena, the people departed and went into
the
sina,

market.

Niaingia izareo, dia nankany Itoama-

they started of and went into Tamatave.


7.

Obs.

The Copulative Conjunction ka, connects


result,
eiOfect

words that imply

or consequence.

Ni-

hinana izy, ka voky, he did eat and was satiated.

Ninona

izy,

ka maty, he drank the ordeal (tangena)

and died.

226
Obs.
8.

SYNTAX OF
that are used in pairs

The Conjunctions

should correspond.
thou.
will go.

Na

izy

na hianao, whether he or
izareo, neither I, nor they

Tsy handeha aho, na

Sa fahoriaua, sa fanenjehana manjo azy maneither affliction or persecution befalls

drakariva,
continually.

him

Tsia, tsy akory, no, not at


is

all.

Tsy misy

vola amiko, na kely akory, there

no money with me,

not even the

least,

i.

e.

have not a farthing by me.

Section

ix.

Syntax of Interjections and


Eepletives.

Rule

1.

Interjections precede

and

follow
friend
!

the

persons called upon.

By

sakaiza
!

Oh

E ry

Ineny

Oh mother
2.

Ikiaky 6

Oh

father

Rule
are

Interjections

expressing strong emotions

placed both before and after the person called

upon.
father
!

Ry

Ineny 6

E
3.

re Andriamanitr' 6

Oh mother E ry Ikiaky Oh God


!

Oh

Rule

Interjections

are placed
!

before Personal
I
!

Pronouns.

Mahita loza re aho


!

am

ruined
!

Lozako

re

Woe

is
!

Oh me
!

am

Oh I Woe unto me
lost
!

Oh that he would Enga ka ho hendry izareo Oh that they were wise Mateza anie aho Oh how sorry I am
Inay izy
!
.'

INTERJECTIONS AND REPLETIVES.

227

Rule

4.

The Repletive mba


it

is

placed before Verbs.

In the Infinitive Mood,


for the purpose of
;

signifies in

order that, or
it

but in the other Moods,


place.

denotes

what may happen, or take


zavatra va hianareo
i. e.

Tsy mba nividy

Did not you buy any thing ? ? Did not you happen to buy any thing ? Lasa ny

miaramila
i.

mba

hiady, the soldiers are gone to fight,

e.

the soldiers are gone in order to fight, or for

the purpose of fighting.

Rule

5.

The Repletive anie


and
after

is

placed before

Nouns
people.

and Pronouns,

Verbs.

Hotahin' Andria-

manitra anie ny olona,

Ho

tahina anie hianareo,

may God bless the may you be blessed.


Repletives,

Rule
VA,
after

6.

The

Interrogative

moa and
}

are placed

before

Nouns and Pronouns, and


Iza

Verbs and Adjectives.


? ?

moa

hianao
?

Who
.

art

thou

Handeha

v' izy }

Will he go
?

Tezitra va

ny olona

Are the people angry

228

PROSODY.

PART

IV.

PROSODY.

PROSODY
Accent of
Verses.

regulates

the

Proper

Quantity

and

Syllables,

and Words, and measure of

Section

t.

Pronunciation.

phasis, Pause,

Pronunciation comprises Accent, Quantity, Emand Tone.


Accent
the Emphatic tone with which one
is

1.

is

syllable of

a word

more

forcibly

sounded than the

other, or others.

ACCENT.
(1).

229
first

The Accent

is

placed on the

of Dissyl-

lables,

on the second of

Trissyllables,

and on the

Antepenultimate of Polysyllables, viz.


Accent on the
first

Syllable.

On

the Second Syllable.

Maro many.
Manga, purple.
Lena, wet.
-

Mandeha,

to walk.

Mividy, to buy.

Mandena,

to wet.

Accent on the Third Syllable.

Mangataka, to ask.
Mivarotra, to see.

Mahamarina, to

justify, to

make

righteous.

(2).

Words

that are irregular in their accent or


different
;

that have the are accented


;

same orthography, but


as,

meaning,
hand.

lalana,

way, road

tanana,

Manda,
lalana,

to deny.

Imp.

Mandrara, forbid, prohibit


city.

law ; tanana, town,

(3).

Verbs

in the Imperative

Mood, change the


it

regular position of the Accent, and transfer


last syllable

to the

when
is

there

is

not a syllable added,

but

when

there

a syllable added, or changed, to the


;

penultimate and antepenultimate


assemble.

as,

miangona, to

Imp. Miangona, assemble.


