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Running Head: WARNOCK/KIRBY FAMILY CULTURE

Family Cultural Background Project Leigh Anne Haygood August 14, 2011 Liberty University COUN 504 Dr. S. Sadik

WARNOCK/KIRBY FAMILY CULTURE

Abstract The research for this Family Cultural project has been very enlightening for me. The treasure of family history has shown more light on the generational dysfunction that seems to thrive both in my family of origin and my extended family. The alcoholism addiction that runs through both sides of my family tree has passed anxiety, misunderstanding, abandonment, physical and emotional abuse, feelings of loneliness and abandonment from generation to generation. The children do suffer from the sins of the fathers and the mothers.

WARNOCK/KIRBY FAMILY CULTURE

Introduction History, says a Highlander, is something that breathes upon you every day (Karasik, 1998). I have been aware for many years that both sides of my family of origin have collected genealogical facts, data and personal family history together, so initially, I thought this project would be a snap. Be careful what you ask about family culture and history when that family consists of Native American and English on the maternal side and the paternal side is Scottish. This project has been an enlightening journey for me. My family culture has brought many enlightening surprises, both culturally and emotionally. I can truly say, I am beginning to understand some of the threads in the fabric woven together to make the tribal-clan of KirbyWarnock. I have pondered why my mother reacted negatively to weakness and vulnerability. Why my father had such in insatiable love for mountains. Ive had cause to wonder why the women in my family seemed so strong-willed and controlling while the men seemed to be laid-back and at times weak. This project has shed light on many of my lifetime ponderings because history does breathe upon us daily!

WARNOCK/KIRBY FAMILY CULTURE

Warnock/Kirby Family Genogram


1901 - 1981
79

1908 - 1997
88

D. 1935 8/81912 - 1992 Hettie Allen Reddin Marcus (Warnock)Kirby

D. 1981 Johnnie Lee Warnock Margerite Ratliff (Kirby)

James Archie James Warnock Washington Warnock

Bertha Lucille Coffey

Jackie (Kirby)

1935
76

1938
73

1939
71

1939
71

Johnny Warnock

Jack Warnock

Lilly Bell Warnock

Renvy Warnock

Margaret JW Warnock Anne Kirby

Gladys Allene Warnock Kirby

Allene Kirby (Sw oope)

Gladys Kirby (Johnson)

Allen Marcus Kirby

1958
53

1956
54

1961
50

Steven Forrest Haygood

Carole Watkins

Mark Allen Warnock

Ipek (Warnock)

Pamela Louise Manicetti (Warnock)

1983
28

1957
54

1958
53

1957
54

1958
53

1990 - 1990
0d

1996
14

Brenton West Haygood

Richard Eugene Dabbs

Richard Boykin Patterson

Henry Coleman Fisher

Leigh Anne Warnock (Haygood)

Baby Boy Warnock

Kayleigh Starr Warnock

1983
28

1976
35

1978
32

Richard Boykin Patterson

Elizabeth Ann Thomas (Patterson)

Michael Gabriel Voynich

Jennifer Leigh Fisher (Voynich)

2006
4

2008 - 2009
9m

2004
7

2007
4

Madison Lynn Patterson

Payton Allen Patterson

Gabriel Connor Voynich

Addison Olivia Voynich

WARNOCK/KIRBY FAMILY CULTURE

Scot/Irish cultural information Historical Facts Nestled amid sparkling lochs, jagged rocky peaks, wildlife, and purple heather moorland is perhaps only the Ancient Greeks surpass the Scots in their contribution to mankind (Winston Churchill as quoted on Scotland website, 2011) Scotland. The Scottish are noted to be famously friendly, inventive, industrious and always ready to celebrate their national identity (Scotland website, 2011). President Woodrow Wilson stated, "Every line of strength in American history is a line colored with Scottish blood."(Connery, 2002, p. 170). People of Scottish descent have a long, proud, although violent history. Scotland has produced a number of the great minds in the world, including: Alexander Fleming, who discovered Penicillin in 1928 and won the Nobel Peace Prize; David Hume, widely studied and debated in the philosophy departments of universities across the world; Adam Smith, the Father of Modern Economics; and Thomas Carlyle, an influential philosopher who influenced society and its structure (Scotland website, 2011). Scottish inventors and scientific contributions include: Dolly the Sheep, the postage stamp, the bicycle, the telephone and the steam engine. Scotland has also excelled in the fine arts with painters like Vettriano, orchestras, opera and dance companies, designers and sculptors (Scotland website, 2011). Scottish clans, the main political system until 1746, date back to the 12th century. The clan consists of extended networks of families with loyalties to a chief; however the word clan derives from the Gaelic clann, which means children (Scotland website, 2011). Clans are still legally recognized today with an official clan chief, a tartan plaid, and a Seal of Arms issued by the Lord Lyons letters Patent. Only the chief has the legal right to use the seal on behalf of his clan (Scotland website, 2011). Each clan has a special tartan plaid that is worn by its members.

