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Impotence cure To cure the tying of aigullettes you must take galanga,^ cinnamon from Mecca, cloves, Indian

cachou,nutmeg, Indian cubebs, sparrow-wort,* cinnamon, Persian pepper, Indian thistle,cardamoms, pyrether, laurel' seed, and gillyflowers. All these ingredients must be pounded together carefully, and one drinks of it as much as one can, morning and night,

1.

Galangal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Galanga) Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2010)

Kaempferia galanga

Galangal rhizome ready to be prepared for cooking Galangal (galanga, blue ginger, laos) is a rhizome of plants of the genus Alpinia or Kaempferia in the ginger family Zingiberaceae, with culinary and medicinal uses originated from Indonesia. (Lao: "kha"; Thai: "kha"; Malay: lengkuas (Alpinia galanga); traditional Mandarin: or ; simplified Mandarin: or ; Cantonese: lam keong, ; Vietnamese: ring).

It is used in various Asian cuisines (for example in Thai and Lao tom yum and tom kha gai soups, Vietnamese Hu cuisine (tre) and throughout Indonesian cuisine, for example, in soto). Though it is related to and resembles ginger, there is little similarity in taste. In its raw form, galangal has a citrusy, piney, earthy aroma, with hints of cedar and soap (saponins) in the flavor; its flavor is a complement to its relative ginger, but galangal has little of the peppery heat that raw ginger has. It is available as a whole rhizome, cut or powdered. The whole fresh rhizome is very hard, and slicing it requires a sharp knife. A mixture of galangal and lime juice is used as a tonic in parts of Southeast Asia. In the Indonesian language, greater galangal is called lengkuas or laos and lesser galangal is called kencur. It is also known as galanggal, and somewhat confusingly galingale, which is also the name for several plants of the unrelated Cyperus genus of sedges (also with aromatic rhizomes). In Thai language, greater galangal is called "" (kha) or "" (kha yai), while lesser galangal is called " " (kha ta daeng). In Vietnamese, greater galangl is called ring np and lesser galangal is called ring thuc. The word galangal, or its variant galanga, in common usage can refer to four plant species all in the Zingiberaceae (ginger family):

Alpinia galanga or greater galangal Alpinia officinarum or lesser galangal Kaempferia galanga, also called kencur, aromatic ginger or sand ginger Boesenbergia pandurata, also called Chinese ginger or fingerroot

Alpinia galanga is also known as chewing John, little John chew and galanga root. It is used in African-American folk medicine and hoodoo folk magic.[citation needed] Polish vodka Zoladkowa Gorzka is flavoured with galanga. The rhizome of Alpinia galanga has shown antimalarial activity in mice

1.

Cinnamon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Cinnamon (disambiguation).

Cinnamon sticks or quills and ground cinnamon

Cinnamon ( /snmn/ SIN--mn) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. Cinnamon trees are native to South East Asia.

Contents
[hide]

1 Nomenclature and taxonomy 2 History 3 Cultivation 4 Species 5 Flavor, aroma and taste 6 Uses 7 Medicinal value

7.1 Research

8 Nutritional information 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

[edit] Nomenclature and taxonomy


The name cinnamon comes through the Greek kinnmmon from Phoenician.[1] In India, where it is cultivated on the hills of Kerala, it is called "karuvapatta" or "dalchini" (Hindi). In Indonesia, where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra, it is called kayu manis ("sweet wood") and sometimes cassia vera, the "real" cassia.[2] In Sri Lanka, in Sinhala, cinnamon is known as kurundu (),[3] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda.[4] In several European languages, the word for cinnamon comes from the Latin word cannella, a diminutive of canna, "cane".

[edit] History

Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005

Cinnamomum verum, from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887) Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia.[5] The Hebrew Bible makes specific mention of the spice many times: first when Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew: ,qinnmn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil;[6] in Proverbs where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon;[7] and in Song of Solomon, a song describing the beauty of his beloved, cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.[8] Cinnamon was a component of the Ketoret which is used when referring to the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud. It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem. It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.[9] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade, to protect their monopoly as suppliers, cinnamon is native to Malabar Coast of India, Sri Lanka, Burma and Bangladesh.[10] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65.[11] Before the foundation of Cairo, Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. When the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on crusade in 1248, he reported what he had been toldand believedthat cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score.[12] In Herodotus and other authors, Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests; the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. This story was

current as late as 1310 in Byzantium, although in the first century, Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.[13] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino, in a letter of about 1292.[14] Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis- literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.[15][16][17] See also Rhapta. Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt, where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia. Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese, who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years. Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. They established a trading post in 1638, took control of the factories by 1640, and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. "The shores of the island are full of it", a Dutch captain reported, "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island, one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea." (Braudel 1984, p. 215) The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild and eventually began to cultivate its own trees. In 1767, Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala, and this estate became Asia's largest cinnamon estate. The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. However, the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining, as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas, the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers, and coffee, tea, sugar, and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices.