Imp. Mandrosoa, advance.
ask.

Mandroso, to
Mangataka, to

advance.
ask.

Imp. Mangataha,

(4).

Verbs and

Participles of

the Passive voice

retain the

Accent on the same

syllable that is accented

230

PROSODY.
;

in the Imperative of the Active voice


forbid, prohibit.

as,

mandrara,

Andrarana, forbidden, prohibited.

(5).

The

last

vowel of Trisyllables, and PolysylManitra, sweet

lables

are very slightly articulated.

odour.

Manatitra, to send, to offer.

2.

Quantity means the length of a syllable in Pro-

nunciation.

Some words
called

are said to be short, and

others are
haste.

long.

Maro,

many.

Maika, in

Mangataka, to ask.

Andriamanitra, God.

3.

Emphasis

is

a particular stress of the voice laid


to

on some particular word,


fication, or importance.

mark

its

peculiar signi-

Vohi'tra, village.

The Emphasis

is

generally expressed in the Mala-

gasy language by changing the position of the words.

Examples.

(1).

Mandeha any

an-tsena anio va hianareo


?

Do you go
(2).

unto the market to-day

Hianareo va mandeha any an-tsena anio


go unto the market to-day
?

Do you
(3),

Any an-tsena va

alehanareo anio
?

Do you
(4).

go unto the market to-day

jinio va alehanareo any an-tsena

Do you

go unto the market to-day.

PUNCTUATION.
4.

231

Pause

is

a mere rest, or cessation of the voice

in a sentence.

Pauses in the Malagasy are represented

by the same points, or stops, as in the English. They are the comma, (,) ; the Semicolon, (;) the Colon,
;

(:)

the Period,

(.)

the Point of Interrogation,


(!)
;

(?)

the point of Exclamation. the Parenthesis,


( ).

the Dash,
'*

and

Quotation

".

5.

Tone, or modulation of the voice, consists in

giving appropriate turns, and tones in reading, cor-

responding with the sense, and, to be correct, depends


almost entirely on a knowledge of the passage read.

6.

Inflection

is

the rising or the falHng of the


rising Inflection
is

voice in reading.

The

marked

'

and the

falling /V, viz.

1.

Questions commencing with Verbs,


;

adopt the
?

rising inflection

as,

?wawa-maso va ny biby

Have

animals eyes olona


?

Jfw?2-tanana aman-tongotra va ny
feet
?

Have men hands and

2.

Questions commencing with Pronouns, and Ad-

verbs, adopt the falling Inflection.

(1).
(2).

Inona no ataonao

W%at

art

thou doing
.^

JSTahoana no nanao izany hianao


?

Why

hast

thou done that


(3);

Anay ny omby
and the sheep.

sy

ny ondry

Ours are the

cattle

232
(4).

PROSODY.
Ankehitriny

no
is

andro fankasitrahana, ary

ankehitriny no andro famonjena.

Now

is

the ac_

cepted time, and

now

the day of salvation.

3.

When

questions are followed by answers, they


;

adopt the rising Inflections

as,

Hendry va hianao
wise.

Art thou wise

Tsy hendry aho, I am not


of words, or

4.

The Opposition

sentences, rev'

quires oppositive Inflection.


toy izay tsara
?

Aleonao

izay ratsy

Dost thou prefer what


?

is

bad, rather

than what

is

good

Tianao va ny lozabe, ary halanao


?

vany malemi-fanahy
(i. e.

Dost thou love the cruel man,

a tyrant), and hatest thou the meek.

Section

ii.

Hyphen and Apostrophe.


a note of

1.

The Hyphen
also the Elision,

is

Conjunction, and

shows the division of

syllables,

and Compound words,


letter,
;

and

and the change of a

or a

syllable in

words that are joined together


;

as,

maro,

many

ma-ro, tanim-bary, rice-ground


;

tanim-boly,

garden

zava-tsarotra, a dear, or difficult thing.

2.

The Hyphen
or

is

used to join words that express


it is

more than one


only one idea,

idea, or object, but

omitted,

when

object

is

expressed.

Masoandro,

sun, from maso, eye, and andro, day.


rice ground.

Tanim-bary

Mitsaha-miasa

izy,

he ceases to work.

; ;

HYPHEN AND APOSTROPHE.


3.

233

The word joined


as

to another

by a Hyphen quapeople.

lifies it
i.

an Adjective.

