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Yap Ai Shyan (TP014921) HSSN (CT014-3-1)

Table of Contents
1. Gantt Chart............................................................................................................................................ 2 2.0 Abstract ................................................................................................................................................... 3 3.0 Section 1: Operating Systems ................................................................................................................. 4 3.1 Types of memory ................................................................................................................................ 5 3.2 Windows XP Memory Management ................................................................................................... 6 3.3 Demand Paging ................................................................................................................................... 6 3.4 Page fault ............................................................................................................................................ 8 3.5 Solution to overcome page fault......................................................................................................... 8 3.6 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 9 4.0 Section 2: Computer Systems Architecture .......................................................................................... 10 4.1 Generation of Computers ................................................................................................................. 11 4.2 Major trends affecting microprocessor performance ...................................................................... 12 4.21 Moores Law................................................................................................................................ 12 4.22 Multi-core processor ................................................................................................................... 14 4.3 Differences between microprocessors design goals for Embedded systems, desktops, servers, and laptops. ................................................................................................................................................... 17 4.31 Embedded Systems Microprocessor........................................................................................... 17 4.32 Desktops Microprocessor ........................................................................................................... 17 4.33 Servers Microprocessor .............................................................................................................. 18 4.34 Laptop microprocessor ............................................................................................................... 18 4.4 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 19 5.0 Frequently Ask Question (FAQ)............................................................................................................. 20 5.1 Memory Management ...................................................................................................................... 20 5.2 Microprocessor ................................................................................................................................. 20 6.0 Limitations/Extentions ......................................................................................................................... 21 6.1 Limitations......................................................................................................................................... 21 6.2 Extentions ......................................................................................................................................... 21 7.0 Appendix A ............................................................................................................................................ 22 8.0 Appendix B ............................................................................................................................................ 24 9.0 Reference .............................................................................................................................................. 25 1

Yap Ai Shyan (TP014921) HSSN (CT014-3-1)

1. Gantt Chart

Image 1: Gantt Chart

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2.0 Abstract
This individual assignment consists of two sections:Section 1: Operating Systems Research is done regarding memory management of Windows XP Operating System. Research area include types of memory, how memory is managed in Windows XP, problem facing and solution to overcomes the problem.

Section 2: Computer Systems Architecture Research is done on microprocessors of desktop machines, servers and laptops. Area discussed about major trends affecting microprocessor performance such as Moores Law and the birth of Multi-core microprocessor; differences between microprocessors design goals for laptops, servers, desktops and embedded systems.

Yap Ai Shyan (TP014921) HSSN (CT014-3-1)

3.0 Section 1: Operating Systems


Question 2 Research, investigate and document areas relating to memory management of any Operating System of your choice. Areas to be discussed in your research documentation to include among other areas, how memory is managed including mechanisms and strategies used, problems faced by these techniques and solutions to overcome them.

In a uniprogramming system, main memory is divided into two parts: the operating system and the program currently being executed. In a multiprogramming system, the user part of memory must be further subdivided to accommodate multiple processes. The task of subdivision is carried out dynamically by the operating system and is known as memory management. (Stalling.W, 2005)

Yap Ai Shyan (TP014921) HSSN (CT014-3-1)

3.1 Types of memory


There are two types of memory: physical memory and virtual memory. Physical memory of a computer usually comes in the form of a silicon chip, such as: Random Access Memory (RAM)

A volatile memory which can only store information temporarily. That is, the contents of RAM is lost when the computer is switched of. To store data permanently, user need secondary or auxiliary storage such as the disk. All data and instructions must be stored in this memory before the processor can perform any computation. Accessing information from RAM is fast compared to accessing information from a secondary storage. (Sellappan.P, 1998)

Read-Only Memory (ROM)

A Non-volatile memory which the contents of this memory cannot be altered by a program. It is hard-coded at the time of manufacturing. Its contents can only be read.ROM stores instructions to perform tasks such as diagnotics and configuring a computer system. A portion of the operating system stored in the ROM is automatically loaded into the RAM in order to start or bootstrap the system. (Sellappan.P, 1998)

Virtual Memory is a invisible storage that allows the execution of processes that may not completely in memory. (Silberschatz.A, Galvin.P.B, & Gagne.G, 2004) The basic idea is that the combination size of the program, data, and stack may exceed the amount of physical memory available for it. (Tanenbaum.A.S, 2001)