[edit] Cultivation

Leaves from a wild cinnamon tree

Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years then coppicing it. The next year, about a dozen shoots will form from the roots. The branches harvested this way are processed by scraping off the outer bark, then beating the branch evenly with a hammer to loosen the inner bark. The inner bark is then prised out in long rolls. Only the thin (0.5 mm (0.020 in)) inner bark is used; the outer, woody portion is discarded, leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Once dry, the bark is cut into 510 cm (2.03.9 in) lengths for sale. The bark must be processed immediately after harvesting while still wet. Once processed, the bark will dry completely in four to six hours, provided that it is in a well-ventilated and relatively warm environment. A less than ideal drying environment encourages the proliferation of pests in the bark, which may then require treatment by fumigation. Bark treated this way is not considered to be of the same premium quality as untreated bark. Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka, and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India, Bangladesh, Java, Sumatra, the West Indies, Brazil, Vietnam, Madagascar, Zanzibar, and Egypt. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin, smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. In recent years in Sri Lanka, mechanical devices have been developed to ensure premium quality and worker safety and health, following considerable research by the Universities in that country led by the University of Ruhuna. According to the International Herald Tribune, in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon, followed by China, India, and Vietnam.[18] According to the FAO, Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups:

Alba, less than 6 mm (0.24 in) in diameter Continental, less than 16 mm (0.63 in) in diameter Mexican, less than 19 mm (0.75 in) in diameter Hamburg, less than 32 mm (1.3 in) in diameter

These groups are further divided into specific grades. For example, Mexican is divided into M00 000 special, M000000, and M0000, depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg. Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm (4.2 in) long are categorized as quillings. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Chips are trimmings of quills, outer and inner bark that cannot be separated, or the bark of small twigs.

[edit] Species

Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) on the left, and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) quills A number of species are often sold as cinnamon:[19]

Cinnamomum verum ("True cinnamon", Sri Lanka cinnamon or Ceylon cinnamon) C. burmannii (Korintje or Indonesian cinnamon) C. loureiroi (Saigon cinnamon or Vietnamese cinnamon) C. aromaticum (Cassia or Chinese cinnamon) Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu ( ), Pat Kurundu ( ) or Mapat Kurundu ( ) Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu ( ) Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu ( Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu ( ) Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu ( ) Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu ( ) Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu ( ) )

There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum verum based on the taste of bark:[citation needed]

Ceylon cinnamon, using only the thin inner bark, has a finer, less dense, and more crumbly texture, and is considered to be more aromatic and more subtle in flavor than cassia. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than Ceylon cinnamon, is generally a medium to light reddish brown, hard and woody in texture, and thicker (23 mm (0.0790.12 in) thick), as all of the layers of bark are used.[20] Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin, European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia.[21] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content.[citation needed] Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin.[22] The barks, when whole, are easily distinguished, and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. Ceylon cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder, whereas cassia sticks are much harder. Indonesian cinnamon is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer, capable of damaging a spice or

coffee grinder. Saigon cinnamon and Chinese cinnamon are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark, as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. The powdered bark is harder to distinguish, but if it is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch[23]), little effect is visible with pure Ceylon cinnamon, but when Chinese cinnamon is present, a deep-blue tint is produced.
[24][25]

Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala).

[edit] Flavor, aroma and taste


Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.5% to 1% of its composition. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in seawater, and then quickly distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow color, with the characteristic odor of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and, by the absorption of oxygen as it ages, it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate, eugenol (found mostly in the leaves), beta-caryophyllene, linalool, and methyl chavicol[citation needed].

