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Anthro 2AC Review 1. Format a. 20 Multiple Choice b. 20 Fill In c. 10 Short 2. What to study a. Quizzes (review quiz) b. Articles c.

Guest Lecturers basics i. Artifacts, theoretic approach. 1. Brandon- liberation, Jerry- outreach 3. James Deetz a. Small things- small things that do not have any monetary value, but have historical value through the eyes of everyday people, not those who wrote history. b. How colonists lived in America i. Ceramics ii. Architecture 4. Unit 1/2 a. Artifacts, ecofacts, and features i. Artifacts- a moveable item used or manufactures by people ii. Ecofacts- seeds, bones, things in the environment relating to people iii. Features- roads, graves, hearths b. Layers in the ground- stratigraphy c. Myth of the Mound builders- person bias perception of the past i. Refused to believe that the modern Native Americans ancestors actually built them. d. Kennewick man i. Scientist reasons to own the remains 1. Evidence would deteriorate 2. Technology would advance 3. Couldnt prove cultural affiliation ii. NAGPRA 1. Native American grave protection and repatriation act 2. Protects human remains on federal lands e. African Burial ground i. No definite research question ii. Didnt engage with the local population f. Uniformitarianism i. If you can understand processes that go on in the past, then modern day processes would be the same. g. Law of superposition i. Older things are beneath the newer things on top, if understood h. Processual and Post-Processual

i. Processual archaeology focuses on objectivity and that there is a knowable truth that explains change. Universality, environmental focus ii. Post- critique of Processual 1. Rejects universal laws and focuses on the individual implementing change through symbolism rather than universal laws and external conditions. 2. Humanistic approaches and rejects scientific objectivity i. Levels of theory i. Low 1. Observations made about an artifacts ii. Middle 1. Link observable traits with human behavior 2. Experimental archaeology 3. Ethnoarchaeology iii. High 1. Big questions, why? 2. Theories explaining the human condition 5. Unit 3/4 a. Relative and Absolute dating i. Relative 1. Seriation ii. Absolute 1. Dendrochronology 2. Radiocarbon Dating a. Measures Half-life of organic materials b. Decay starts at death, c. 1950 b. Remember me as you pass by i. As you walk by graveyards you see the differences as you walk by c. Typology i. Pottery etc, way of grouping artifacts in a certain type ii. Temporal 1. Relation in time, depth 2. Stratigraphy iii. Spatial 1. Relation in space d. Sampling i. Population, universe, sampling ii. Geophysical techniques 1. Magnetometer 2. GPR, ground penetrating radar 3. Soil resistivity 4. Processed through GIS, that displays and analyses cartographic data.. iii. Datum

1. Arbitrary point that is defined in which to measure everything from. 2. When to use natural and arbitrary levels a. Natural i. Strata b. Arbitrary i. Every 10 cm. etc. c. Depends on the natural layers, iv. Floatation 1. Stuff that floats is light fraction, sinks is heavy fraction 6. Unit 5 a. Zooarchaeologist i. Animal remains ii. Faunal remains b. Paleoethnobotanist i. Plant remains ii. Floral remains c. Number of individual specimens (NISP) versus number of individuals d. Bioarchaeology i. Study of human remains ii. Osteology 1. Study of bones iii. Identifying markers of age sex and social status 1. Age a. Epiphysis of long bones fused on adults but not younger people 2. Sex a. Pelvic bones, opening of pubic synthesis iv. What information can be extracted 1. Diet e. Paleopathology i. Studying ancient diseases 7. Unit 6 a. Social and political organization i. Informal versus formal b. Gender i. Sex versus gender 1. Sex is biological, gender is social ii. Androcentric 1. Focuses on men and excludes women c. Types of decent i. Matrilineal through mother ii. Patrilineal through father iii. Bilateral is both d. Ascribed status i. King/royalty

e. Achieved status i. President etc f. Egalitarian society i. From birth, everyone has equal access to resources g. Ranked Society i. Limited number of positions of power, certain groups rein h. Direct acquisition versus down the line trading i. Direct 1. Group immediately gets the item from source ii. Down the line trade 1. Value goes up as the product gets further away from source 8. Unit 7 a. 9. Unit 8 a. Symbol i. Object or act that represents something else. b. Religion i. Specific set of beliefs about ones relation to the supernatural. c. Ritual i. A procession of discrete behaviors that must be performed in a particular order under unique circumstances. d. Ideology i. How you rationalize your beliefs ii. What kind of materials does it produce 1. Entailed in every artifact, can produce anything. iii. What kind of material remains could you use to investigate that mind of past peoples 1. Conkey e. Structuralism i. Claude Levi Strauss ii. A paradigm holding that human culture is an expression of unconscious modes of though and reasoning. 10. Unit 9 a. States and societies, what are the different levels? i. Band>tribe>chiefdom>state>post-state level b. Mayan Stile i. Mayan kinship line ii. Classic standing stone commemorating the kings kinship and major exploits of the king. c. What criteria qualifies a society to be at the state level d. Well developed societies have been seen to have a close tie between religion and rulership and a well developed system of taxation and tribute 11. Unit 10/11 a. Households i. Analysis 1. Looking at architecture and primary refuse (midden)

2. Features 3. NOT landscape ii. How you make pottery, sequence of operation