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Definition of Fourier Transform

The forward and inverse Fourier Transform are defined for aperiodic signal as:

Lecture 10 Fourier Transform


(Lathi 7.1-7.3)

Already covered in Year 1 Communication course (Lecture 5). Fourier series is used for periodic signals.

Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London URL: www.ee.imperial.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/ee2_signals E-mail: p.cheung@imperial.ac.uk
PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 10 Slide 1 PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

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Lecture 10 Slide 2

Connection between Fourier Transform and Laplace Transform

Define three useful functions

Compare Fourier Transform:

A unit rectangular window (also called a unit gate) function rect(x):

With Laplace Transform: Setting s = j in this equation yield:

A unit triangle function (x):

Is it true that: ? Yes only if x(t) is absolutely integrable, i.e. has finite energy:

Interpolation function sinc(x): or


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PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 10 Slide 3 PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

Lecture 10 Slide 4

More about sinc(x) function


Fourier Transform of

x(t) = rect(t/)

sinc(x) is an even function of x. sinc(x) = 0 when sin(x) = 0 except when x=0, i.e. x = , 2, 3.. sinc(0) = 1 (derived with LHpitals rule) sinc(x) is the product of an oscillating signal sin(x) and a monotonically decreasing function 1/x. Therefore it is a damping oscillation with period of 2 with amplitude decreasing as 1/x.

Evaluation:

Since rect(t/) = 1 for -/2 < t < /2 and 0 otherwise

Bandwidth 2/

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PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 10 Slide 6

PYKC 8-Feb-11

E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

Lecture 10 Slide 5

Fourier Transform of unit impulse x(t) = (t)

Inverse Fourier Transform of ()

Using the sampling property of the impulse, we get:

Using the sampling property of the impulse, we get:

IMPORTANT Unit impulse contains COMPONENT AT EVERY FREQUENCY.

Spectrum of a constant (i.e. d.c.) signal x(t)=1 is an impulse 2(). or

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PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 10 Slide 7 PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

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Lecture 10 Slide 8

Inverse Fourier Transform of ( - 0)

Fourier Transform of everlasting sinusoid cos 0t

Using the sampling property of the impulse, we get:

Remember Euler formula: Use results from slide 9, we get:

Spectrum of an everlasting exponential ej0t is a single impulse at =0.

Spectrum of cosine signal has two impulses at positive and negative frequencies.

or

and

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PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 10 Slide 9 PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

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Lecture 10 Slide 10

Fourier Transform of any periodic signal

Fourier Transform of a unit impulse train

Fourier series of a periodic signal x(t) with period T0 is given by:

Consider an impulse train

T (t ) = (t nT0 )
0

The Fourier series of this impulse train can be shown to be:

Take Fourier transform of both sides, we get:

T (t ) = Dn e jn t where 0 =
0 0

2 T0

and Dn =

1 T0

Therefore using results from the last slide (slide 11), we get:

This is rather obvious!

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PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 10 Slide 11 PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

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Lecture 10 Slide 12

Fourier Transform Table (1)

Fourier Transform Table (2)

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PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 10 Slide 13 PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems

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Lecture 10 Slide 14

Fourier Transform Table (3)

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PYKC 8-Feb-11 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 10 Slide 15