[edit] Uses

Cinnamon bark Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. It is used in the preparation of chocolate, especially in Mexico, which is the main importer of true cinnamon.[26] It is also used in many dessert recipes, such as apple pie, donuts, and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies, tea, hot cocoa, and liqueurs. True cinnamon, rather than cassia, is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. In the Middle East, it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. In the United States, cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals, bread-based dishes, and fruits, especially apples; a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine, used in a variety of thick soups, drinks, and sweets. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Shole-zard, Persian .) It is also used in sambar powder or BisiBelebath powder in Karnataka, which gives it a rich aroma and tastes unique. It is also used in Turkish cuisine for both sweet and savory dishes. Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent, although it remains untested.[27] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.[28] The compounds cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, eugenol, and anethole, that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil, were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.[28]

[edit] Medicinal value


[edit] Research

In a 2000 study published in The Indian Journal of Medical Research, it was shown that of the 69 plant species screened, 16 were effective against HIV-1 and 4 were against both HIV-1 and HIV2. The most effective extracts against HIV-1 and HIV-2 were respectively Cinnamomum cassia (bark) and Cardiospermum helicacabum (shoot + fruit).[29] An oil known as eugenol that comes from the leaves of the cinnamon bush has been shown to have antiviral properties in vitro, specifically against both the HSV-1 and HSV-2 (Oral and Genital Herpes) viruses according to a study published in the journal, Phytotherapy Research.[30] A 2003 study at National Institutes of Health shows benefits of cinnamon in diet of type 2 diabetics. "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes".[31] A study conducted in 2007 and published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry suggests that specific plant terpenoids contained within cinnamon have potent antiviral properties.[32] Pharmacological experiments suggest that the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldehyde) activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells and may therefore represent an experimental chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.[33] Recent research documents anti-melanoma activity of cinnamic aldehyde observed in cell culture and a mouse model of human melanoma.[34] Cinnamon bark, a component of the traditional Japanese medicine Mao-to, has been shown in a 2008 study published in the Journal of General Virology to have an antiviral therapeutic effect.
[35]

A 2011 study isolated a substance (CEppt) in the cinnamon plant which inhibits development of Alzheimer's in mice.[36] CEppt, an extract of cinnamon bark, seems to treat a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.[37]

2.

Clove

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Cloves) Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2009) Clove

Scientific classification Kingdom: Phylum: (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Rosids Myrtales Myrtaceae Syzygium S. aromaticum

Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum


(L.) Merrill & Perry

Synonyms[1]

Caryophyllus aromaticus L. Eugenia aromatica


(L.) Baill.

Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. Eugenia caryophyllus


(Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison

This article is about the spice. For other uses, see Clove (disambiguation). Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Cloves are native to the Maluku islands in Indonesia and used as a spice in cuisines all over the world. Cloves are harvested primarily in Indonesia, India, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The clove tree is an evergreen that grows to a height ranging from 812 m, having large leaves and sanguine flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green, after which they develop into a bright red, when they are ready for collecting. Cloves are harvested when 1.52 cm long, and consist of a long calyx, terminating in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the center.

Contents
[hide]

1 Taxonomy and nomenclature 2 Uses


2.1 Non-culinary uses 2.2 Traditional medicinal uses 2.3 Medicinal uses and Pharmaceutical preparations

3 Adulteration 4 History 5 Active compounds 6 See also 7 Notes and references

[edit] Taxonomy and nomenclature


The scientific name of clove is Syzygium aromaticum. It belongs to the genus Syzygium, tribe Syzygieae, and subfamily Myrtoideae of the family Myrtaceae. It is classified in the order of Myrtales, which belong to superorder Rosids, under Eudicots of Dicotyledonae. Clove is an Angiospermic plant and belongs to division of Magnoliophyta in the kingdom Plantae.[1] The English name derives from Latin clavus 'nail' (also the origin of French clou and Spanish clavo, 'nail') as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape. Cloves are also known under the following names in other languages:[1]

Arabic:( Kronfol) Chinese: (pinyin: dng xing) Czech: hebek Danish: nelliker Dutch: kruidnagel French: giroflier (for the tree), clou de girofle (for the spice) German: Gewrznelkenbaum Hindi: long, lavang Indonesian: cengkeh or cengkih Italian: Chiodi di garofano Kannada: lavanga () Magyar: szegfszeg Malayalam: grampoo( ) Marathi: lavang () Pashto: lawang Portuguese: cravo-da-ndia, cravo-das-molucas, and cravo-de-doce Romnete: cuioare, cuisoare Spanish: rbol del clavo or clavero girofl (for the tree), clavo de olor (for the spice) Sinhala: karabu nati ( ) Tamil: kirambu (), lavangam () Telugu: lavangam () Trke: karanfil Urdu: laung, laong Vietnamese: inh hng

