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Floatation and Stability

Transverse Stability Longitudinal Stability Inclining Experiment, Free Surface Effect and Dynamic Stability Subdivision and Damaged Stability

Inclining Experiment

Objective:

The purpose of a stability test is to determine the lightship parameters of a vessel, from which the stability characteristics can be determined for each condition of loading, principally: Lightship displacement of the vessel and Vertical centre of gravity.

Terminologies: Lightship Displacement ( ) is the quantity of water displaced by the vessel expressed in tonnes (1 tonne = 1000kg). Freeboard is the vertical distance from the water surface to the upper surface at side of deck. Transverse Metacentre: If a vessel is inclined transversely through a small angle, the centre of buoyancy B will move slightly from the middle to towards the side. A line perpendicular to the new WL through the new center of buoyancy will interect the centerline of the ship at a point MT, referred as transverse metacentre. Metacentric Height GMT in any condition of loading is the distance between the transverse metacentre and the centre of gravity of the vessel, in the condition of loading under consideration.

Necessary conditions for the experiment The vessel must be inspected and notes made of the distribution and weight of any temporary material or equipment on board that can not be removed at the time. All tanks should be inspected to ensure that they are empty. Oil in crankcases and hydraulic oil systems are acceptable, but the levels in oil reservoirs should be carefully controlled. The bilge should be dry as should all ballast spaces. The vessel should be on an even keel. If it is not, weights can be added and their position recorded both horizontally and vertically (and of course, the actual weight recorded). Since the weather must be good, sea flat calm and no wind, light mooring lines should be used. Ensure that moorings are not so tight that they restrict vessel movement. The vessel must be well clear of the quay and should not be in danger of touching the bottom during the experiment. If it is not possible to have more than one pendulum due to the size of the vessel, it should be located as close to amidships as possible and on the centerline. The pendulum should not be too short otherwise it would be difficult to accurately measure the deflection. Even in a small vessel it should not be less than 2 metres in length, but the longer, the better. The intention is to get a reasonable measurement at small angles of heel (not less than 2 and not more than 4.

GG1=w*h/ =GMT*tan If d is the deflection and l is the length of the pendulum tan=d/l This is the principle used in the calculation later.

The key points of reference demonstrated in Figure 1 all lie one under the other. These are: K Point at the keel B Centre of buoyancy C Centre of gravity M Metacentre The height KB can be obtained from the displacement tables In some cases it may be necessary to lift lines from the vessel prior to inclining the vessel in order to develop the displacement table. With the vessel steady (no movement of persons on board) record the measurement or mark the zero point in line with the pendulum. Call this Experiment 0

The inclining test

M G

Experiment 0

A B

C D

Experiment 1

Move weight A from the Port side to the Starboard side over weight C If weights are moved by hand, ensure that the carriers go back to the centre line and remain still. When the vessel settles, mark the position of the pendulum line 1 or measure the deflection and write the result in the log. This is useful to detect any problems in the exercise. Call this Experiment 1. Move weight B to the Starboard side over weight D. When the vessel is steady, mark the position of the pendulum. At this point, the angle of inclination must not be more than 4 (preferably about 3).Call this Experiment 2.

A C D

Experiment 2

A B C D

The inclining test

The position of the key reference points now differ from Figure 1. B and C are no longer in line and the righting lever G Z can be clearly seen. Move weights A and B back to the their original positions on the Port side and when all is steady, mark the position of the pendulum 4 which is Zero but it may not coincide with the original Zero position (or enter the measurement in the log). Call this Experiment 3. Move the weight C and to the Port side and place it over weight A. When settled, mark the position No. 5 or enter the measurement in the log. As before, this will help to determine if there are any problems occurring due to wind, touching bottom etc. Call this Experiment 4.

Z
B

Experiment 3

A B

C D

Experiment 4

C A B

Experiment 5

Place weight D over weight B and when all is settled, mark the board No. 6 or enter the distance moved from the new Zero position in the log. Call this Experiment 5. Move weights C and D back to their original positions on the Starboard side. Mark the new Zero position if not the same as before or enter the distance moved by the pendulum from position No. 6. Call this Experiment 6.

C D A B

Experiment 6

Repeat the movement of the weights at least three times making sure that the next set of marks are clearly separated from the first sequence and always being careful to record the correct Zero position.

Distance between weights A B C D Pendulum length Deviation


Freeboard

Repeat the movement of the weights at least three times making sure that the next set of marks are clearly separated from the first sequence and always being careful to record the correct Zero position. The freeboard must be measured. This should be done as accurately as possible . At the same time, the draft can be measured and this will provide a check on the accuracy of the draft marks.

