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Walters Reviewed work(s): Source: Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 354, No. 1704 (Jan. 15, 1996), pp. 59-88 Published by: The Royal Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/54540 . Accessed: 06/03/2012 08:33

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validation a stationary

of

condensing cascade of

turbine

blades

By 1 Whittle

A. J. White1,

J. B. Young1

and

P. T. Walters2

Department, University Engineering Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 ODY, UK Road, Cambridge Madingley Power Technology and Environmental Centre, 2Formerly of National Kelvin Avenue, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7SE, UK

and theoretical a detailed experimental The paper describes study of non-equilibrium transonicascade of turbine blades operating steam flow in a stationary condensing for obtaining of the colour schlieren photographs was installed Instrumentation cally. the pitchwise the blade surface static pressure shock wave structure, distribution, of the cascade and the stagnation of the mean droplet radius downstream variation Only one blade profile was tested but a comprehenpressure loss across the cascade. was acquired covering a wide range of inlet steam conditions sive set of measurements of the data, it was possible, for the and exit Mach numbers. By careful interpretation loss due to irreversible condensation first time, to infer the thermodynamic directly of the experimental An elaborate data measurements. from experimental comparison inviscid flow theory was also undertaken with condensing using a two-dimensional flows. Exboth steady and unsteady calculation scheme, simulating time-marching and it can be stated with some confidence was obtained cellent agreement throughout all the main used reproduce that the theory and calculation accurately procedures flow in stationary cascades. features of steady transonic condensing

energy

h+\u2 specific enthalpy of evaporation specific enthalpy rate per unit mass nucleation homogeneous constant Boltzmann's Mach number Mach number at cascade Average isentropic mass of a molecule droplet number per unit mass of mixture static pressure total pressure number Prandtl coefficient condensation

of mixture

exit

Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996) 354, 59-88 Printed in Great Britain

59

A. J. White,

J. B.

Young

and P.

T. Walters

critical

radius

specific entropy temperature cascade inlet stagnation vector flow velocity wetness fraction

superheat

thermal

liquid phase vapour phase droplet group-i saturated stagnation (total) condition cascade inlet condition cascade outlet condition

1.

Introduction

In the large steam turbines used for electrical the steam enters power production, turbine cylinders as a dry superheated the low-pressure to vapour but exhausts (lp) mixture of saturated as a two-phase the condenser vapour and small liquid droplets. the blade passages, the liquid droplets are formed mainly by homogeneous Within as the vapour becomes due to the rapid expansion nucleation highly supersaturated in the Once formed, the droplets process. grow rapidly, but the rate of expansion is generally so high that thermodynamic blade passages is only estabequilibrium diffuser leading to the lished in the inter-row gaps and in the final turbine exhaust from equilibrium in temperature condenser. are manifest Departures by differences the droplets between and the vapour and by the fact that the wetness fraction of mixture the two-phase differs from the equilibrium value corresponding to the lo? and entropy. cal pressure the phases also occurs but, for the slip between Velocity submicron sized droplets which constitute the main bulk of the liquid phase, this is much less significant than the effects of thermal non-equilibrium. There are two main reasons why departures from thermal in steam equilibrium the heat and mass transfer between the vapour and liq? turbines are important. First, uid phases can have a strong effect on the flow behaviour within the blade passages. This is particularly marked in the final lp turbine stages where the flow becomes in a most complex and generates shock waves which can interact supersonic way of droplet nucleation with the processes and growth. conSecond, non-equilibrium is a thermodynamically densation in the production irreversible process resulting of entropy in turbine efficiency. translates into a reduction The which, ultimately, loss in turbine efficiency due to wetness effect is an (of which the thermodynamic Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

Experimental

validation

of condensing

flow

theory

61

has never been precisely the empirical quantified. However, important component) turbine designers crule of thumb', universally to model the loss Baumann adopted by in calculation that its effect is comparable to, or even greater procedures, suggests viscous losses. the conventional than, in the United Kingof the electricity Since the privatization industry generating there has been a rapid swing in fashion away from the large steam-based coaldom, favoured Board fired power plants formerly Electricity by the Central Generating 'combined natural gas as towards smaller, but more emcient, cycle' plants utilizing a gas turbine cycle topping a the fuel (Horlock 1993). The combined cycle comprises to note that current design procedures steam cycle and it is interesting often specify a steam wetness at turbine exhaust which is considerably higher than that associated to 8-10%). the problems of as opposed with the older plants (12-15% Potentially, more important than ever before. are now technically wetness of condensing flows poses many problems which do not arise The computation these is the need to specify mathe? in single-phase Foremost calculations. amongst and to devise techniques for and condensation matical models for droplet nucleation of the resulting solution the stable and accurate numerical equations simultaneously of mass, momentum and energy. Difficulties arise with the conservation equations and it is usually is polydispersed to comthe droplet spectrum because necessary in a discrete of a large number of droplet groups to represent, pute the behaviour much progress size distribution. the real continuous Nevertheless, droplet fashion, flows. Two-dimensional has been made in the analysis of vapour-droplet steady-flow for pure steam by Bakhtar have been reported & So (1991) calculation procedures and by Young (1992), and for moist air by Schnerr & Dohrmann (1988). Recently, flow of condensing steam for the two-dimensional a calculation unsteady procedure which has been has been devised by White & Young (1993) and it is this approach below. described used for the calculations is a difficult in experimentation has been less satisfactory. Wet-steam Progress and most of the data used for validation in which to obtain measurements medium nozzle experiments in simple one-dimensional have been obtained purposes (Young were of the axial static the only measurements possible technically 1982). Initially, 'condensation the (misleadingly distribution shock', but through pressure named) in the the unknown data to fix empirically insufficient these provided parameters was made by a great advance in instrumentation models. theoretical Subsequently, the wetness for measuring of an optical technique the introduction properties (Walto such an extent that wetness fraction and ters 1973). This has now been developed not only in laboratory mean droplet size data can be obtained, nozzles, but also in In many cases, the actual number distribution machines operational 1985). (Walters the optical transmission of droplet sizes can also be inferred by numerically inverting data (Walters 1980). for steady between theory and experiment is that agreement The current situation nozzles is generally flows in one-dimensional and periodically satisfactory. oscillating for the case of two-dimensional data is available, no experimental Almost however, cascades of turbine blades and this is the area addressed flow in stationary condensing linear cascade blade design, the stationary the present paper. For turbomachinery by for establishing the validity of is one of the most important pieces of test equipment data on profile loss. For steam turbine blading, and obtaining new profile geometries in air, partly for convenience and has been performed all of this testing almost in real condensing steam flows was not of testing the importance partly because Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

62

A. J. White,

J. B.

Young

and P.