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3.2 Windows XP Memory Management


Virtual-memory (VM) Manager manages the executive component such as virtual address space, physical memory allocation, and paging. The design of the VM Manager assumes that the underlying hardware supports virtual-to-physical mapping, a paging mechanism, and allow multiple page-table entries to map to the same physical page frame. The VM manager uses a page-based management scheme with a page size of 4KB on IA32compatible processor and 8KB on the IA64. Pages of data allocated to a process that are not in physical memory are stored in either the paging files on disk or mapped directly to a regular file on a local or remote file-system. Pages can also be marked zero-on-demand. (Silberschatz.A, Galvin.P.B, & Gagne.G, 2004) On IA32 processors each process has a 4GB virtual address space. Each user has only 2 Gbyte of available virtual address space and all processes share the same 2Gbytes of system space. There an option that allows user space to be increased to 3Gbytes, leaving 1GByte for system space. (Stallings.W, 2005)

3.3 Demand Paging


There has always been this trade-off between RAM and disk RAM is faster and expensive and volatile, and the disk is slower and cheaper and persistent. Traditionally, operating systems have been able to work out the trade off by a scheme called demand paging. The idea of demand paging comes with virtual memory, and is simple to understand there is limited main memory, so the disk is used as an extended store, and the OS abstracts away the memory by giving each process an address space. Based on usage of the address space, the OS allocates memory from the combined disk + main memory store to the process. A page is a unit of allocation, and depending on when that part of memory was last used, the page could be in main memory or on the disk. So when an application needs to make use of data which is held in a page, if that page is not already in physical memory, it would be read off from the disk and loaded into main memory. This is called demand paging since the pages are loaded into the main memory on demand. (Gupta.V, 2007) A paging table is responsible for moving segments of virtual memory into physical memory as necessary. If the amount of memory demanded by all running processes exceeds the available

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physical memory (RAM), the paging table stores low-priority processes on the hard drive in the page file, which is much slower than RAM. When the user needs these processes, the page table remaps them into physical memory, where the user can access them at high speeds (see Appendix A-Figure 1). The total number of addresses available in the virtual memory the total amount of data the computer can keep in its working area for applications is determined by the width of the registers on the computer processor. (National Instruments, 2007)

When a process is created, it can be principle make use of entire user space of 2Gbytes. This space is divided into fixed-size pages, any of which can be brought into main memory. The Windows XP VM manager uses a two-step process to allocate user memory which is: 1. Reserves: A set of contiguous pages that the virtual memory manager sets aside for a process but does not count against the processs memory quota until used. When a process needs to write to memory, some of the reserved memory is committed to the process. 2. Commits: Pages for which the virtual memory manager has set aside space in its paging file. Reserved and committed memory is useful because: It minimizes the amount of disk space set aside for a particular process, keeping that disk space free for other process. It enables a thread or process to declare an amount of memory that can be quickly allocated as needed.

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3.4 Page fault


When a page fault occurs, the VM manager finds a physical page to hold the data. If the pages is zero-on-demand, then the first choice to find the pages already been zeroed. If none is available, a page from the free list or standby list is chosen and the page is zeroed before proceeding. If the faulted page has been marked, it is either already being read in from disk, or has been unmapped or trimmed and is still available on the standby or modified list. The thread either waits for the I/O to complete or reclaims the page from the appropriate list. An I/O must be issued to read the page in from the paging file or file-system. The VM Manager tries to allocate an available page from either free list or standby list. If no pages are available, the thread blocks until the working set manager trims pages from memory, or a page in physical memory is unmapped by a process.

3.5 Solution to overcome page fault


Windows XP uses First In First Out (FIFO) replacement algorithm to take pages from processes that are using more than their minimum working set size. When a page must be replaced, the oldest page is chosen. We replace the page at the head of the queue. When a page is brought into memory, we insert it at the tail of the queue. (Silberschatz.A, Galvin.P.B, & Gagne.G, 2004) Example: The 3 frames are empty. The first three references (5, 0, 3) cause page faults, and are brought into these empty frames. The next reference (1) replaces page 5, because page 5 was brought in first. Since 0 is the next reference and 0 is already in memory, we have no fault for this reference. 3 is the nest reference, it also exist in the memory, so no fault for this reference. The next reference (7) replaces page 0, because it is the oldest page in the frame. This process continues are shown in Appendix A-Figure 2. Every time a fault occurs, we show which pages are in our three frames. There are total 11 page faults refer to below.