[edit] Uses

Dried cloves

Clove output in 2005 Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form, but as they are extremely strong, they are used sparingly. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian). In North Indian cuisine, it is used in almost all rich or spicy dishes as an ingredient of a mix named garam masala, along with other spices, although it is not an everyday ingredient for home cuisine, nor is it used in summer very often. In the Maharashtra region of India it is used sparingly for sweet or spicy dishes, but rarely in everyday cuisine. In Ayurvedic medicine it is considered to have the effect of increasing heat in system, hence the difference of usage by region and season. In south Indian cuisine, it is used extensively in biryani along with "cloves dish" (similar to pilaf, but with the addition of other spices), and it is normally added whole to enhance the presentation and flavor of the rice. Dried cloves are also a key ingredient in Indian masala chai, spiced tea, a special variation of tea popular in some regions, notably Gujarat. In the US, it is often sold under the name of "chai" or "chai tea", as a way of differentiating it from other types of teas sold in the US. In Mexican cuisine, cloves are best known as clavos de olor, and often used together with cumin and cinnamon.[2] In Vietnamese cuisine, cloves are often used to season the broth of Ph. In American cooking, it is often used in sweet breads such as pumpkin or zucchini bread along with other sweet spices like nutmeg and cinnamon. Due to the Indonesian influence, the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. Cloves are used in cheeses, often in combination with cumin. Cloves are an essential ingredient for making Dutch speculaas. Furthermore, cloves are used in traditional Dutch stews like hachee.

[edit] Non-culinary uses


The spice is used in a type of cigarette called kretek in Indonesia.[1] Kreteks have been smoked throughout Europe, Asia and the United States. In 2009, clove cigarettes (as well as fruit and

candy flavored cigarettes) were outlawed in the US.[3] However, they are still sold in similar form, re-labeled as "filtered clove cigars". Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. And clove essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. During Christmas, it is a tradition in some European countries to make pomanders from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and serves as holiday decorations. Cloves are often used as incense in the Jewish practice called Havdala.

[edit] Traditional medicinal uses


Cloves are used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese medicine, and western herbalism and dentistry where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. Cloves are used as a carminative, to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. Cloves are also said to be a natural anthelmintic.[4] The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed, especially for digestive problems. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. Clove oil, applied to a cavity in a decayed tooth, also relieves toothache.[5] It also helps to decrease infection in the teeth due to its antiseptic properties. In Chinese medicine cloves or ding xiang are considered acrid, warm and aromatic, entering the kidney, spleen and stomach meridians, and are notable in their ability to warm the middle, direct stomach qi downward, to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang.[6] Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency, for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli, or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness.[6] This would translate to hypochlorhydria. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne, pimples etc. It is also used in severe burns, skin irritations and to reduce the sensitivity of skin. Cloves may be used internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles, including for multiple sclerosis.[citation needed] This is also found in Tibetan medicine.[7] Some recommend avoiding more than occasional use of cloves internally in the presence of pitta inflammation such as is found in acute flares of autoimmune diseases.[8] In West Africa, the Yorubas use cloves infused in water as a treatment for stomach upsets, vomiting and diarrhea. The infusion is called Ogun Jedi-jedi.

[edit] Medicinal uses and Pharmaceutical preparations


Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. However, studies to determine its effectiveness for fever reduction, as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation have been inconclusive. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels.[9] Tellimagrandin II is an ellagitannin found in S. aromaticum with anti-herpesvirus properties.[10] The buds have anti-oxidant properties.[11] Clove oil can be used to anesthetize fish, and prolonged exposure to higher doses (the recommended dose is 400mg/l) is considered a humane means of euthanasia.[12]

In addition, Clove oil is used in preparation of some toothpastes, laxative pills and Clovacaine solution which is a local anesthetic and used in oral ulceration and anti-inflammations. Eugenol (or clove oil generally) is mixed with Zinc oxide to be a temporary filling.[13]

[edit] Adulteration
Clove Stalks: They are slender stems of the inflorescence axis which show opposite decussate branching. Externally, they are brownish, rough and irregularly wrinkled longitudinally with short fracture and dry, woody texture. Mother Cloves (Anthophylli): There are the ripe fruits of cloves which are ovoid, brown berries, unilocular and one-seeded. This can be detected by the presence of much starch in the seeds. Brown Cloves: Expanded flowers from which both corolla and stamens have been detached. Exhausted Cloves: Cloves from which almost or all of the oil has been removed by distillation. They yield no oil and are darker in color.[14]