T. Walters

associated recognized. Testing in steam introduces many extra difficulties originally of the instrumentation with contamination and flow visualization by condensate, A novel 'blow down' times between condition and long thermal changes. settling et al. (1993) goes some way towards overcoming these by Bakhtar facility described but the small scale of the blading with the short times problems used, coupled for measurement, on the quality of available severe restrictions imposed inevitably the data obtainable. in this paper marks a return to steady In contrast, the investigation described flow cascade testing using full-sized blades but, in this case, operated with steam at lp turbine conditions. For the blade profile tested, a comprehensive realistic set of measurements was acquired covering a wide range of operating in terms conditions of inlet superheat and outlet Mach number. was installed Instrumentation for obcolour schlieren distribution, taining the blade surface static pressure photographs of the shock wave structure, the pitchwise of the mean droplet diameter variation and the stagnation of the pressure loss across the cascade. By careful interpretation for the first time, to infer the thermodynamic loss due to data, it proved possible, condensation measurements. directly from experimental

2.

Experimental

facility

and

test

cascade

in the wet-steam The experiments were performed Power facility of the National and Environmental the Central Electricity Centre, Leatherhead Technology (formerly Research General details of the facility are described by Moore et al Laboratories). and a preliminary is reported investigation (1973) by (using a different cascade) Skillings (1989). Steam was supplied to the test section (shown in figure 1) from two 1.5 MW boilers via an electrical and a single-stage superheater impulse turbine. The steam condition at inlet to the test section could be varied from a wet equilibrium to a superheated state by adjusting the speed of the turbine. The flow leaving the test section was via an adjustable duct. By varying the cooling water flow rate passed to a condenser in the condenser, the test section pressure ratio, and hence the exit Mach number, could be controlled. for most tests, the exit flow condition was controlled However, by varying the upper tailboard angle on the cascade (see below) with the condenser at its minimum value. pressure being maintained With reference to figure 1, steam entered the test section via a converging noz? zle and parallel liner which contained channels and bleed slots to remove sidewall condensate. This avoided contamination of the schlieren windows with coarse water, clear visualization of the trailing edge shock waves. The depth of the test enabling section was 152 mm, giving a blade aspect ratio (blade height over axial ehord) of 1.55 and ensuring a reasonably two-dimensional at the mid-plane flow-field of the passage. The turbine blade profile selected for the experiments is shown in figure 2 and was a of a fifth stage stator blade from the six-stage lp cylinder of a 660 MW turbine. copy The design exit Mach number was 1.2 and the outlet flow angle about 71?. This in the actual turbine conducted profile was chosen because experiments previously had indicated to the location high losses in the fifth stage (which also corresponded of the primary nucleation). Full-sized blade profiles were installed in the test section since scaling down would have resulted in higher expansion rates and thus larger departures from equilibrium. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

Experimental

validation

of condensing

flow

theory

63

FROM TURBINE

TO CONDENSER Figure 1. Details of the test section. The droplets produced nucleation would then have been extremely by homogeneous The use of large blades also facilitated the installasmall and difficult to measure. in particular, tion of comprehensive instrumentation of enabled the inclusion and, as far as the blade trailing blade surface pressure where tappings extending edge, condensation effects were most significant. The mass flowrate available from the boilers limited the number of full-sized blades as shown in figure 1. This is the minimum three passages num? to four, thus providing of a computer ber that could be used for an acceptable validation code incorporating an infinite cascade. it was still conditions Nevertheless, periodic boundary modelling to reduce the inlet pressure from 0.5 bar (the design value) to 0.4 bar to necessary obtain choking in the cascade. steam flow are listed The principal compressible parameters nucleating governing between the actual conditions within the in table 1. There is a close correspondence The greatat design and those selected for the cascade experiments. turbine operating number where the difference is 25%. However, is for the Reynolds est discrepancy in the boundary of this magnitude, transition to turbulence for Reynolds numbers of the occur over the first 30% of the blade, well upstream layers would probably zone in the experiments. condensation of unsteady the possibility con? was to investigate Since one of the objectives in the blade passages, it was important to eliminate densation spurious occurring and of the trailing caused by the interaction oscillations edge shock wave system the blades at the upper and lower edges of the the free shear-layers generated by in the literature for cascade tests us? have been reported cascade. Such oscillations to occur at exit Mach numbers and are particularly air (Sieverding likely ing 1976) some since the cascade contained close to unity. Furthermore, only three passages, Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

64

A. J. White,

J. B.

Young

and P.

T. Walters

Figure 2. Fifth stage LP turbine stator blade geometry used for all the experiments: blade pitch 87.59 mm, blade chord 137.51 mm, stagger angle 45.32?, inlet flow angle 0.0?. Table 1. Principal parameter mean expansion P = D(lnP) Dt hfg/cPTo isentropic number exit Mach rate dimensionless effects parameters governing the flow cascade value turbine value

from

-1156 s-1

-1156

s-1

impact of heat addition for a given level of condensation downstream flow. Shock wave strength and orientation boundary transition layer growth to turbulence and

3.40

3.30

1.03-1.35

1.20

8.1 x IO5

9.8 x IO5

work was required in order to obtain the closest approach to development possible in the downstream flowfield. periodicity For most of the experiments, the exit flow was constrained as by two tailboards, shown in figure 3. These effectively nozzle downstream provided a variable geometry of the cascade was independent of and, for choked flow, the cascade exit condition the condenser was installed to allow adjustment of the upper pressure. A mechanism Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

Experimental (a)

validation (b)

of condensing (c)

flow

theory

65

Figure 3. Different cascade downstream flow boundaries: (a) free shear-layer (constant pres? sure boundary); (6) solid tailboard (constant flow-angle boundary); (c) porous tailboard (mixed boundary). while tests were in progress. tailboard Several angle (and hence exit Mach number) be found in the literature studies on the use of tailboards may (Gostelow 1984) and that tailboards with a perforated surface cause less disruption to these conclude or free shear-layers. the porosity of the the flow than either solid tailboards Ideally, to optimize cancellation of the shock waves at different tailboard should be adjustable between Both solid and porous surfaces were tested and comparison the conditions. below. results is discussed in figure 4. The tailboard are illustrated Details of the final design of porous in from the blade trailing edge, as shown, in order to was gradually phased porosity A system of ducts of the flow into the tailboard plenum. prevent sudden expansion variable suction to be applied to the condenser was also installed, enabling leading to the tailboard plenum.

3. (a)

flow was taken from the very large plenum of the steam tunnel, Since the incoming were ob? the flow at inlet to the cascade was assumed to be uniform. Inlet conditions with of total pressure and total temperature tained from single point measurements In the case of wet inflow, the a Pitot probe and hooded thermocouple, respectively. and from the turbine work output, was calculated fraction wetness approximately from the known charwas estimated of the incoming the mean diameter droplets of optical acteristics of the tunnel, established program previously by a systematic measurements. tappings (b) Blade surface pressure data for code val? surface pressure sufficient was placed on obtaining Emphasis and over the entire pressure were therefore distributed Pressure idation. tappings lines as shown in figure 2. Pressure of the central blade passage, surfaces suction steel tubing contained within via hypodermic were lead out from the test section were made using a single digital transducer, and measurements the blade bodies of the To prevent blockage to the tappings connected by a scanivalve arrangement. the well-established lines with condensate, practice of air purging was used. pressure to avoid local dishowever, all purge air flow was discontinued During measurement, the pressure indicated tortion of the flow. Under these conditions, by the transducer fell to the level at the blade surface in a few seconds. Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

66

A. J. White,

J. B.

Young 350 mm

and P.