Yap Ai Shyan (TP014921) HSSN (CT014-3-1)

3.6 Conclusion
A good memory management operating system should have less page faults with using a good page replacement algorithm. Beside that, it must capable to execute instructions in the shorter time to reduce overhead. Further, it must have higher processing power which can produce higher throughput. It is also must have less time consumption. The most important, a good memory management is to avoid thrashing to take place. When a process spending more time paging than executing, thrashing will occur (See Appendix A-Figure 3).

Yap Ai Shyan (TP014921) HSSN (CT014-3-1)

4.0 Section 2: Computer Systems Architecture


Question 1 Research, investigate and document microprocessors of desktop machines, servers and laptops. Areas to be discussed in your research documentation to include among other areas are major trends affecting microprocessor performance and design in recent years and differences between microprocessors design goals for laptops, servers, desktops and embedded systems.

A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip. It's sometimes called a logic chip. It is the "engine" that goes into motion when you turn your computer on. A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use of small number-holding areas called registers. Typical microprocessor operations include adding, subtracting, comparing two numbers, and fetching numbers from one area to another. These operations are the result of a set of instructions that are part of the microprocessor design. When the computer is turned on, the microprocessor is designed to get the first instruction from the basic input/output system (BIOS) that comes with the computer as part of its memory. After that, either the BIOS, or the operating system that BIOS loads into computer memory, or an application program is "driving" the microprocessor, giving it instructions to perform. (Microprocessor, 2006)

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Yap Ai Shyan (TP014921) HSSN (CT014-3-1)

4.1 Generation of Computers


Generation(Year) 1st Generation(1940-1960) 2nd Generation(1960-1965) 3rd Generation(1965-1970) 4th Generation(1971-To date) Description The Vacuum Tubes The Transistor The Integrated Circuit Chip (Semiconductor) Microprocessors-- Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI)

5th Generation(To date-Beyond) Artificial Intelligence (AI) (Sellappan.P, 1998) Microprocessor is the 4th generation of the computer where it used the Very-Large-ScaleIntegration (VLSI)-millions of them packed on a single tiny chip. They are very compact, fast and also cheap.

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4.2 Major trends affecting microprocessor performance

4.21 Moores Law

"..(T)he first microprocessor only had 22 hundred transistors. We are looking at something a million times that complex in the next generationsa billion transistors. What that gives us in the way of flexibility to design products is phenomenal." (Moore.G.E., 1965)

In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore saw the future. His prediction, now popularly known as Moore's Law, states that the number of transistors on a chip doubles about every two years (refer to Appendix B-Figure 1). This observation about silicon integration, made a reality by Intel, the world's largest silicon supplier, has fueled the worldwide technology revolution.

Today, Intel leads the industry with:


A worldwide silicon fab network with three 300mm fabs now producing 65nm CPUs 45nm Silicon on-target for delivery in 2007 Advanced technologies, such as strained silicon for improved performance, in production today

Research into new technologies such as high-k/metal gate and tri-gate transistors that will enable Intel to continue the 2-year cycle of Moore's Law for the foreseeable future

Intel's unparalleled silicon expertise gives us an edge on the competition in developing leading architectures and platforms that will continue fueling economic growth.

More capabilities for less cost Intel's commitment to Moore's Law has delivered exponential increases in the number of transistors integrated into our processors and other leading platform ingredients (see graphic). These increases have steadily and reliably led to increasing performance, energy efficiency and capabilities in Intel platforms and products, enabling

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architectural innovation and industry firsts such as Hyper-Threading Technology 1 , advanced caching, memory and reliability technologies, and platform-based support for data center initiatives such as power savings and virtualization.

Moore's Law Means More Performance. Processing power, measured in millions of instructions per second (MIPS), has steadily risen because of increased transistor counts. (refer to Appendix B-Figure 2)

But Moore's Law also means decreasing costs. As silicon-based components and platform ingredients gain in performance, they become exponentially cheaper to produce, and therefore more plentiful, more powerful, and more seamlessly integrated into our daily lives.