Water

line

Base line

Calculation Steps In the experiment described above, (drawn from an actual experiment) the following data was logged: Weight moved (w).The four weights used measure 87.23 kg each Distance moved by the weight. (d) 2.708 Length of pendulum (l) 1.690 m Displacement 29.579 Tons The deflection of the pendulum being recorded as follows: Experiment No. 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 Total deflection 119mm Measurement from metre stick on baton 100 113 129 97 80 68 97 0 13 mm 16 mm weight A to B weight B to D Deflection of Pendulum

32 mm weights A+B returned to Port side positions (2 moves) 17 mm 12 mm weight C to weight D to B

29 mm weights C +D returned to Starboard side (2 moves) Mean deflection 14.874mm

To obtain GM Solving for GM:

GM = GM =

wxd tan or wxdxl

Note that KM is constant for a particular draft and can be obtained from the vessels curves of form and GM is obtained from the experiment noting also that KG = KM - GM Thus to find the GM from the experiment given in the example, GM = 87.23 x 2.708 x 1.69 29597 x 0.014874 Thus, GM = 0.907 m Take note there are 8 moves and hence mean deflection is 119/8=14.874 mm

Establishing Connections with Previous Lectures and Concepts

Establishing Connections with Previous Lectures and Concepts

Curve of Statical Stability: IMO Requirements

(a) The area under the righting level curve should not be lesss that 0.055mradians up to 30 degree angle of heel. (b) The area under the curve should not be less than 0.09 m-radians for up to 40 deg heel or to an angle where non-weather tight opening come under water(whicever is less). (c) The area under the curve betweeb 30 and 40 deg heel should not be less than 0.03 m-radians. (d) The righting lever should be atleast 0.2 m at an angle of heel of 30 deg or greater. (e) The maximum righting lever should occur at an angle exceeding 30 degrees. (f) The GM should not be less than 0.15m

Free Surface Effect

Effect: The presence of free surface reduces GMT. Remember that the effect of a hanging weight is as if the center of gravity of the weight is from the point of suspension. The same happens in presence of free surface. The shift of liquid in the tank will result in a rise in center of gravity from G to G1 GG1* = w*gm Since gm bm=IT/VolT GG1 = w*gm/ =(VolT * T)*IT/((VolS * S)* VolT) = IT* T /(VolS * S) The loss of GMT is GG1 and referrred as Free Surface Effect. T and S denote the density of liquid in the tank and the density of surrounding water of the ship.

Problem 1: A rectangular double bottom tank is 14 m long, 12 m wide and 1.3 m deep. Sea-water is pumped into it to a depth of 0.7 m and the ships KMT was found to be 7.60 m. If the ship had a displacement of 5154 tonnes and a KG of 6.0m before the water was let into the tank, find the new GMT.

Solution 1: Weight of added water = 14* 12*0.7*1.025 = 120.5 tonnes Ships weight (5154 tonnes) * height of the CG (6m) = Moment (30924 tonne-m) Water weight ( 121 tonnes) * height of CG(0.7m)= Moment (84 tonne-m) Total weight = 5275 tonnes, Moment = 31008 tonne-m KG neglecting the free surface= 31008/5275 = 5.88 m Rise of G due to free surface = lb3/(12*VS) = 1.025*14* 123/(12*5275) = 0.39 m. KG neglecting the free surface= 31008/5275 = 5.88 m Correct KG= 6.27 m KM= 7.6 m Correct GM = 1.33 m

Questions: What would happen to FSE if a tank is divided into two equal smaller tanks using a transverse bulkhead (partition). What would happen to FSE if a tank is divided into three equal smaller tanks using a transverse bulkhead (partition) ? What would happen to FSE if a tank is divided into tthree equal smaller tanks using a longitudinal bulkhead (partition) ?

Dynamic Stability

What is it : Rules that ensure a vessel has adequate righting energy to withstand various types of upsetting or heeling moments. Beam winds (US Navy Criteria) The heeling arm HA = 0.0195*V2*A*L*cos2()/(1000*disp) where disp is in tonnes, L and A in metric units and V in knots. A id the projected sail area L is the vertical distance from the center of lateral resistance(usually half the draft) to the centroid of the hull and superstructure.

The heeling arm at the intersection with the righting arm (Point C) is not greater than 6/10 of maximum righting arm GZmax. Area A1 not less than 1.4*A2 where the area A2 extends 25 degree to windward from point C.

Closure Questions: (a) How would you compute the area under the curve of statical stability ? (b) Find out what is a tender and a stiff ship ? (c) Find out what is angle of loll in a curve of statical stability ? (d) How would you decide on how much weight should you be shifting across the deck for an inclining experiment ? (e) What corrections do you think needs to be applied after you have computed the GMT using our example to obtain GMT in lightweight condition ?