T. Walters

tail-board plenum

(c)

Outlet

plane

traverses

For the purpose of establishing exit Mach numbers and blade losses, total and static were made one quarter of an axial chord length downstream pressure measurements of the blade trailing edges. The traverse mechanism and probe attachment can be seen in figure 1. The measurements were made with the in figure 5. Prior to installation, the static in a special porous calibration The section. direction was also investigated and found to both total and static pressure measurements. and inertial total and static probe shown in steam pressure probe was calibrated effect of inclining the probes to the flow be negligible of ?10? for up to incidences The effects of vapour-droplet thermal pressure probe are of paramount and these aspects are discussed combined

relaxation on the response of the total when interpreting the raw measurements importance later in the paper. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

validation

of condensing

flow

theory

67

^1.6<|>tubing static

Figure 5. Total and static pressure probes used for traversing downstream xenon are light source Ofc,, slit source (focusofM2) plane mirror, M1 test section

concave mirror, M4 (focal length 4ft) three colour filter (focus of M3 + M4) v^)y intense slit source provided by optical fibre transformation section

Schlieren

in figure 6. As a result of the is shown schematically The schlieren arrangement to 'wrap' the optical path. long focal length of the schlieren optics, it was necessary in order to minimize aberration. However, angles were kept to a minimum of useful since, with correct alignment Colour visualization proved particularly as bands of waves could be distinguished the three-colour filter, shock and expansion was provided by a xenon are lamp combined Illumination blue and red, respectively. as shown in figure 6. This proved a par? transformation with a fibre-optic section, an intense slit source. The use of a fine coating of providing effective way ticularly in addition to the sidewall water traps, successfully of 'milk of magnesia', prevented with condensate. of the windows contamination (e) Optical droplet sizing of light extinction over a range of from measurements Droplet sizes were obtained of by Skillings (1989). The accuracy using the optical system described wavelengths established was originally for monodispersed the measurements using labdroplets Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

68 oratory allowed

A. J. White,

J. B.

Young

and P.

T. Walters

as described Later developments generated by Walters hydrosols, (1973). entire droplet size distributions to be successfully from measure? computed for the present cascade it was ments in turbines experiment, (Walters 1985), but, to obtain an average droplet size. This was because the variation of only possible for the range of droplet extinction with wavelength showed very little curvature light in the cascade sizes produced the processing and, consequently, required to obtain In order to examine the complete became very 'ill-conditioned'. the influ? dispersion in expansion ence of cross-passage variations the perspex windows rate, containing the optics could be rotated, thus allowing a downstream of three 'traverse' consisting separate optical measurements across one blade passage (see figure 1).

4. Numerical

Theoretical

calulation

procedure

for comparison with the experimental measurements were predictions a computer which simulated steam flow in twogenerated by program condensing dimensional turbine cascades. Viscous effects were not included but the numerical was time-accurate and could model periodically condensation procedure unsteady An outline of the theory is provided below and full details can be found processes. in White & Young (1993). Wet-steam is assumed to be a mixture of vapour at pressure P, temperature Tg and density pg, and a large number of spherical liquid droplets of various sizes. The continuous distribution of droplet sizes is discretized into a finite number of droplet the zth group containing each of radius ni droplets per unit mass of mixture, groups, assumed The T{ and density ri, temperature incompressible). pf (the liquid being wetness fraction y is then given by y and the mixture J2y^ = J2lnr^fn^ (41)

density

The as

mixture

specific

internal

energy

(l-y)eg

Y,Viei, i

(4.3)

(l-y)/is

+ y>i/ii,

(4.4)

(1 -y)sg

+ }

ylsl,

(4.5)

where the liquid terms include contributions from the surface energy and entropy. The vapour phase properties are calculated from the equation of state described by Young (1992). In general, the two phases are not in equilibrium, so the temperatures Tg and A convenient measure of Ti differ from the saturation Ts = TS(P). temperature ? from thermal equilibrium is the 'vapour subcooling' this being departures (Ts Tg), Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

validation

of condensing

flow

theory

69

of the wetness fraction from its local equilibrium to the deviation value are given by Gyarmathy's The droplet temperatures approximation: T, = TS-^^, (4.6)

In contrast to the vapour, the droplet Gi being the surface tension of group-i droplets. to their equilibrium value and, except for very relax extremely rapidly temperatures ~ Ts. in the early stages of nucleation, Ti tiny droplets for self-nucleated approximation interphase velocity slip (a good Neglecting of mass, momentum and energy for the inthe conservation equations droplets), are identical flow of the mixture to their single-phase viscid adiabatic compressible counterparts: ^ du ^ at + V-(pu) = 0, VP ?=0, p = 0, (4.7)

+ (u.V)u+

(4.8)

^l

+ V-(Hpu)

(4.9)

of the phases, E = e + \u2 and H = h + \u2. where u is the common velocity for the wet? closure of these equations Mathematical equation requires a separate and droplet growth. from the theories of nucleation ness fraction and this is obtained J is obtained of droplet embryos The rate of formation per unit mass of mixture nucleation: of non-isothermal from the classical homogeneous theory

(4.10) pf \ 3kTg y

to be coefficient k is Boltzmann's constant, qc is the condensation (assumed Helmholtz critical radius and m is the mass of a molecule, r* is the Kelvin unity), of r* and </> are standard factor. The definition correction (l-f-</>) is the non-isothermal in Young (1982, 1992). The precise form of the and can be found, with discussion, based on equation but calculations is still controversial nucleation (4.10) equation nozzle experiments. with one-dimensional condensing give good agreement the growth rate of group-i droplets is a slightly modified The equation representing version of the standard ^ where Gyarmathy equation: l v)lg/ Prg]' '

nt)Dt

pfn[l

+ 1.89(1

number of the vapour, and Prandtl Xg and Prg are the thermal conductivity is the suband D/Dt is the mean free path of a vapour molecule respectively, lg correction factor which The factor (1 ? v) is a semiempirical derivative. stantive in lp noz? with droplet size measurements to obtain precise agreement is included between reason as to why the agreement The physical zle experiments. theory and has never been at very low Wilson point pressures deteriorates slightly experiment of nucle? to the theories However, improvements pending explained. satisfactorily ? of the small correction ation and droplet growth, inclusion v) does successfully (1 on physical grounds if the condensation the difficulty side-step (and can be justified The were to differ under non-equilibrium coefficients and evaporation conditions). Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

70

A. J. White,

J. B.

Young

and P.