WARNOCK/KIRBY FAMILY CULTURE

In the past, this plaid helped differentiate members from one clan by another. Scots Americans celebrate Tartan Day to celebrate their great Scottish heritage and applaud the revival of Scotland in recent years (Connery, 2002, p. 170). The Canadians have officially celebrated National Tartan Day since 1993; the United States Senate Passed Resolution 155 on March 20, 1998 to honor the Declaration of Arbroath, the Scottish Declaration of Independence signing with Tartan Day on April 6 annually (Connery, 2002, p. 170). For the Scots, family meant extended family with the clan overshadowing both in loyalty owed (McGoldrick, Giordano, & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 658). The Scottish family has had very distinct roles throughout history. The Scottish mans traditional role as been provider, protector, and warrior, while the woman as home worker. The primary male role has morphed from defending the family against attack (McGoldrick, Giordano, & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 659) to making a living for the family (McGoldrick, Giordano, & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 659). While some therapists do not see a cultural issue among those of Scottish descent, it tends to depend on the demographics of the Scots-Irish population and culture in which Scots-Irish folkways persist (McGoldrick, Giordano, & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 662). History of Warnock clan Family interview: My Father, Johnny Warnock I am honored to have interviewed my daddy about his childhood heritage and our proud Scot history. Not only did he regale me with wonderful childhood memories of greatgrandparents I never got to meet but wish I had, he began sending me extensive genealogical research he has been working on since his retirement several years ago. My extended American clan has done extensive research on the derivation of our surname, which is derived from MacMhearnog. Mhearnog also spelled Mhearnoc apparently is pronounced WHAR-NOCK, which means the man who lived on the hill (Woulfe, 1922).

WARNOCK/KIRBY FAMILY CULTURE

The Warnock surname has its derivation in an Irish saint, which points to Ireland as the home country of our forebears; however, Warnock is a surname of long standing in Scotland arising as a surname around 1200 A.D. In 1430, the Warnocks were thought to have moved to Ireland as gallowglasses or paid retainers to the ONeills who used them as soldiers to ward off invaders either from within Ireland or even foreign soil. In 1649 Oliver Cromwell was responsible for the execution of Matthew Warnock, Arthur Warnock, Sean Warnock, and Brendon Warnock. Although their religion is not documented, it is thought they were either Catholic or Presbyterian as both these religions suffered persecution under Cromwell. My 9th great grandfather, Andrew Warnock, and his brother Abraham, arrived at the first permanent English settlement at Charles Town, South Carolina sometime before 1700. Research shows they immigrated to America seeking religious freedom. Family research shows numerous Warnocks killed for refusing to worship in the prescribed manner, including refusing to bow to a bishop. My progenitor obtained a land grant in 1700, and established a plantation near the Wando River about 12 miles north of Charles Town. South Carolina was wilderness at the time and much fighting with the Indians. Andrew and Abraham signed a petition to the King for better protection in 1715. Both brothers and their families remained loyal to England for many years. Sir Andrew and Lady Mary Drake Warnock had 6 children. Andrews son, Joseph, married Mary Alston, daughter of John Alston, who had arrived in Charles Town from Hammersmith, England as an indentured merchant apprentice. The Alston House in Charleston was built by another of John Alstons descendents, and remains a tourist shop in Charleston today.