As Moore's Law continues, imagine the possibilities:

Real-time natural language translation. Imagine being able to speak to someone in a foreign country and having your conversation translated real-time.

Facial recognition that works accurately and instantaneously. Imagine being able to capture faces as people enter an airport and match them in real-time against a database of known terrorists, and having a turnstile lock if there is a match.

Auto chauffeur. Imagine a car that takes a verbal command for a destination, and can drive you there via the least congested route in the safest possible manner. (Moore's Law, 2007)

Hyper-Threading Technology (HT Technology) requires a computer system with an Intel Processor supporting HT Technology and an HT Technology enabled chipset, BIOS, and operating system. Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software you use.

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Yap Ai Shyan (TP014921) HSSN (CT014-3-1) 4.22 Multi-core processor

Multi-core processors represent a major evolution in computing technology. Placing two or more powerful computing cores on a single processor opens up a world of important new possibilities. The next generation of software applications will likely be developed using multi-core processors because of the performance and efficiency they can deliver compared to single core processors. Multi-core design offers enhanced overall system performance as well as a sophisticated platform to better tackle todays more complex software applications.

Advantages of multi-core processors: Multi-core processors offer an immediate and cost-effective technology for solving todays processor design challenges alleviating the byproducts of heat and power consumption that exist when continually advancing single-core processor frequency, or clock speed. Multi-core processors have the potential to run applications more efficiently than single-core processors giving users the ability to keep working even while running the most processor intensive tasks in the background. Multithreaded software applications programs that run multiple tasks (threads) at the same time to increase performance for heavy workload scenarios, such as mathematical analysis and Web serving, are already positioned to take advantage of multi-core processors. Increased performance without increased power consumption is a critical need Corporate IT managers also remain resolute in their need to add performance without increasing the physical footprint for hardware. Multi-core processor solutions address these needs by providing increased performance without increasing power or physical space requirements. (AMD Multi-core White Paper, 2004)

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Microprocessor Comparison Chart There are many microprocessors available to the public. Below is a chart that compares and contrasts important features found on some of the more popular chips in the market today. Type Celeron Transistors 7,500,000 CPU Speed 1.06 GHz - 2 GHz 233 MHz - 450 MHz 450 MHz - 1 GHz L2 Cache 256 KB, full speed 512 KB, half speed 256 KB, full speed 256 KB - 2 28,100,000 500 MHz - 1 GHz MB, full speed 55,000,000 1.4 GHz - 3.4 GHz 500 MHz - 550 MHz 400 MHz - 450 MHz 850 MHz - 1.2 GHz 256 KB, full speed N/A 256 KB, full speed 256 KB, full speed 384 KB, full speed 64 KB, full speed 800 MHz 100 MHz Front-Side Bus Speed 133 MHz and 400 MHz 100 MHz

Pentium II

7,500,000

Pentium III

9,500,000

133 MHz

Pentium III Xeon

Pentium 4

K6-II

9,300,000

100 MHz

K6-III

21,300,000

100 MHz 200 MHz and 266 MHz 266 MHz

Athlon (K7)

22,000,000

Athlon XP

37,500,000

1.67 GHz

Duron

N/A

700-800 MHz

200 MHz

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PowerPC G3

6,500,000

233 MHz - 333 MHz 400 MHz - 800 MHz 800 MHz 2.5GHz

512 KB, 1 MB, half speed 1 MB, half speed 1 MB, half speed 512 KB

100 MHz

PowerPC G4

10,500,000

100 MHz

Athlon 64 G5

105,900,000 58,000,000

1.6 GHz 900MHz - 1.25GHz

(Microprocessor Comparison Chart, 2007)

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4.3 Differences between microprocessors design goals for Embedded systems, desktops, servers, and laptops.
When we consider the platforms available, we can take a look at four different views, which are Embedded systems, Desktops, Servers, and Laptops. Each of these systems is unique from one and another. The differences are size, cost and the purpose of each system. None of them can be overlapped in using them in the industry.