T. Walters

of Young (1982) for the factor (1 ? v) was modified original prescription slightly White & Young (1993) and it is the latter form which has been adopted here. by ? 0.2 for the calculations described [y below.) The rate of change of wetness fraction along a pathline (in unsteady flow) or a streamline is thus given by (in steady flow)

where the Dr^/Dt are given by equation by integrating (4.11) and the ni are obtained the nucleation rate J along the relevant pathline or streamline. The i-T-mesh computational solution of the equations grid used for the numerical is shown in figure 7. The conservation are written in finite volume equations (4.7-4.9) form and are marched forward in time using a second-order time-accurate Rungesimilar to that developed Kutta algorithm for perfect gas applications by Jameson et al. (1981). Details of the discretization, the artificial viscosity, the boundary con? ditions and other aspects of the technique can be found in White & Young (1993). Since the time derivatives of equations the (4.11) and (4.12) are all substantive, radii and wetness fraction are most conveniently obtained droplet by integrating For this purpose, at each time-step, the velocity field obtained along fluid pathlines. Kutta solution of equations is used to determine the inby the Runge (4.7-4.9) stantaneous of fluid particles, as illustrated in the diagram of figure 7. trajectories The integration of equation along the pathline using a (4.12) is then performed corrector the results being transferred to the solution predictor method, procedure for the conservation in readiness for the next time increment. A major equations of this mixed Eulerian is that the integration of advantage Lagrangian approach states only and hence this part of the codequation (4.12) involves thermodynamic from the fluid dynamic section once the pathline has ing is completely decoupled been identified (Young 1992).

5.

Test

conditions

Details of the experimental conditions for all the cascade tests are given in table 2. For all the tests, the inlet stagnation at about 0.4 bar. pressure was maintained Four different levels of inlet superheat These are clasAT0 were then investigated. sified in table 2 as L (low, AT0 = 4-8 ?C), M (medium, AT0 = 13-15 ?C), H (high, and F (very high, AT0 = 39?C). Some tests with an inlet wetness AT0 = 26-28?C) of about 1.6%, classified of inlet condition W, were also made. For each category (L, M, H, F, W), tests were carried out at three different tailboard angles, giving exit Mach numbers A few tests, classified M2s in the range 1.05-1.35. isentropic D, were also conducted to compare the performance of solid and porous tailboards, and to the flow without tailboards. investigate

6.

Experimental

results

and

comparison

with

theory

In this discussion, the Mach numbers referred to are the average isentropic exit values M2s based on the total-to-static and an isentropic expressure ratio Poi/P2 the inlet stagnation ponent of 7 = 1.32. AT0 denotes T01 ? TS(P01). Due superheat, to space limitations, it is only possible to present a selection of results but further details can be found in White (1992). Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

validation

of condensing

flow

theory

71

solid boundary

periodic boundary

mesh points

Figure 7. Details of the computational iJ-mesh and the fluid pathline used for integration the droplet growth equations for unsteady flow predictions. (a) (i) Unconstrained exit flow Schlieren flow visualization

of

could be achieved when the flow was unconstrained Higher exit Mach numbers this situation first in order to identify the tailboards and it is useful to describe by and predicted various flow features. Figure 8 shows the schlieren photograph pressure of the usual trailing edge for test Dl. The blue shock wave pattern consists contours feature Sc. in single-phase shock waves observed flow, Sp and SSJ and an additional The branchlng of Sp and Ss is due to the flow being beyond climit load? (i.e with an near the trailing edge can axial Mach number greater than unity). Rapid expansions be seen as regions of red. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

72

A. J. White,

J. B.

Young

and P.

T. Walters

the exit Mach number by raising the condenser Reducing pressure caused Sp and as in single-phase flow (Lichtfuss Ss to become more normal to the flow direction, just & Starken 1976), while the location of Sc did not change. In contrast, the increasing inlet superheat caused to move downstream while the positions of Sp and Ss Sc remained fixed. This clearly suggests that Sc is caused by condensation heat release: the inlet superheat thus causing a downstream increasing delays phase transition, the time-marching scheme has difficulty in presingle-phase calculations, which appears in the pressure contours as a slight pressure rise dicting only S'p, across the passage. the calculated Wilson points cor? extending part-way However, to 5C, providing that this feature is due to further evidence respond very closely condensation. that it (Note that Sc is sharply defined in the photograph implying a real flow discontinuity.) includes The untailboarded tests were also used to ensure that constraining the exit flow did not inhibit unsteadiness due to supercritical condensation heat release. A brief of all possible combinations of inlet and outlet conditions revealed gen? exploration eral unsteadiness of shock waves, such as Sp and Ss in typified by the blurring that this was due to the interaction between the suction figure 8. It was concluded Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996) migration. As with

Experimental

validation

of condensing

flow

theory

73

Figure 8. Test Dl: dry inflow, A7"b = 3.0 ?C, M^.s ? 1.5, unconstrained

exit flow.

from the uppermost blade and the free shear-layer. surface shock wave emanating exit flow was highly unDownstream Pitot traverses also showed that the cascade cascade did not provide a suitably the untailboarded controlled periodic. Evidently, for investigating either steady or unsteady flows. environment (ii) Comparison The effects of solid and porous tailboards

were examined of solid and porous tailboards tests with by performing the cascade. inlet superheat that the flow remained dry throughout high sufficiently than in the untailboarded situation and In both cases, the flow was much steadier the shock waves Sp and Ss were very sharply defined in the schlieren photographs. caused a reflection of the shock wave Ss which imAs expected, the solid tailboard in pinged on the suction surface of the central blade near the trailing edge, resulting of the theovalidation a spurious pressure rise which would have severely hampered The porous tailboard, on the other hand, although retical calculations. successfully wave. Applying suction in a weak reflected to the expansion Ss, resulted cancelling tailboard plenum did not affect this situation, probably because the degree of suction was more periodic and was insufficient. However, the flow with the porous tailboard with this configuration. hence all subsequent tests were conducted (iii) High inlet superheat

and computed for test pressure contours Figure 9 shows the schlieren photograph = in excess of 1.5 were predicted on H2 (AT0 = 28.0?C, Mach numbers M2s 1.20). is sufficient to cause sponthe suction surface and in such regions the subcooling is Immediate taneous nucleation, phase transition despite the high inlet superheat. rise through moisture the temperature Ss and significant however, suppressed, by for the absence of the feaThis accounts does not appear until further downstream. heat release on the gas dynamics, when ture SCi for the impact of the condensation is much less proat comparatively it does occur downstream high Mach number, in figure 9 also shows a suction nounced than in figure 8. The schlieren photograph Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

