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1 Interpersonal Communication: Reflected Appraisal Self-Identity

April M. Salisbury Interpersonal Communication Spring 2012 CMC 273 Annotated Bibliography

Alvesson, M. (2010, January 19). Self-doubters, strugglers, storytellers, surfers, and others: images of self-identities in organization studies. Human Relations, 63(2), 193-217.
The authors at the University of Lund, Sweden and the University of Queensland Business School, Australia, conducted an overview of the seven images: self-doubters, strugglers, storytellers, surfers, strategists, stencils, and soldiers to identify some of the options when addressing identity constructions. The authors referred specifically to the concept and stereotypical understandings of the key elements of individuals when constructing identities. The table was conducted and categorized by the seven images, their key characteristics, a theory, and their drive or challenge they contained. The purpose was to see how the image related to occupation and social changes when creating a working life. The authors found that the developing issues about identity was dealing with the concept of insecurity; and that when people interact with others which are considered new stages that identities that were set for them need to be reconstructed and changed with experiences one undergoes.

Felson, R. B. (1985, March 1). Reflected Appraisal and the Development of Self. American Sociological Association, 48(1), 71-78.
In this publication Richard Felson, a researcher from the State University of Albany has conducted a review of a recent survey that conveyed and defined the importance of reflected appraisal. The data that was formulated by Felson suggested and assumed two basic concepts that will organize how individuals view themselves; The self-concepts of individuals are based on their perceptions of the way others are responding to them, and individual perceptions of the responses of others toward them reflect the actual responses of others toward them. What Felson found when indicating this study was that the relationships among self and reflected appraisals was due to mainly projection, some evidence even showed that reflected appraisal can be affected by self appraisals and in this study he used football players as an example and it affected the ability and performance among the players. When conducted a study on attractiveness, Felson determines that attractiveness is categorized as how someone appears in another eyes.

King-To Yeung & John Levi Martin. (2003, March). The Looking Glass Self: An Empirical Test and Elaboration. Social Forces, 81(3), 843-879.
The authors at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, tested an hypotheses which is said to be inspired by Mead and Cooley; both Sociological researchers which came up the phrase and study of the looking glass self, which is how you see yourself and how you can see how you appear to others. Both researchers bring up the claim of identifying the widely know concept of this idea being the cause of social being, social life, or as a social product. The concept as shaping ourselves in ways others see us is the concept the researchers are trying to test by conducting long- term studies in all communities. Selfconstruction is defined in this study as individuals can manage information, how one may view itself and how they appear to others. A few examples of how the researchers conducted their studies were testing a groups social dynamics in terms of sense of self, the self-conception of other group members, comparing the data between the two, and developing two different points of views. The use of five hypothesis: self perception is independent, self perception results internalized, self perception externalized from others, self perception objective with the availability to direct behavior, and how the looking glass self effect with be stronger among women than men. The authors did find that the

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looking glass self hypothesis does effect influence and it can determines ones status, but more likely to lower it.

Milkie, M. A. (1999, June). Social Compaisons, Reflected Appraisals, and Mass Media: The Impact on Black and White Girls' Self-Concepts. American Sociological Association, 62(2), 190-210.
Melissa Milkie experimental studies indicated the effects that media convey to the self. The research suggests that when do have the opportunity to determine how we perceive media and how we interpret it, thats how it effects affects the self-concept and self-esteem. Milkie conducted a study with sixty white and minority girls and see how they were affected by the images exposed through media and if it determined how they perceived themselves and each other. Comparing the interpretation and how the individuals define themselves through the images the media portrays, the author related to other studies and showed that it was a sensitive topic, middle-class women were aware of the perceptions that the television portrayed them as and some were opposed to the media images. The author found that the white girls did identify with the images and the black girls rejected the images as determined to be a reference group. Both black and white girls did interpret them as unrealistic and tend to want more normal images. Although the white girls thought it was unrealistic, they also found it difficult to opt out of their stereotype, how they are perceived.

Parrott, G. W. (2004, April). Appraisal, emotion words, and the social nature of selfconscious emotions. Psychology Inquiry, 15(2), 136-138.

Winchester, J. (2009, September). The Self Concept and Cultural Identity: An Examination of the Verbal Expression of the Self Concept in an Intercultural Context. Linguistics Journal, 4, 63-81, 19.

Wyer, N. A. (2010, October). Selective Self-Categorization: Meaningful Categorization and the In-Group Persuasion Effect. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(5), 452-470, 19p, 1 chart.