WARNOCK/KIRBY FAMILY CULTURE

Joseph and Mary Warnock had several children, including Charles Warnock (I), from whom I descend. Charles also obtained a land grant in 1772. The land was farther inland from Charleston as the frontier was being pushed to the west. When the Revolutionary War broke out, Charles Warnock I joined the rebels. He, one of his brothers and two cousins joined the fighting. Charles was killed by British troops in 1781, leaving his wife with several small children. The oldest son, Charles Warnock II, remained in South Carolina, took care of his mother and raised his own family until the early 1820s, when new lands opened up as a result of the Louisiana Purchase. Charles Warnock II moved by wagon train with his son and his sons family to Copiah County, Mississippi. The Warnocks remained in Copiah County for about 90 years. Sir Andrew and Lady Mary Drake Warnock are listed in The Abridged Compendium of American Genealogy as a first family of America (Virkus, 1928, Volume III, p. 288). Modern Warnock Family Tree & Culture Moving forward several generations, my father was born the eighth child to Johnnie Lee and Hettie Reddin Warnock in 1935. Hettie gave her newborn baby to her sister-in-law, Bertha Lucille Coffey Warnock, on her deathbed. My father was raised, but never adopted legally by his aunt and uncle, Lucille and Jimmy. Although he had seven biological siblings, he only knew them as cousins. Lucille and Jimmy had two biological children, Mary Lois and Alma Lou. He lived in a two bedroom house with his guardian parents, two sisters, and in later years one or both of his grandfathers, Grandpa Pattontop and Grandpa Coffey, at various times. This working class, Christian family was close-knit and active in their church and community. Being the Scots-Irish family, there were many James, Jims and Jimmies so each boy was given a nickname to keep them all straight. Grandpa Pattentop got his nickname from the

WARNOCK/KIRBY FAMILY CULTURE

little Patten top cap he wore. Grandpa Coffey was also somewhat a fun-loving man who was not a good manager. If my great-grandmother had not worked and managed the farm, the family might have actually starved. According to my father, both grandfathers were fun-loving and loved playing cards and taking a little nip on Saturday night, even though they were God-fearing men. Grandpa Coffey loved making up rimes and reciting them at the most embarrassing moments possible. My father states they lived on the wrong side of the railroad tracks, literally, to be considered upper society. He remembers fondly playing with some of the colored (Johnny Warnock, 2011 interview) children after school because they did not go to the same school at that time. My grandmother, Lucille, a.k.a Kom, never took no or I dont feel like going to church from any of her children. My father recalls being there even when he had chicken pox still on his face. Cherokee cultural information Historical Facts The United States has a wide range of the population who identify culturally with the Native American Indian. Many identify Native American because they have a great-grandparent who was Indian. (McGoldrick, Giorando, & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 45). Family represents the cornerstone for the social and emotional well-being of individuals and communities (Red Horse, 1981, p. 1 as quoted by McGoldrick, Giorando, & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 45). In the early 1900s the tribal council believed the time had come for their people to emerge from the comforting cocoon of tribalism .(Finger, 1991, p. 53) to become more like other Americans (Finger, 1991, p. 53). Although the promised government allotments never

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came about, events over the next decade pushed the Cherokee Native American eastern band closer to cultural mainstream .(Finger, 1991, p. 53). Although the Eastern Band seemed to be more fortunate than most other tribes due to the proximity to the nations most popular national park which produced a viable but seasonal economic base (Finger, 1991, p. 137), research showed that many conservative Indians found it difficult to adapt to an industrial economy (Finger, 1991, p. 139). The typical Indian employee was reported to possess an apathetic attitude toward money, possessions and job discipline (Finger, 1991, p. 139). Garrett (1986) found that many Native people do not value individualism in the same way as mainstream American culture, but rather emphasize relationships contexts, and interactions (R. L. Barret (Garrett & Barret, 2003). Research has also shown that Native Americans tend to have the highest suicide rate, a median income that is 50% of White incomes, an alcoholism rate double the national average, and a poverty rate of 24% and unemployment as high as 80% compared with other ethnic/cultural and racial groups (Hodgkinson, 1990; Office of Minority Health, 1990; Russell, 1997; United States Bureau of the Census, 1991 as quoted by Garrett & Barret, 2003). Although many Native Americans have been mainstreamed into American culture, they tend to require a different set of skills, unique areas of emphasis, and specific insights for effective counseling to occur" (Pedersen, 1976,p. 26 as quoted by (Patterson, 2004). Pedersen (2004) also reports a counselor is likely to meet non-verbalization in Native American clients who listen and absorb knowledge selectively. Counselors who expect their Native American clients to verbalize their feelings are not likely to be successful (p. 30) (Patterson, 2004). Family interview: My Mother, Margaret Kirby Warnock My Cherokee heritage actually originates from the very steep and rocky Lookout Mountain in Tennessee. Lookout Mountain with Missionary Ridge forms the Chattanooga