74

A. J. White,

J. B.

Young

and P. T. Walters

? CAI .CULATED PRESSURE STATIC ^:;^:; -"--; CONTOUR.S (P/ Po\) -'?'?.;' J"v!',;? Figure 9. Test H2: dry inflow, AT0 = 28.0 ?C, M2s = 1-20, porous tailboard. of Sp which is not reproduced This is due to surface reflection by the calculations. the skewness of the computational of the blade and is a well known grid downstream with iJ-meshes of the type used. problem associated of wetness Regions greater than 0.1% have been shaded on the contour plot and show that, due to the cross-passage moisture is most pronounced in the variation, flow convected from near the suction surface. The approximate between boundary wet and dry flow was also determined laser. By experimentally using a hand-held the laser beam into the flow, the regions of condensation became visible directing from the light scattered These observations confirmed the predictions by the droplets. of the theory. (iv) Low inlet superheat The schlieren photographs and predicted pressure contours for the three low super? heat tests Ll, L2 and L3 are shown in figures 10-12. These are particularly interesting the pressure surface shock wave Sp and the condensation because zone interact as the exit Mach number is reduced. For test Ll, figure 10 (AT0 = 4.5 ?C, M2s = 1.24), the shock wave pattern is quite different from that for Test H2, figure 9 (AT0 = 28.0 ?G\ M2s = 1.20). First, the main feature propagating across the central blade passage is curved and does not reflect from the suction surface. two distinct shock waves can be distinguished Second, from the pressure surface: the usual shock wave Sp and the feature Sc emanating associated with condensation. across the passage before only part-way Sp extends with Sc. The calculations show a clear pressure rise spanning the entire blade merging with Sc in the photograph. feature corresponding passage and coinciding (A separate to Sp is not discernible.) The predicted onset of condensation, as shown by the shaded' also agree well with the position of Sc. region, and the locus of maximum subcooling Test L2, figure 11 (AT0 = 4.0 ?C, M2s = 1.11) corresponds in exit to a reduction Mach number and this causes Sp to rotate upstream and pass through the conden? sation zone. As shown by the calculations, this results in part of the condensation Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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(?'.I'Ti *Tr"?sT.vr:r,'w (?:\:-in*-; ?? t.i- c( Figure 10. Test Ll: dry inflow, AT0 = 4.5?C, M2s Incipiem Sp 1.24, porous tailboard.

Figure 11. Test L2: dry inflow, AT0 - 4.0?C, front being displaced part near the suction shows the shock wave theoretical predictions. to small disturbances that they suggesting For test L3, figure

downstream rise through Sp) while the (due to the temperature The schlieren surface retains its original position. photograph front Sc corresponding closely to the Sp and the condensation in this situation The shock wave pattern is very sensitive and careful study reveals that Sc and Sp are quite blurred, may have been oscillating slightly. 12 (AT0 = 7,5 ?C, M2s = 1.08), the exit Mach number has been

76

A. J. White,

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incipicm S|-

;-N::

Figure 12. Test L3: dry inflow, AT0 = 7.5 ?C, M2a = 1.08, porous tailboard. front is displaced In reduced even further and the entire condensation downstream. the photograph, the onset of condensation is clearly visible at approximately the same location as the predicted locus of the Wilson points. (This feature was absent for the high superheat The sensitivity of the flow structure is emphasized by cases.) the fact that the exit Mach number is only 0.03 lower than for test L2, yet the shock wave pattern is completely different. (v) Wet inflow

Based on the power output from the turbine, the inlet wetness was estimated to be for test W3 indicated measurements a strongly 1.6%. Downstream light extinction bimodal evidence that secondary nucleation ocdroplet size distribution, providing curred in the cascade. The mean radius of the larger droplet mode was known to be about 0.5 \im although, for the calculations, the inlet droplet radius was set to 0.6 (im, since at smaller radii no appreciable nucleation was predicted. secondary The shock wave patterns of the schlieren show similar variations photographs as the low inlet superheat tests (Ll, L2 and L3, figures 10- 12). This is because condensation onto the droplets already present in the flow releases heat to the vapour, thus delaying the onset of the secondary In this respect, the effect of the nucleation. is similar to that of raising the inlet temperature above droplets primary slightly value: homogeneous the saturation nucleation occurs further downstream than if the flow had been dry saturated. For test Wl, figure 13 (y0 ~ 1.6%, r0 w 0.6 [im, M2s = 1.20), the curvature of of rapid secondary the presence con? Sc and the double shock wave Sc/Sp suggest densation. This is confirmed as shown by the shaded area which by the predictions, indicates more than one droplet size group. No corresponding fea? regions containing ture is seen on the static pressure contours, because large departures from probably are prevented onto the primary droplets. equilibrium by condensation For tests W2 and W3, the secondary nucleation was displaced downstream. Agree? ment with the theoretical was not as good as for the other tests but this predictions Phil Trans. R. Soc. ?ond. A (1996)

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CO.NTOI.iltS) ()*/!'? i Incipium Sp Figure 13. Test Wl: wet inflow, Vo : 1.6%, f'o ~ 0.6 p,m, M2s ? 1.20. porous tailboard. the result of small errors in the estimated inlet wetness fraction was almost certainly and droplet size. Indeed, the predictions and the experiments could easily be brought to the inlet parameters. into close correspondence by making quite small adjustments (b) Blade surface static pressure distributions

between the calculated and measured surface pressure distributions Comparisons is good for the entire pressure surface are shown in figure 14. In all cases, agreement of this point and for the suction surface up to the sonic point. It is only downstream but this, of course, is also the region in which that there are significant discrepancies, The main computational are most apparent. is the effects of condensation difficulty resolved by the inviscid that the trailing edge shock wave system cannot be accurately not all discrepancies should be attributed to deficiencies Euler solver, Nevertheless, in the cascade, scheme. With only three passages it is impossible in the numerical cascade exit flow and, despite the considerable efforts to obtain a perfectly periodic reflected from the upper tailboard did affect the made, it is likely that disturbances suction surface distributions. (i) High inlet superheat

is greater than about 25 ?C (tests F and H), the effects* When the inlet superheat are not apparent on the surface pressure distributions of condensation (except for the nucleation occurs on the suction exit Mach number test Hl, where spontaneous high results to the full thus yield almost identical Dry perfect gas calculations surface). is The main feature of the suction surface measurements wet-steam calculations. with decreasing the impingement of the shock wave Sp, which migrates upstream is shown in figure 14a for tests H3 (ATo = A typical example exit Mach number. = 1.10) and F3 (AT0 = 39.0 ?C, M2s = 1.15), having almost the same 26.0 ?C, M2s the calculations smear but different inlet superheats. exit Mach numbers Although is predicted and this is true for all the other the shock wave, its location correctly Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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0.4 0.2

o measurement H3) (Test + measurement F3) (Test -prediction i f i i j . 11?' ?? 1.0 0.8 0.0 0.2 W w fraction of surface distance

Wilson point? 0.2 | i i i i j ? i i i | i i i i | i i i i j i 0.8 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.4 fraction of surface distance

1.0

0.0

"' I ? ' ' ' l ' ' ' ' I ? ' ' ' I 0.J 0.2 0.4 0.6 fraction of surface distance

0.0

1.0

o measurement 0.4 d (wet prediction inflow) inflow) -prediction (saturated t?i?I | i?i?i?r-pT?I 1 I J i?I 1 I | T~ 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.6 0.8 fraction of surface distance