[edit] History
Until modern times, cloves grew only on a few islands in the Maluku Islands (historically called the Spice Islands), including Bacan, Makian, Moti, Ternate, and Tidore.[15] Nevertheless, they found their way west to the Middle East and Europe well before the 1st century AD. Archeologists found cloves within a ceramic vessel in Syria along with evidence dating the find to within a few years of 1721 BC.[15] In the 3rd century BC, a Chinese leader in the Han Dynasty required those who addressed them to chew cloves so as to freshen their breath.[16] Cloves, along with nutmeg and pepper, were highly prized in Roman times, and Pliny the Elder once famously complained that "there is no year in which India does not drain the Roman Empire of fifty million sesterces".[citation needed] Cloves were traded by Muslim sailors and merchants during the Middle Ages in the profitable Indian Ocean trade, the Clove trade is also mentioned by Ibn Battuta and even famous One Thousand and One Nights characters such Sinbad the Sailor is known to have bought and sold Cloves[17]. In the late 15th century, Portugal took over the Indian Ocean trade, including cloves, due to the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain and a separate treaty with the sultan of Ternate. The Portuguese brought large quantities of cloves to Europe, mainly from the Maluku Islands. Clove was then one of the most valuable spices, a kg costing around 7 g of gold.[citation needed] The high value of cloves and other spices drove Spain to seek new routes to the Maluku Islands, which would not be seen as trespassing on the Portuguese domain in the Indian Ocean. Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain sponsored the unsuccessful voyages of Christopher Columbus, and their grandson Charles V sponsored the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan. The fleet led by Magellan reached the Maluku Islands after his death, and the Spanish were successful in briefly capturing this trade from the Portuguese. The trade later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. With great difficulty the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into Mauritius in the year 1770. Subsequently, their cultivation was introduced into Guiana, Brazil, most of the West Indies, and Zanzibar. In Britain in the 17th and 18th centuries, cloves were worth at least their weight in gold, due to the high price of importing them.[18]

[edit] Active compounds

The compound eugenol is responsible for most of the characteristic aroma of cloves. Eugenol comprises 72-90% of the essential oil extracted from cloves, and is the compound most responsible for the cloves' aroma. Other important essential oil constituents of clove oil include acetyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene and vanillin; crategolic acid; tannins, gallotannic acid, methyl salicylate (painkiller); the flavonoids eugenin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, and eugenitin; triterpenoids like oleanolic acid, stigmasterol and campesterol; and several sesquiterpenes.[19][20] Eugenol has pronounced antiseptic and anaesthetic properties. Of the dried buds, 15 - 20 percent is essential oils, and the majority of this is eugenol. A kilogram (2.2 lbs) of dried buds yields approximately 150 ml (1/4 of pint) of eugenol.[21][unreliable source?] Eugenol can be toxic in relatively small quantitiesas low as 5 ml.[22]

3.

Catechu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For the region in India, see Kutch District.

Bottle of catechu

Catechu

Catechu ( /ktu/ or /kttu/;[1] also known as cachou, cutch, cashoo, Terra Japonica, khoyer or Japan earth) is an extract of any of several species of Acaciabut especially Acacia catechuproduced by boiling the wood in water and evaporating the resulting brew.[2] Catechu is called katha in Hindi, kaath in (marathi), khoyer in Assamese and Bengali, and kachu in Malay, hence the Latinized [3]Acacia catechu chosen as the Linnaean taxonomy name of the type-species Acacia plant which provides the extract. Catechu extract is an astringent and has been used since ancient times in Ayurvedic medicine as well as in breath-freshening spice mixtures, for example in France and Italy it is used in some licorice pastilles. It is also an important ingredient in South Asian Paan mixtures, as well as ready-made Paan Masala and Gutka. The mixture is high in natural vegetable tannins (which accounts for its astringent effect), and may be used for the tanning of animal hides. Early research by Sir Humphry Davy in the early 19th century first demonstrated the use of catechu in tanning over more expensive and traditional oak extracts. The extract gave its name to the catechin and catechol chemical families first derived from it. Under the name cutch, catechu is a brown dye used for tanning and dyeing and for preserving fishing nets and sails. Cutch will dye wool, silk, and cotton a yellowish-brown. Cutch gives graybrowns with an iron mordant and olive-browns with a copper mordant.[4] White cutch, also known as gambier, gambeer, or gambir, has the same uses. Black Catechu has recently also been utilized by Blavod Drinks Ltd. to dye their vodka

4.