Hanja-by, a bar of iron,

e.

an iron bar.

Olo-maro,

many

Olon-

kendry, wise men, or wise people.

4.

The Hyphen connects

different parts o f speech

as, Substantives

joined to Substantives.

Trano-fiaro-

vana, a house of protection, a castle, a tower.


jectives

Adpublic

joined to Substantives.

Lalam-be,

road, highway.
tives.

Verbs and Adjectives


Verbs to Verbs.
i.

to Substani.

Zava-tsaro-bidy, a thing dearly bought,

e.

a very dear thing.

Aza mitsahaunjust,

mivavaka, cease not to pray,


ing.

e.

pray without ceasTsi-marina,

Adverbs

to Adjectives.

unrighteous.

Tsi-madio,

unclean.

Tsi-mety,

im-

proper, not right.

5.

The Hyphen connects words


house of
it

in

Apposition.

Trano-tany, earthly house.


i.

Tranom-by, iron house,


Tranon-kazo,

e.

the iron.

wooden

house.

The Apostrophe shows the eUsion of an unarticulated vowel, when its true sound is completely
6.

absorbed by the succeeding vowel.


of man,

Sain'olona,

mind
cattle

human mind.
cattle,

Ombin'olona,

men's

from omby,

ny of them, olona, the people.


that the latter
;

7.

The Apostrophe shows

Noun

is

in Apposition wjth the

Pronominal Affix

as,

volan'-

234
olona, the people's

PROSODY.

money

from vola, money, ny, of

them, olona, the people ; money of them the people.

Section hi.

Versification.

Versification
certain

is

the Poetical arrangement of

number of

syllables according to their accent,

Malagasy Proverbs, Adages, Songs, and

Hymns

are

composed according

to Poetic feet, but the principal

feet used, are the Spondee, Iambic,

and the Dactyl.


life,

The

following

is

Hymn

on the uncertainty of
first

composed by John Rainisoa, one of the


verts to Christianity,

con-

and rendered

into English verse

by E.

J.

HYMN
1

L. M.
aina.

Tavim-bilany ny

Tsy
Tsy
2

hita izay havakian'

Fofo-nahandro ny aina,
hita izay halevonan'.
fetry

Ny
Tsy

ny maty

tsy hita,

Hazo amoron-tevana,
hita izay hianjeran',

Na

ho andro, na ho

alin'.

3 Tsy 'mpiry no ho tanora,


Indray mitorak' hiany,

Ny

faty

mpanazakazak',

Zanahary,

Tompony ny

ain'.

YERSE.

235

4 Maty 'ndrai-mandeha, leo hian',

Maty 'ndroa no

tsy tanty

Sambatr' ny mino an-k'rais'ty,

Fa hahazo

fiainana.

Another Verse
Tsy
haharitr' ela,
tafiotr'

P.

M,

Ny

alina

Tsy ho andro maro, Hitondran' ny ory


Atsy ny fipoak' andro,

Akeky ny

finaritra.

(Translation,)

L.

M.
lid.
is

Life

is,

but earthen vessePs


it

Is brittle,
Is but a

breaks, but

when

hid,

steam from food to

rise.

No

one can see whereto


is

it flies.

2 Uncertain

the time to die,

Like a tree on precipice high

No

one can say when

it

will fall,

By day, by night, that is hid from all. 3 Young many times, we shall not be, It 's once for life, all men must see,
With
rapid strokes, death plies his sword,

God is, 4 To die,

of

life,

the Sovereign Lord.

though, once

we may

bear,

But second death, who

can endure,

236

PROSODY.

How
There

bless'd are those


is

who

in Christ trust,

hfe eternal for the just.

P.M.
The dark tempestuous night. For e'er will not endure Long time 's allotted not, For none, the cross to bear, The lovely dawn that shines afar,
Declares that the beauteous

morn

is

near.

Section

iv.

Figures of Speech.

The
1.

following are usually called figures of speech.

The Proverbs

or Adages,

Ohabolana,

is

a short

figurative sentence frequently repeated.

Examples,
(1).

Tahaky ny voan-kazo
ny

an'

ala,

Ny
in

mangidy

ariana,

mamy

atelina

ary ny tsi-mety ariana,


fruit
is

ary

ny

mety

alaina.

Like

the
;

forest

the bitter is rejected, and the sweet


like

swallowed

so in
is

manner, reject what

is

wrong, and adopt what

right.
(2),

Aleo joko
It is

mihiasolanga,

toy

izay

solanga

mihiajoko.

more

desirable to see the crooked

become

straight,

than the straight become crooked.