1.0

Figure 14. Blade surface pressure distributions: (a) tests H3 (ATo = 26 ?C, M2s ? 1.10) and F3 (AT0 = 39?C, M2s = 1.15); (b) test Ll (AT0 = 4.5?C, M2s = 1.24); (c) test L2 (AT0 = 4.0?C, M2s = 1.11); (d) test L3 (AT0 = 7.5 ?C, M2s = 1.08); (e) test Wl (y0 = 1.6%, r0 = 0.6 pim, M2s = 1.20). H and F. Referring tests in categories show a again to figure 8a, the measurements second pressure rise close to the trailing edge which is not seen in the predictions. This appeared in both tests H3 and F3 and cannot be associated therefore with condensation. It is most probably caused by reflections from the upper tailboard. (ii) Low inlet superheat

the predictions for these more complicated flow cases (tests Ironically, condensing with the experimental measurements Ll, L2 and L3) are in much closer agreement as shown by figures 146-d. This is because the dominant feature appearing on the suction surface is now the pressure rise due to condensation and, unlike the disPhil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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Figure 15. The effect of interphase velocity slip. Calculation by the method of Gyarmathy. The figure makes use of the following assumptions: (1) constant ux along streamlines; (2) constant droplet radius (1.0 u.m); (3) parabolic vapour streamline; and (4) no slip in x-direction. resolved by the calculations. shock waves, this is accurately The figures continuous at the high from the schlieren confirm the deductions photographs (figures 10-12): Ll and L2), the shock wave Sp and the con? and medium exit Mach numbers (tests front are coincident, whereas at the lowest exit Mach number densation (test L3), occurs downstream of Sp. the condensation (iii) Wet inflow

and measured between the calculated for test A comparison pressure distributions Wl (?/o ~ 1-6%, r0 ~ 0.6 mm, M2s = 1.12) is shown in figure 8e, (see also figure 13). a secondary in to observe that, although nucleation was predicted It is interesting to more than 35 ?C), the calculations did the supersonic region (the subcooling rising This was because on the prithe usual rise in pressure. condensation not indicate was sufficient to prevent excessive from equilibrium. departures mary droplet group for a longer pewas therefore less intense and persisted nucleation The secondary for a dry saturated inflow condition. riod. Also shown in figure 14e is the prediction that the primary This is in much closer agreement with the measurements, implying In turn, was almost inert to interphase transfer. droplet group in the experiments that the experimental values of inlet wetness fraction and droplet size this suggests values as discussed in connection with may have differed slightly from the assumed the schlieren photographs. between cal? An alternative which may account for the discrepancies explanation and measurements for the wet inflow tests is that inertial effects are likely culations that inter? for the large primary to be significant droplets. (It should be recalled in the calculations.) The main slip has been neglected throughout phase velocity from the of the droplet trajectories effect of velocity slip is that it causes departures for 1.0 u.m droplets calculated by vapour streamlines. Figure 15 shows trajectories method due to Gyarmathy an approximate (1964). It is evident that the interphase the steam surface. Presumably, slip leaves a region of dry flow close to the suction Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

80

A. J. White,

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Young

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T. Walters nucleation at

and reverts to equilibrium via a homogeneous as if its inlet condition were dry saturated. (c) Droplet size measurements

the droplet size from the optical measurements involves matching meaExtracting sured light transmittances, defined as T\ = ln{(///0)A} (where / and I0 are the transmitted for wavelength and incident light intensities A), with values given by the Mie theory. T\ may be shown to be a function of the particle size parameter a = 27rr/\. values of T\ are plotted Thus, if measured against 1/A on a log-log scale and matched with the theoretical values plotted against a on the same basis, the droplet size is given by the relative displacement of the abscissae 197.3, (Walters were made for 12 different of light covering the wavelengths 1980). Measurements from 254 to 499 nm. range the above method of droplets. If the Strictly, applies only to a monodispersion exhibits it is preferable to comdroplet size distribution significant polydispersion, transmittances to the predicted size distribution pute the theoretical corresponding and compare these directly with the measured values. However, if the distribution is narrow (as is generally observed the measured following spontaneous condensation) extinction curve is almost identical to that produced by a monodispersion having a droplet radius equal to the Sauter mean value: r32 ? / n(i")r3 dr / I n{r)r2 dr.

determined Optically droplet sizes are shown for the low and medium superheat tests in figures 16 and 17. It is clear that, even though full-sized blade profiles were used to geiierate of a measureable were encountered droplets size, all the droplets fine. Typically, mean radii were in the range 0.04-0.08 extremely [im (i.e. less than one quarter of the shortest available UV wavelength of 0.25 |im). Scattering of light by of these magnitudes is very slight and the spectral curves obtained contain droplets in the case of the medium structure. very little identifying Moreover, superheat the difficulties. Under these tests, the wetness was also very low, thus compounding conditions as indicated error larger errors are inevitably incurred, by the estimated in the figures. bars included the agreement between the calculated and measured size Nevertheless, droplet is generally rather good, both in terms of absolute level and pitch-wise variation. this represents a considerable achievement since the droplet sizes Experimentally, involved are at the very limit of optical detection. (i) Low inlet superheat

As shown in figure 16, the predicted Sauter mean droplet radii at low inlet super? heat (tests Ll, L2 and L3) exhibit considerable variation across the passage. The large pitchwise variation in wetness fraction (figure 16a) is partly responsible for this effect, but it cannot account for all the observed variation because (for a given the droplet radius is proportional to only droplet number per unit mass of mixture) the cube root of the wetness fraction (see equation The more dominant factor (4.1)). is the total number of droplets formed during nucleation, which in turn is strongly influenced rate and by any interaction between the trailing by the local expansion and the nucleation zone. An interesting is shown edge shock wave system example in figure 166, test L2, which is best explained with reference to the corresponding schlieren photograph and predicted pressure contours (figure 11). Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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50

100

150

200

pitchwise traverseposition /mm Figure 16. Comparison of predicted and measured downstream Sauter mean droplet radii for the low inlet superheat tests Ll, L2 and L3: ?, measured r$2 ( prn);-, calculated r^2 ( pm); wetness fraction. -, the suction occurs in a region of quite rapid expansion, surface, nucleation of small droplets. a large number On the other hand, near the pressure the onset of condensation is delayed rise through the by the temperature in a region of low expansion rate, trailing edge shock wave and occurs downstream At some point near the middle of the giving rise to fewer, but larger, droplets. the shock wave cuts through the nucleation zone, prematurely terminating passage, of embryos. small number of droplets the formation This results in a particularly for the peak in the which consequently grow to a large size and are responsible size measurement at midpassage. Unfortunately, only a single droplet predictions to verify the predicted was made in this test and so it is not possible pitchwise to make more than just one droplet radius variation. Clearly, it is very important for each cascade experiment whenever size measurement possible. Near (ii) Medium The inlet superheat radii is less error bars

yielding surface

and measured Sauter mean droplet between predicted agreement inlet superheat tests (Ml, M2 and M3). good for the medium the experimental fall outside As shown in figure 17, the predictions The most likely reason for this for three out of the five measurements. Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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200

Figure 17. Comparison of predicted and measured downstream Sauter mean droplet radii for the medium inlet superheat tests Ml, M2 and M3: ?, measured r^2 ( pni);-, calculated r^2 (pm). of the calculations to accurately and crisply resolve the is, once again, the inability shock waves. As described of a shock wave with the onset above, the interaction of condensation can result in a prolonged nucleation zone and the production of a wide range of droplet sizes. Such polydispersions are: (i) very sensitive to the precise of the shock waves; (ii) difficult to predict accurately location using a numerical pro? cedure which smears shock waves; and (iii) generate optical data which are difficult to interpret. (d) Loss measurements

of the preliminary With the exception data of Skillings (1989), no measurements of loss due to irreversible in the literature. have been reported This condensation is a serious, although omission. Loss measurements are important, understandable, first to validate the theoretical basis of non-equilibrium calculations and second to establish whether the observed reductions in turbine stage efficiency can be accounted for by flow phenomena within a single fixed blade row, or whether they depend on interactions between the blade rows. It is also clearly of interest to compare blade Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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83

v = 0.10'

v = 0.05 .