Nutmeg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). Nutmeg

Myristica fragrans

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Plantae Angiosperms Magnoliids Magnoliales Myristicaceae Myristica
Gronov.

Genus:

Species See text

Myristica fragrans tree in Goa, India

Nutmegs on a tree in Kerala, India

Nutmeg that can be found in Raigad

Nutmeg seeds showing "veins" The nutmeg tree is any of several species of trees in genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas (or Spice Islands) of Indonesia. The nutmeg tree is important for two spices derived from the fruit: nutmeg and mace.[1] Nutmeg is the seed of the tree, roughly egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to 1 in) long and 15 to 18 mm (0.6 to 0.7 in) wide, and weighing between 5 and 10 g (0.2 and 0.4 oz) dried, while mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or aril of the seed. The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 79 years after planting, and the trees reach full production after 20 years. Nutmeg is usually used in powdered form. This is the only tropical fruit that is the source of two different spices. Several other commercial products are also produced from the trees, including essential oils, extracted oleoresins, and nutmeg butter (see below). The common or fragrant nutmeg, Myristica fragrans, native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia, is also grown in Penang Island in Malaysia and the Caribbean, especially in Grenada. It also grows in Kerala, a state in southern India. Other species of nutmeg include Papuan nutmeg M. argentea from New Guinea, and Bombay nutmeg M. malabarica from India, called jaiphal in Hindi; both are used as adulterants of M. fragrans products.

Contents
[hide]

1 Botany and cultivation 2 Culinary uses 3 Essential oils 4 Nutmeg butter 5 History 6 World production 7 Medical research 8 Psychoactivity and toxicity

8.1 Effects

8.2 History of use 8.3 Toxicity during pregnancy

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

[edit] Botany and cultivation


Nutmeg is a dioecious plant which is propagated sexually and asexually, the latter being the standard. Sexual propagation by seedling yields 50% male seedlings, which are unproductive. As there is no reliable method of determining plant sex before flowering in the sixth to eighth year, and sexual propagation bears inconsistent yields, grafting is the preferred method of propagation. Epicotyl grafting, approach grafting and patch budding have proved successful, epicotyl grafting being the most widely adopted standard. Air-layering, or marcotting, is an alternative, though not preferred, method, because of its low (35-40%) success rate. [show]Selected Myristica species
M. acsmithii M. agusanensis M. alba M. albertisii M. amboinensis M. ampliata M. amplifolia M. amygdalina M. anceps M. andamanica M. angolensis M. angustifolia M. apiculata M. archboldiana M. ardisiifolia M. arfakensis M. argentea M. aruensis M. atrescens M. atrocorticata M. attenuata M. avis-paradisiacae M. baeuerlenii M. balsamica M. bancana M. basilanica M. batjanica M. beccarii M. beddomei M. bivalvis M. bombycina M. brachiata M. brachypoda MM . . fo ur sn ca at a M . M . f uo sv ii fc oa rr mp ia s M M. . p ga ac mh by lc ea ir

M. brassii M. brevistipes M. buchneriana M. byssacea M. cagayanensis M. canariformis M. cantleyi M. capitellata M. carrii M. castaneifolia M. celebica M. cerifera M. ceylanica M. chapelieri M. chartacea M. chrysophylla M. cimicifera M. cinerea M. cinnamomea M. clarkeana M. clemensii M. coacta M. colinridsdalei M. collettiana M. commersonii M. concinna M. conspersa M. contorta M. contracta M. cookii M. coriacea M. cornutiflora M. corticata M. corticosa M. costata M. costulata M. crassa M. crassifolia M. crassinervis M. crassipes M. cucullata M. cumingii M. curtisii M. cylindrocarpa M. dactyloides M. dardaini M. dasycarpa M. debilis M. depressa M. devogelii M. diversifolia M. duplopunctata M. duthiei M. elegans M. elliptica M. ensifolia M. erratica

p Mi . d i ga a rM c. i np ia ic fh oy lp ih ay l Ml . a gM a. r dp na ec rh iy t Mh . y r gs ea m iM n. a tp aa l Ma . w a gn ie bn bs oi ss a M M. . p a