PIGUEES OF SPEECH.
(3).

237

Fahatanora ny andro maraina, fahantitra ny

andro hariva.
of the evening,
(4).

The youth of
i.

the morning

is

the age

e. early rising

makes a long day.


hitondra-

Misoroka-adidy,

ka manan-tiana,

henatra,

ka hanana

azy,

He

that eludes censure


retain
it.

and

acts with partiality shall


(5).

bear shame, and

Tsy misy

tafintohina an-danitra,

fa an-tany

no mahatafintohina.

There

is

nothing to offend in

heaven, but on earth alone


i.

is

what causes offences,


is

e.

not in heaven but on earth

what offends.
tsy

(6).

Rano madio,
full

iray

siny,

mahaleo rano

maloto, eran-tsotro.

A spoonful of

dirty water spoils

a vessel

of clean water.

Moral.

One

sin

mars

the whole conduct.

2.

Parable,

SimiUtude, or Comparison,

ohabo-

LANA, OHA-TENY, FAN0RARANA,'is a resemblance between


objects.

Ny
The

ranomasina

manahaky ny Ombelahy

mitrena.

sea resembles a roaring bull.

3.

Metaphor, Hain-teny, Oha-teny


;

is

expressed

without the words, Uke, as


tra

tahaky, toy, toa.

Saba-

arivo

ny

feritreritra

conscience

is

a thousand

swords.

Andriamanitra no masoandroko, sy ampinga.


sun and shield.
a meta-

God
4.

is

my

Allegory,

Fanoharana, Oha-teny,
;

is

phor protracted to a C9nsiderabie length


nitondra tahom-boaloboka

as,

"Hianao

avy tany Ejipity

ary

238

PROSODY.

namboly izany. Nanarony ny tendrombohitra ny fanalofany, ary tahaky ny haze Sedera tsara ny sampany.

Ni-

hatr'amy ny ranomasina ny sampany, ary nihatr'amy ny

ony ny rantsany."

Egypt and planted


shadow of
it,

it.

"Thou The

hast brought a vine out of


hills

were covered with the


thereof

and the boughs

were

like sea,

goodly Cedars.

She sent out her bows into the


river."

and her branches unto the

Ps. Ixxx. 8, 10, II.

5.

Antithesis, teni-mifanandrify,
;

is

the contrast,

or opposition between two objects

as,

marina, ary

meloka, righteous, and guilty.

Tsara, ary ratsy, good,


clean,

and bad.
sakaiza, ary

Madio, ary maloto,

and

dirty.

Ny

ny fahavalo, the

friends,

and the enemies.

6.

Metonymy,

Solo-anarana,

is

a change of
effect,

names, or putting the cause for the


effect for the cause
;

or the

as,

Mangotraka ny vilany, the

pot boils,
hajaina.

i.

e.

the water.

Ny
to

fotsi-volo

tokony ho
i.

Grey hairs ought

be honoured,

e.

the

aged,

7.

Synecdoche, or

Comprehension,
as,

bangobango

takes a part for the whole;


leriosalema,

" Dia nanatona azy

sy lodaia rehetra, ary

ny tany rehetra
Matt.
5, 6.

manodidina any loridany, dia nataony batisa teny


loridany,
izay naneky
to

ny helony."

iii.

Then went out


and
all

him Jerusalem, and

all

Judea,

the region round

about Jordan, and

were

baptized of

him

in Jordan, confessing their sins."

FIGURES OF SPEECH.
8.

239

Personification,

mampody ny

tsi-manan' aina tea


to inanimate
sea,

ho

olombelona, attributes life


;

and action

objects

as,
is

Tezitra

ny ranomasina.

The angry

or th^ sea

angry,
is

Masiaka ny
furious.

rivotra, the furious

wind, or the wind

Ny
saw

ranomasina nahita
it,

izany, dia nandositra, the sea

Bxidifled.

9.

Apostrophe, Miteny

amy ny maty, na amy ny


if

tsy eo,

na amy ny zava-tsi-manan'aina, addresses the

dead, or the absent, or inanimate things, as

endowed

with

life.

Ry
!

lonatana, teo
!

amy ny

fitoeran'

Avonao

namonoana anao
high places
Death, where
dresenao
!

Jonathan, thou was slain in thy


Fahafatesana, aiza ny fanindroanao
!