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Valley where the Chattanooga Creek flows into the Tennessee River (Coppe, 1866, p. 211). My paternal great-grandparents farmed and began raising their family of six children on Lookout Mountain. My great-grandmother was full Cherokee, while my paternal grandfather was mixed Cherokee and Caucasian. My maternal grandfather, Allen Marcus Kirby, was the oldest child. He was required to take the responsibility of a grown working man at the age of 9, when his mother passed away. Their home burned to the ground. My grandfather and his mother got all the children out safely but her clothes caught fire when she returned from the burning house with the baby. She ran to the well and jumped in. While she put the fire out, she drowned in the well before my greatgrandfather got home, leaving the children alone in my grandfathers care. My great-grandmothers siblings divided the children, each taking one or two to raise as their own. My grandfather and his brother, Ira, were sent to live with his uncle on his farm. Instead of educating and caring for the two little boys, he put them to work on the farm as hired help. They never lived as part of the family or completed any formal education past the third and fourth grade. My grandfather was assigned to learn to take care of the big farm equipment, which he did well. I have seen this man figure sums faster than my grandmother could put them into a calculator and be correct. He married Jackie, his first wife, quite young, producing two children in this marriage. Jackie never had a taste for raising a family and left him with both children to raise. Shortly thereafter, he met and married my grandmother, Marguerite Ratliff. They had two children, my mother, Margaret Anne Kirby, and my aunt, Allene Swoope in the first two years of marriage. My grandfather abandoned all tribal associations when he was a child. He rarely returned to his home on Lookout Mountain, but did reunite with all his siblings over the years. We

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learned very little of our Cherokee heritage as children because my grandmother forbade Indian talk in our home. The small town culture did not take well to mix-blood of any sort during the years of raising their children through the mid 1970s when the grandchildren were coming to visit. Recently, my mother shared the few facts of our Cherokee heritage that I now know. My grandfather became emotionally withdrawn from his children until my mother left for nursing school. He would visit her and shower her with gifts, trying to show her how much he loved her. When I was born, he doted on his first grandchild. I went everywhere he went in his truck, rode on bobcats and bulldozers before I could walk. The man who I loved as my papaw was kind, loving, and generous, a far cry from the hard and mean man my mother and aunt describe from their childhood. He also was a life-long functional alcoholic and smoker, which I have wondered is directly connected to losing his tribal association and family at the age of 9 years old. Hays and Erford (2010) state that Native Americans are extensions of their tribal nation, socially, emotionally, historically, and politically (p. 315). Although his extended family acted in tribal tradition when my great-grandmother died by taking the children home to raise, my great-uncle did not act in an honorable or traditionally tribal fashion when he mistreated two little boys who needed him to act as a father (Hays & Erford, 2010, p. 315). English cultural information Our American individualism is rooted directly in English individualism which reaches as far back as the early 11th and 12th centuries (McGoldrick, Giordano & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 520). As the Protestant English settlers fled religious constraints, they also demanded the right to interpret Gods guidance in knowing religious truth, as revealed to individuals. The United

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States of America was born an individualistic nation in all areas, political, economic, and psychological (McGoldrick, Giordano & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 520). The southern citizens tend to be more concerned with social status. Frank Pittman observed the typical Southern familys motivation for seeking help is the experience that something is out of control, that the family needs help doing the right thing (McGoldrick, Giordano & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 531). Therapists must understand when working with Southern people that their peculiarities are different from their problems (p. 531) and they do not come to therapy to become better people (McGoldrick, Giordano & Garcia-Preto, 2005, p. 531). History of Ratliff family As previously stated, my mother was born to Allen Marcus Kirby, Cherokee Native American, and Marguerite Ratliff Kirby, descendent of a plantation owner, senator and Captain of the Confederate Army. In polite company in the small southern farming town, one might say Marguerite had married below her class. The Old Ratliff Place is located in the center of what was once a thriving plantation of a thousand acres or more in the early 1800s. It was owned and operated by Captain Bill Ratliff, an officer in the Confederate Army, until his death in 1905, and is still owned by his heirs (The Clarion-Ledger News, 1962). A brother, Jess, to Captain Ratliff who is my 3rd great grandfather actually planned to hide in the woods and kill General Sherman when he crossed the Pearl River on his famous march to the sea (The Clarion-Ledger News, 1962). Jesss partner was killed but Jess escaped and hid in the plantation woods for two months while Shermans men searched for him. While Jess was hiding and the other men were off fighting the Union army, a parson from a nearby