I | i I I 1I ! I 1I I I I I I I I I ! 1 0 1.0 2.0 frozen Mach number 0.001 0.01 1 0.1 droplet radius /um in wet steam: (a) comparison of factor J as a function of droplet

Figure 18. Interpretation of the Pitot probe measurements equilibrium and frozen stagnation pressures; (b) calibration radius. for dry loss measurements with numerical predictions. (i) Interpretation of Pitot and condensing steam

flows,

both

with

each

other

and

probe measurements

in obtaining loss measurements in wet-steam A major difficulty accurate flows is for these are not directly related to of the Pitot pressure readings, the interpretation flow. The deceleration the entropy increase across the cascade as for dry single-phase and inertial relaxation near the mouth of a probe is very rapid and the thermal rate to maintain at a sufficient conditions. equilibrium processes may not proceed frozen with respect to the interphase Indeed, for large droplets the flow is effectively transfer processes. varies from recorded The possible by a Pitot probe therefore range of pressures to the case where complete thermal and value' P0e (corresponding the 'equilibrium the decelera? mixture is maintained of the two-phase inertial equilibrium throughout are suspended). transfer processes tion) and the 'frozen value' P0f (where interphase both these stagnation states are well defined flow condition, For a given equilibrium 18a shows curves of (P0e ? Pot)/Pof and can be calculated plotted easily. Figure the probe (i.e. the Mach Mach number of the flow approaching the frozen against number based on the frozen speed of sound) for various wetness fractions. Obviously, is ?f the same order of magnitude as the of (P0e ? Poi)/Pof the range of variation to address the problem of essential cascade loss itself and it is therefore absolutely is made to compute blade loss before any attempt measurement interpretation probe coefficients. raw Pitot tube data has been devised A theoretically based method for interpreting here. White & Young (1995) but the analysis is involved and cannot be presented by result is that the true 'frozen stagnation The essential P0f can be obtained pressure' of the expression from the raw probe measurement P0 by application Po-Pof 2/)oc'^'oc where (ii) Jfr^) is the function plane variations of droplet 4y0 1 -2/c radius -J(roc), shown in figure 186. (6.1)

Traverse

size and wetness above has shown that values of both droplet The discussion traverse results. The droplet size the downstream fraction are required to interpret and the wetness fraction can be obtained is available from the optical measurements Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

84 0.6

A. J. White,

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0.2 -i

0.00

1.1

downstream shock of

of upstream shock

1.0

1-j?1-p.?,-,-j-1?r?i-r~?j?-i-r 50 100 150 pitchwise traverse position (mm) Figure 19. Comparison of measured and predicted downstream traverse results for test Ll: (a) variation of static pressure and wetness fraction; (6) variation of total pressure ratio; (c) variation of entropy. from the Pitot-static the traverse plane. gives 2/2 = (hg8&t2 + \u\ h01)/hfg2. (6.2) if it is assumed measurements that equilibrium this assumption, the steady flow energy Making is attained equation

by then

variations at the traverse plane of static pressure and Figure 19a shows pitchwise wetness fraction for test Ll. For this case, the assumption that the flow has reached is well justified and the agreement between prediction and measurement equilibrium is very good. Particular measurements points to note are that the static pressure Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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the fact that there are only three passages) and display good periodicity (despite is well predicted the time-marching that the pressure variation calculations. The by fraction the predicted wetness and the values calculated between from agreement in static pressure is also excellent. The steep changes and wetness equation (6.2) of the shock wave fraction near the middle of the passage are due to the intersection Ss with the traverse plane (figure 10). Pitot pressures, also for test Ll, are presented in fig? Corrected and uncorrected ure 196. For this case, the correction reduces the raw values by about 5%, bringing with the predictions in the central passage region. (Obthem into good agreement in the wake regions since inviscid is not to be expected flow is viously, agreement in the calculations.) assumed In contrast to single-phase flow, the stagnation pressure ratio across the cascade of loss. For wet steam, it is necessary to as an indication cannot be used directly from the total and static pressure the entropy compute change across the cascade of the mixture is given by equation The entropy readings. (4.5) and this can be static pressure and the corrected total pressure if the from the measured calculated at the traverse plane. to be in thermodynamic flow is assumed equilibrium in entropy for test Ll are shown in variations and 'measured' Calculated pitchwise in the form exp(?As/R), where non-dimensionally figure 19c. These are expressed inlet value and R is the in specific entropy above the cascade As is the increase ? ^02/^01? and for steam. gas, exp(?As/R) specific gas constant (For a perfect with conventional loss mea? aids comparison hence this representation single-phase of the It is evident from the figure that both the level and distribution surements.) the uncorrected true loss are quite different from that suggested stagnation pres? by sure ratios. it is worth noting of correcting the Pitot pressures, the importance To emphasize as for single-phase flow (i.e. accountif the measurements had been interpreted that, then correction), ing for the bow shock wave using 7 = 1.32, but with no wet-steam for test Ll would have been 0.912. If the flow had the mean value of exp(?As/R) but again with no account as two-phase, been treated being taken of the thermal would have been 0.997 the mean value of exp(?As/R) and inertial relaxation effects, the flow over much of the passage). the entropy actually Treating decreasing (with a mean value of 0.941, which and applying the Pitot correction as two-phase gives mean value of 0.946. agrees well with the predicted (iii) Cascade Markov loss coefficients energy loss coefficient ? is defined in the conventional way as