Ry
is

thy sting

Ry

fasana, aiza
!

ny

fan-

Grave, where

is

thy victory

10.

Hyperbole, tapAhoatry
;

ny

izy, consists in an

extravagant exaggeration
blood.

as,

Onin-dra,

Rivers

of

Tendrombohitry ny voa vono. Mountains of

the slain.

" Raha voa

soratra avokoa izany nyrehetr'

izany, ataoko, tsy


lo izao,

omby

hitoerany ny boky izao tonlo-

raha no soratana,"

" If they

were

written

every one, I suppose that the world

itself

could not

contain the books that should be written."

11.

Irony, fanesoana, expresses things in a manner


;

contrary to their real meaning

as,

hendry dia hendry


is

hianao, thou art very wise, meaning that he

very

silly.

Adala

v* ialahy

Art thou a fool

meaning that he

is

wise man.

240
12.

PROSODY.
Interrogation,

is employed, when moved ; as, " Manantsandry tahaka an' Andriamanitra moa hianao ? sa mahampikiotrokotro feo tahaka Azy va hianao ? " " Hast thou an arm like God ? or canst thou thunder with a voice hke him ? " Job xl. 9.

manontany,

the passions are to be strongly

13.

Exclamation,
;

fiantsoana,
*'

is

the

effect

of

Endray ny hahaliny ny harena, sy ny fahendrena ary ny fahalalan' Andriamanitra !" " O


strong emotion
as,

depth of the riches, both of the wisdom and knowledge


of God!"

14.

CHmax, tafakatra aman-tafidina,


tsy

rises

by

regular graduation to the highest point of the subject


as,

Tsy misy fiarovam-pananana, raha


misy maneky;

misy lalana
;

tsy

misy lalana raha tsy misy mpanapaka


tsy

tsy

misy

mpanapaka raha
olon-drehetra.

ary tsy misy

maneky, raha samy no manao izay


There
;

sitraky

ny fony ny

is

no protection of property and no

without government
gistrate
;

no government without a ma;

no magistrate without obedience

obedience when every one acts as he pleases.

DIALECTS.
The
principal Dialects are those

of the Central,

Eastern, and Western provinces of the Island, viz.

Ankova,Betsimisaraka and Sakalava. The following are

DIALECTS.

241

a few examples of different words expressing different


things, things.

and

also of the

same words expressing

different

1.

Different words expressing different things.

Examples*
Ankova.
Betsimisaraka.

Sakalava.

English.

Amboa,alikia kivahy

fandroaka

dog.

Omby

242

PROSODY.

Examples (continued).
Marivo, shallow.

Marivo, near, nigh.


wife.

Vady, husband,
Hala, spider.

Valy, answer, reply.

Volana, month, moon.

Volana, word, saying.


Hala, scorpion.
to

Minona, to drink the tan- Minona,


gena, ordeal.

drink any

^ing.

Ampela, spindle.
Sotro, spoon.

Ampela,

girl, lass.

Sotro, plate, dish.

Maria, running water.

Maria, come.

Voron-dra,congealed blood Voron-dra, shield.

Tsako, chewing, gnawing. Tsako, maize, Indian corn.


Zaka, power, strength.
Trotraka, fatigued, tired.

Zaka, word, speech.


Trotraka, fallen, cast down.

Vohoka, preg^ant.
Vakana, beads.

Vohoka,
Vakana,

belly, stomach.

riches.

ANALOGY.
The Malagasy
1

language bears some Analogy in

certain points to the following languages.

To

the Arabic in the character and inflections

of Verbs.
2.

To To

the

Hebrew

in the

Dual number, and

in the

Causative and Reflective Verbs.


3.

the French in the position of the Adjective,


Oy

and the sound of the Vowels, except the


takes the sound of the French ou.

which

ANALOGY.
4.

243

To

the English in the use of the Article ny,


;

answering to the in English


the Consonants, except
j,

and in the sound of

which expresses the sound


as
final i

of DZ in English, and also y, used

at the

end of words.

5.

To

the

Welsh
and

in placing the

Emphasis on the

same

syllable,

in the

sound of the vowels, with

the exception of o.

6.

To

the Malay, in the sound and signification of

several words.

Malagasy.

244

14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED

LOAN
9^

DEPT.

RENEWALS ONLYTEL. NO. 642-3405 This book is due on the last date stamped below, or on the date to which renewed. Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.

;jyw

1969

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