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community stayed in the house with the women. During this time, a troop of Union soldiers invaded the house, tearing up the feather beds, killing the livestock, and burning the barns. The little schoolhouse in the corner of the large front yard is where my great-grandmother met my great-grandfather. She was the teacher for the children of his first marriage. When his first wife died, Grandma married her employer and became the lady of the house. However, my great-grandfather was not a good plantation manager and mortgaged the plantation to his older sister, who did happen to be a good financial manager. When my great-grandfather defaulted on the loan, Great Aunt Kate foreclosed and evicted her brother from the plantation. While my maternal grandmother successfully hid our Cherokee family history, she was very proud of her high social status and our confederate heritage. My mother learned early in her youth to show a good face (Margaret Warnock, 2011) to the public, no matter what travesty might be going on at home. Only recently, my mother shared the dark secrets of our family. My grandparents were both alcoholics and my grandfather was physically abusive and unfaithful habitually to my grandmother. She forgave my grandfather continuously to save face in the community. Conclusion This project has been given me such a new understanding of how the sins of the fathers and mothers affect their children and even their grandchildren. My mother never learned how to be affectionate when she was a child. She learned that love was buying someone a present. The bigger the present the more you loved them, but these presents come with a price. My mother is very controlling and manipulative. She wants to desperately to be loved and respected but only feels she is loved if she is in control of each family member. The member who breaks her rules suffers the consequences. While my mother is not a substance addict, I believe she is addicted to control. She exhibits many of the typical symptoms of an addict. She longs for love and

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affirmation; she is angry more often than not and she feels she deserves to get her needs met regardless of the emotional cost to her children or my father (Clinton, Hart & Ohlschlager, 2005, p. 257-258). Even though my family is dysfunctional, I continue to love and want to spend time with them; however, I learned years ago that physical distance is much healthier for my mental, spiritual and emotional self. Through my experiences and with the whispering of the Holy Spirit, I pray I will be an empathic counselor for my diverse cultural clients.

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Crabtree, K. E. (2009). Introduction: Dance Offers a Window on Native American Culture, Past and Present. JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(6), 13+. Retrieved August 5, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5032799967

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Denson, A. (2004). Demanding the Cherokee Nation: Indian Autonomy and American Culture, 1830-1900. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Retrieved August 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114201708Finger, John R. The Eastern Band of Cherokees in the Twentieth Century the Eastern Band of

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Cherokees in the Twentieth Century. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1991. Questia. Web. 24 July 2011. Finger, J. R. (1991). The Eastern Band of Cherokees in the Twentieth Century The Eastern Band of Cherokees in the Twentieth Century. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Retrieved August 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10031081 Garrett, M. T., & Barret, B. (2003). Two Spirit: Counseling Native American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual People. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31(2), 131+. Retrieved August 7, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007106110 Karasik, S. (1998, May). Ancient Knowing: Folklore of the Scottish Highlands. World and I, 13, 210+. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002295992Patterson, C. (2004). Do We Need Multicultural Counseling Competencies?. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 26(1), 67+. Retrieved August 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002099933

Scott, A. (2000). Bonnie Dundee: John Graham of Claverhouse (Revised ed.). Edinburgh: John Donald. Retrieved August 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=112895025

Scotland (2011). The Official Gateway to Scotland. Retrieved July 30, 2011 from http://www.scotland.org/us/ Warnock, J & Haygood, L. (2011). Interview with Johnny Warnock.

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Warnock, M. & Haygood L. (2011). Interview with Margaret K. Warnock. Woulfe, P. (1922). The irish ancestral guild irish names and surnames. Dublin: M.H. Gill & Son.