M. eugeniifolia M. euryocarpa M. extensa M. fallax M. faroensis M. farquhariana M. fasciculata M. filipes M. finlaysoniana M. firmipes M. fissiflora M. fissurata M. flavovirens M. flocculosa M. flosculosa M. forbesii M. fragrans M. frugifera M. fugax M. furfurascerts

gl iu gd ai nc to el aa MM . . gp ia lp li el sl pa it ei af no al i Ma . M g. l ap ua cp au a Mn . a gM l. o bp oa sp ay r Ma . c e ga o rM d. o np ia ir

fv oi lf il ao r Ma . M g. r ap ce ic lt ii pn ea st a M . M . g rp ae nd di ic fe ol ll ia at a M . M . g rp ae nl dt ia st a M . M . g rp ie fn fd iu tl hi

in ia MM . . gp ue ar dl aa le cv ai ns a lM e. n sp ie st i Mo . l a gt ua a tM t. e rp ih ii fl oi lp ip ae n Ms . i s g uM i. l lp ai ul mo is ne il al na

a M M. . p hi al co ks ei ng be em rm ga i iM . M . p i hn en la le wf io gr im ii s M . M . h ep rl ia tt iy es rp ie fr om la i aM . M . p l hu em te er ri

oi pf ho yl li la a M M. . p ho ol ly la rn ut nh ga i iM . M . p o hl oy os gp lh ae nr du il ia MM . . hp os re su fd io ea lr dg ie an t Me . a hM o. s

tp ms ai nl no ic a Mr . p a h yM p. a rp gu yb ri ac ea ar p Ma . M h. y pp ou sl tc ih cr ta a M M. . p iu mm pi rl ea s sM a. Mp . y g im ma pe ra e s

sM i. n eq ru ve ir ac i Mc . a r ip na a eM q. u ar la ic se m Mo . s a i nM c. r er da id bj ia l iM s. Mr . e s ii nn eo rs sa MM . . ir ne gt eu ns sa

MM . . ir ni gd rl ae ty aa n Ma . M i. n or pi id nl ae ty ai MM . . ir ni se id pe il di ai MM . . ir no tb eu rs mt ea d iM a. Mr . o s is ne

ul ne dn as ti as MM . . ir nu ub ti ig li in so s Ma . M i. r yr au b Mr . i n ie tr ev oi ps h yM l. l ar u Mm . p h ji oi h nM s. i is a Mg . o t ki a

an ja e wM s. k is ia l Mo . m o kn ae ln ks mi as n iM i. Ms . a n kg jo ew lo le bn es ri gs i iM . M . s a kp oi od ra d eM r. s is ia r Mc . a n kt oh ra

t hM a. l ss ic ih l Me . c h kt ue nr si t lM e. r is c Mh . l e ki un ri zt iz ii i M . M . l as ec vh iu fm oa ln in ai a Mn . a lM a. e vs ic go ar tt ae

c Mh . i n li ai e vM i. s s Mc . r i lp at ka i lM a. k is e Mr . i c le aa s iM o. c as re ps aq u Mi . p e ld aa ul ri es l lM a. Ms . i m li aa ur ru m

i nM a. Ms . i m lu al xa in fs l oM r. a s Mi . n c ll ea mi ar ni ni i aM n. a s Mm . y t lh ei ne ts ai i M . M . l es po ig de or ti ae n Ms . i s l

eM p. t os pp ha yn lo lg ah e Ma . n a l eM u. c os xp yh la ae r Mo . s p le ir tm oa r aM l. i ss p Mh . a e lr ou nl ga i pM e. s s Mp . i c la ot na g iM

p. e ts ip or lu ac te ai MM . . ls ot we in ao np ah y Ml . l a m aM c. g rs eu ga ov ri is MM . . ms au cb ra al nu tl ha at a M . M . m as cu rb og cl

ao rb po as a M . M . m as cu rb ot ci al ri ys a M M. . s mu ac cc ra od ca on me aa MM . . ms au cc rc oo ts ha y rM s. a s Mu . l c ma at ga n iM f. i

c as u Ml . u e mn as ii ns g aM y. i s Mu . m b ma av ja un sa c uM l. a s Mu . p e mr ab la a bM a. r it ca am r Ma . u e mn as li as y aM n. a t Me . i j

s mm aa nn dn ai hi a rM a. n t Me . n u mi av ne nn ii ia MM . . mt ae ry ks gm ra an vn ii a nM a. Mt . i n mg ae sn cs u lM a. Mt . o m me an xt ie ml

al a M . M . m et do im oe vn it bo es xa MM . . mt er di ia tn et rh re ar na e aM . M . t r mi is ct ri as n tM h. a t Mu . b e mr ic cu rl oa ct aa r p

aM . M . t u mb ii cf rl oo cr ea p hM a. l au l Mt . r a mb ia ls li ec pa u nM c. t au tm ab e Ml . l a mt ia n dM a. n au em nb sr io ss a M . M . m iu nn

dc oi rn ea nt sa i sM . M . u n md iu ol ha ut i Mf . o l mi ia s sM i. o nu ir sd a Mn . e t me on ls li is s sM i. m au v Mi . f o mr om ui cs h iM o. v