The

2u2 of values referred to a plane far downstream are 'mixed-out' where all the quantities to relate the measured were performed calculations the cascade. properties Mixing far-downstream in the actual traverse plane with the required values in the fictitious state. for all twelve cascade loss coefficients total mixed-out Table 3 shows the 'measured' made in processing and the assumptions difficulties tests. Because of the experimental a careful for these figures. be claimed cannot the data, great accuracy However, with the For example, trends in the results. study of table 3 does reveal plausible at the far from equilibrium of test H2 (where the flow was particularly exception Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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traverse plane), the total loss coefficient increases with increasing exit Mach number for approximately constant inlet superheat. This behaviour is also found with cascade in air. tests conducted It is also of interest to see how the losses are apportioned to the various loss mechanisms and to this end the measured Markov coefficients have been generating into three components as follows. separated loss?obtained from the mass-averaged values across plus wetness (i) Shockwave a section of the traverse plane excluding the wake regions. loss?obtained the shock wave and wetness loss from by subtracting (ii) Viscous the mass-averaged loss across the entire pitch at the traverse plane. loss?obtained the total mass-averaged loss at the by subtracting (iii) Mixing traverse plane from the fully mixed-out loss. this is a somewhat but the results, as shown Obviously arbitrary decomposition, in table 3, are both interesting and plausible. In particular, the magnitude of the wetness loss in comparison to the other losses is strikingly thermodynamic large. are low and hence the direct contribution of the shock (The exit Mach numbers waves themselves to the 'shock wave plus wetness loss' is very small indeed.) the 'viscous loss' from the measured total loss, it is possible to By subtracting arrive at a figure which can, with some realism, be compared with the predictions of the time-marching calculations. These results are presented in the final two columns of table 3. Given the assumptions and data processing the agreement is required, not only does the theory predict the correct trends but also the quite remarkable: absolute of the loss to quite a respectable magnitude degree of accuracy. In summary, the results of this section cannot be said to provide definitive although Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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flow

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87 loss is predicted

the thermodynamic

7. The

Concluding

remarks

an experimental flow of paper has described study of the non-equilibrium steam in a stationary cascade of turbine blades operating condensing transonically. flow theory was of the experimental data with condensing A detailed comparison inviscid time-marching also undertaken computer using a two-dimensional program. it can was obtained Excellent and, on the evidence presented, throughout agreement all the that the theory and calculation be stated procedure reproduce accurately flow in stationary main features of steady transonic cascades, condensing including between the trailing edge shock wave system and interactions the complex occurring and rapid droplet growth. the regions of nucleation of the experimental for the first careful interpretation data, it was possible, By from experimental condensation directly time, to infer the loss due to irreversible and showed These results agreed well with the theoretical measurements. predictions of the total wetness loss in the nucleating that the thermodynamic component stage to the viscous profile loss. of a steam turbine can be of comparable magnitude flow due to condensation in No sign of periodically unsteady (as is observed heat addition) was observed in the nozzles with supercritical converging-diverging the possibility for other blade geometries. cascade but this does not preclude that the two-dimensional in this paper demonstrate Finally, the results presented will that have been developed procedures theory and calculation non-equilibrium turbine blading. A fully steam flows of transonic the complex predict quantitatively for a multi-stage steam turbine is still a three-dimensional non-equilibrium analysis in this paper represents a step in that long way in the future but the work presented direction. The computational work was performed at the Whittle Laboratory, Cambridge and the experi? mental work was carried out in the steam tunnel at the National Power Research Laboratories at Leatherhead. The authors are most grateful to the National Power Technology and Environmental Centre, Leatherhead (formerly the Central Electricity Research Laboratories) for sponsoring both aspects of the project. During the course of the work, A. J.W. was supported, initially, by a SERC CASE award (in collaboration with NPTEC), and subsequently by a grant from the Ford of Britain Fund of the Cambridge University Engineering Department. He is most grateful to both these sources of funding. The authors also thank Dr R. Jackson for his recommendations in the development of the time-marching program, Dr M. Hilditch for her design work on the cascade test section and Mr D. Reynolds and Mr M. Goodson for their technical assistance and help in acquiring the experimental data.

References Bakhtar, F., Webb, R. A., Shojaee-Fard, M. H. & Siraj, M. A. 1993 An investigation of nucleating flows of steam in a cascade of turbine blading. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs: J. Fluids Engng 115, 128-134. Bakhtar, F. & So, K. S. 1991 A study of nucleating flow of steam in a cascade of supersonic blading by the time-marching method. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 12, 54-62. Gostelow, J. P. 1984 Cascade aerodynamics. New York: Pergamon. Gyarmathy, G. 1964 Bases for a theory for wet steam turbines. Bulletin 6 (CEGB Translation T-781) Institute for Thermal Turbomachines, Federal Technical University, Zurich. Horlock, J. H. 1993 Combined power plants. New York: Pergamon. Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1996)

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Young

and P.

T. Walters

Jameson, A., Schmidt, W. & Turkel, E. 1981 Numerical solution of the Euler equations by finite volume methods using Runge-Kutta time stepping schemes. AIAA 14th Fluid and Plasma Dynamics Conf. (Palo Alto), paper no. 81-1259. Lichtfuss, H.-I. & Starken, H. 1976 A critical review of the outlet flow of supersonic turbine nozzles. Prace Instytutu Maszyn Przeplywowych (Trans. Instn Fluid Flow Machmery), Polish Academy of Science, 70-72, 491-523. Moore, M. J., Walters, P. T., Crane, R. I. & Davidson, B. J. 1973 Predicting the fog-drop size in wet steam turbines. Instn Mech. Engnrs Conf. Wet Steam 4-, University of Warwick, paper no. C37/73. Schnerr, G. & Dohrmann, U. 1988 Theoretical and experimental investigation of 2-D diabatic transonic and supersonic flowfields. Symp. Transonicum III, IUTAM Symp. (Gottingen 1988), pp. 132 140. Berlin: Springer. Sieverding, C. H. 1976 Unsteady flow measurements in straight cascades. Proc. Symp. on Measunng Techniques in Transonic and Supersonic Cascades and Turbomachines (LEcole Polytechmque Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1976) (ed. A. Bolcs & T. H. Fransson), pp. 73-82. Juris. Skillings, S. A. 1989 Condensation phenomena in a turbine cascade. J. Fluid Mech. 200, 409-424. Walters, P. T. 1973 Optical measurement of water droplets in wet steam. Instn. Mech. Engnrs Conf. (Warwick 1973) paper no. C32/73. In Wet Steam 4, 32-40. Walters, P. T. 1980 Practical applications of inverting spectral turbidity data to provide aerosol size distributions. Appl. Optics 19, 2353-2365. Walters. P. T. 1985 Wetness and efficiency measurements in LP turbines with an optical probe as an aid to improving performance. Joint ASME/IEEE Conf. on Power Generation (Milwaukee 1985), paper no. 85-JPGC-GT-9. White, A. J. 1992 Condensation in steam turbine cascades. Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge Uni? versity Engineering Department. White, A. J. & Young, J. B. 1993 Time-marching method for the prediction of two-dimensional, unsteady flows of condensing steam. AIAA Jl Propuls. Power 9, 579-587. White, A. J. & Young, J. B. 1995 Loss measurements and interpretation of Pitot pressures in twophase vapour-droplet flow. 1st Int. Symp. on Two-phase Floiv Modelling and Expenmentation (Rome 1995) (ed. G. P. Celato & R. K. Shah), vol. 1, 593-600. Young, J. B. 1982 The spontaneous condensation of steam in supersonic nozzles. PCH Phys. Chem. Hydrodynam. 3, 57-82. Young, J. B. 1984 Semi-analytical techniques for investigating thermal non-equilibrium effects in wet steam turbines, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 5, 81-91. Young, J. B. 1992 Two-dimensional, nonequilibrium. wet-steam calculations for nozzles and turbine cascades. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs: J. Turbomachinery 114, 569-579. Received 15 December 1993; accepted 24 January 1995