4.31 Embedded Systems Microprocessor

Embedded means they are built to act in a single purpose manner. Embedded systems are said to be implemented on almost all the intelligent devices available in the market. Most of the embedded devices are using Microcontrollers instead of separate Microprocessors; they are an implementation of whole computer inside a small thumb size chip called Microcontroller. Some old routers are also designed using those chips. These microprocessors of embedded devices are varying its performance due to battery consumption and Instruction length issues. Most of the microprocessors are designed using RISC architecture to minimize the complexity of the mobile processor and also to reduce number of instructions per processor. Embedded device processor manufacturers can go beyond the speeds which have been a standard today but the problem they are having is high power consumption and heating. For example Intel has developed their new mobile processor named "PXA737" and its original speed is 1024 MHz or 1GHz but that processor is under-clocked.

4.32 Desktops Microprocessor

The Desktop Microprocessors are bit different from its architecture as well as from the functionality their goal is does more efficient work in a time unit. And also they are not very much concerned of power consumption. The goal of modern microprocessors is to deliver as much performance as possible while keeping power consumption within reasonable limits. And the Manufacturers of desktop microprocessors goal are to produce processor which delivers more power to the end-user. Another important fact is out there, it is most of the programs which are being used in desktop machines are designed to do long time processor scheduling jobs like

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rendering a high definition image, or compiling a source file. So the processors are also designed to adopt those kinds of processing.

4.33 Servers Microprocessor

Most of the Server Processors are built to use fewer resources but releasing powerful computing power. (Gunasekara.P, 2007)

4.34 Laptop microprocessor

A typical laptop processor has features that reduce power consumption and heat. For example, laptop processors often run at a lower voltage and often have multiple sleep or slow-down modes that significantly increase battery life. Typical laptop microprocessors include Motorola's PowerPC family (used in Apple Macintosh computers), Intel's Pentium and Celeron families (used in PCs) and AMD's K5 and K6 families (used in PCs). (How Laptop Computers Work, n.d.)

Several types of Laptop Microprocessor Type Celeron M Descriptions This term describes Intel's version of its Celeron microprocessor that's comparable to the Pentium M. In both cases, the M stands for mobile. The Celeron M is a low-cost alternative to the Pentium M. Centrino Intel uses this term to describe various laptop technologies - specifically, stuff designed for a mobile computer. The Centrino technology includes a special chipset (the main circuitry on the laptop's motherboard), a specifically designed laptop microprocessor, and wireless networking technology. Centrino Duo Core Duo Core Solo Dothan Dothan known as the Series 700 Pentium M.
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The Duo suffix describes a newer version of Centrino technology, specifically with an Intel dual-core microprocessor. The Intel replacement microprocessor for the Pentium. The Core Duo chip contains two CPU cores, like getting two microprocessors on one chip. The Intel single-core replacement for the Pentium microprocessor.

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Mobile

An AMD processor designed for laptop (mobile) computing. It's the economy version

Sempron of the Turion flavor chip. Pentium M Turion 64 The M stands for mobile, and the Pentium M chip is the Intel microprocessor specifically designed for use in laptops. The AMD version of Intel's Pentium M, a powerful 64-bit mobile processor that comes in single and dual core models. The dual core is named Turion 64 X2. The Turion was formerly named the Mobile Athlon 64. (Gookin.D, 2006)

4.4 Conclusion
Based on the research that has been conduct for microprocessor, a conclusion can be made where the trends which affect the microprocessor design and performance are changing at all time. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the future trend of the design of microprocessor. This is thanks to Intel co-founder Gordon Moore saw the future. His prediction, now popularly known as Moore's Law, states that the number of transistors on a chip doubles about every two years.

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5.0 Frequently Ask Question (FAQ)


5.1 Memory Management
1. What is the memory management enhancement is Window XP? Logical prefetcher for faster boot and application launch. Enhanced memory management for better scalability Reduced paged pool usage Increased number of system Page Table Entries (PTEs) Support of giant drivers

2. Why must the Windows XP memory management algorithm have a paging table? To check for illegal page To check whether the page is missing or not

5.2 Microprocessor
1. What is the disadvantage of microprocessor? A: It has limitations on the size of data. Most Microprocessor does not support floating-point operations.

2. What is the difference between microprocessor and microcontroller? A: In Microprocessor more op-codes, few bit handling instructions. But in Microcontroller: fewer op-codes, more bit handling Instructions, and also it is defined as a device that includes micro processor, memory, & input / output signal lines on a single chip.

3. Can I mix different brands of memory in my computer? A. It is not advisable because some brands of memory are incompatible with other brands regardless of whether the speed is the same or not. We recommend that you use only one brand of memory in your computer system.
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6.0 Limitations/Extentions
6.1 Limitations
1. Word count This is the big problem since the whole assignment limits the words up to 3500 only. So summaries and diagrams have been used to discover these problems. 2. Information is limited Many references are limits only to topic introduction, difficulty has been found while doing research. From the starting, I would like to do the research on Windows Vista memory management, but the informations in limited in books and also in the internet, finally I change to research on Windows XP. The Windows XP data also limited, especially in the physical memory, I could not found a piece of information on it. 3. Terminology Many informations are found, but it is not easy to summarize on our own words. This assignment may help us to increase the ability on summarization in the coming assignment. 4. Online Information Restriction Some website require us to register first before can obtained data from it. Sometime it is waste of time. While doing half-way registration, the website require payment to proceed.

6.2 Extentions
1. In-depth study Although some of the research are in-depth informations of such topic, which is not so related to this assessment, but through in-depth study and researched, more knowledge is will be equipped when proceed to higher level of education. 2. New technology New technology are rise year by year. When we doing research further, we will get latest information on the new technology, more argument can be done.

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7.0 Appendix A

System Memory Physical Memory Application Memory Application 3 Code

System Memory

Application Memory Application 2 Code

Microprocessor

Figure 1. The paging table moves segments of virtual memory into physical memory as needed to provide more memory to running processes

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Reference string 5 0 3 1 0 3 7 5 3 4 1 2 4

5 0

5 0 3

1 0 3

1 7 3

1 7 5

3 7 5

3 4 5

1 4 5

1 2 5

1 2 4

Pageframes Figure 2. FIFO page replacement algorithm

thrashing

Figure 3. Thrashing

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8.0 Appendix B

Figure 1:Gordon Moore's original graph from 1965

Figure 2

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9.0 Reference

A Closer Look at Windows Vista, Part III: 32-Bit vs. 64-Bit Windows. (2007). Retrieved November 2, 2007, from National Instruments: http://zone.ni.com/devzone/cda/tut/p/id/5709 Advances in Memory Management for Windows. (2007, October 12). Retrieved November 2, 2007, from http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/cec/MemMgt.mspx Gupta.V. (2007). Key I/O Changes in Windows Vista. Retrieved November 2, 2007, from Windows Live: http://vineetgupta.spaces.live.com/?_c11_BlogPart_BlogPart=blogview&_c=BlogPart&partqs=amonth% 3d2%26ayear%3d2007 Sellappan.P. (1998). Information Technology in Business: A Guide to the Information Age (2nd ed.). Subang: Times Offset (M) Sdn.Bhd. Silberschatz.A, Galvin.P.B, & Gagne.G. (2004). Operating System Concepts (6th ed.). Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte.Ltd. Stallings.W. (2005). Operating Systems Internals and Design Principles (5th ed.). US: Pearson Education International. Tanenbaum.A.S. (2001). Modern Operating Systems (2nd ed.). US: Prentice-Hall, Inc. AMD Multi-core White Paper. (2007). Retrieved November 6, 2007, from Advanced Micro Devices: http://www.amd.com/us-en/assets/content_type/DownloadableAssets/MC_Whitepaper_vFINAL.pdf Gookin.D. (2006). Laptops for Dummies (2nd ed.). NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Gunasekara.P. (2007). Major differences between Microprocessor design goals for Desktop, Server and Embedded Systems Architectures. Retrieved November 5, 2007, from Code Project: http://www.codeproject.com/useritems/Microprocessor.asp How Laptop Computers Work. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2, 2007, from Laptopworldwide.com: http://www.laptopworldwide.com/laptops.html Microprocessor. (2006). Retrieved November 2, 2007, from SearchSMB.com: http://searchsmb.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid44_gci212568,00.html Microprocessor Comparison Chart. (2007). (JupiterOnlineMedia, Producer) Retrieved November 2, 2007, from internet.com: http://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/processor.asp Moore's Law. (2007). Retrieved November 6, 2007, from Intel.com: http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/index.htm

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Yap Ai Shyan (TP014921) HSSN (CT014-3-1) Sellappan.P. (1998). Information Technology in Business: A Guide to the Information Age (2nd ed.). Subang: Times Offset (M) Sdn.Bhd.

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