Ma . l i md ua l tM i. n ev re vl iu at i Mn . a mM u. r tv oe nr ir u Mc . u l mo ys ra m eM c. o pv hi il ll ao s Ma . M n. a nv ai n Mk . e a nn ea g l

eM c. t av o Mr . d e nr em ga rn on si e nM s. i sw a Ml . l a nc ee sa on pa h iM l. a w Ma . l l ni ic oh bi ui e M M. . w na ir ob hu nr eg i Mi . M .

n iw te in dz ae l Mi . i nM i. v ew ao m Me . r s ol be ly oi n gM i. f ow lr ia ay i M . M . o lw iy va at ct eas m Mi . t h oi ri i nM o. c ey nu sn in

a n e n s i s M s. z e y l a n i c a

List sources :[2][3][4]

[edit] Culinary uses


Nutmeg and Mace have similar sensory qualities, with nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour. Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange, saffron-like hue it imparts. Nutmeg is used for flavouring many dishes, usually in ground or grated form, and is best grated fresh in a nutmeg grater. In Penang cuisine, dried, shredded nutmeg rind with sugar coating is used as toppings on the uniquely Penang ais kacang. Nutmeg rind is also blended (creating a fresh, green, tangy taste and white colour juice) or boiled (resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice) to make iced nutmeg juice or, as it is called in Penang Hokkien, lau hau peng. In Indian cuisine, nutmeg is used in many sweet as well as savoury dishes (predominantly in Mughlai cuisine). It is known as jaiphal in most parts of India. In Kannada, nutmeg is called jaayi-kaayi/jaaipatre, jathikai () in Tamil and jatipatri() and jathi () seed in Kerala. In Telugu, nutmeg is called jaaji kaaya ( ) and mace is called jaapathri (). It is also added in small quantities as a medicine for infants (janma ghutti). It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India.[citation needed] In Middle Eastern cuisine, ground nutmeg is often used as a spice for savoury dishes. In Arabic, nutmeg is called jawzat at-tiyb (.) In Greece and Cyprus, nutmeg is called (moschokarydo) (Greek: "musky nut"), and is used in cooking and savoury dishes. In originally European cuisine, nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products; they are also used in soups, sauces, and baked goods. In Dutch cuisine, nutmeg is added to vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and string beans. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider, mulled wine, and eggnog. Japanese varieties of curry powder include nutmeg as an ingredient.

In the Caribbean, nutmeg is often used in drinks such as the Bushwacker, Painkiller, and Barbados rum punch. Typically, it is just a sprinkle on the top of the drink. The pericarp (fruit/pod) is used in Grenada to make a jam called morne delice. In Indonesia, the fruit is also made into jam, called selei buah pala, or is finely sliced, cooked with sugar, and crystallised to make a fragrant candy called manisan pala (nutmeg sweets).

[edit] Essential oils


The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of ground nutmeg is used widely in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. This volatile fraction typically contains 60-80% dcamphene by weight, as well as quantities of d-pinene, limonene, d-borneol, l-terpineol, geraniol, safrol, and myristicin.[5] The oil is colourless or light yellow, and smells and tastes of nutmeg. It contains numerous components of interest to the oleochemical industry, and is used as a natural food flavouring in baked goods, syrups, beverages, and sweets. It is used to replace ground nutmeg, as it leaves no particles in the food. The essential oil is also used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, for instance, in toothpaste, and as a major ingredient in some cough syrups. In traditional medicine, nutmeg and nutmeg oil were used for disorders related to the nervous and digestive systems.

[edit] Nutmeg butter


Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. It is semi-solid, reddish brown in colour, and tastes and smells of nutmeg. Approximately 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin, which can be turned into myristic acid, a 14-carbon fatty acid, which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter, can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil, and has applications as an industrial lubricant.

Mace (red) within nutmeg fruit

[edit] History
It is known to have been a prized costly spice in European medieval cuisine as a flavouring, medicinal, and preservative agent. Saint Theodore the Studite (ca. 758 ca. 826) allowed his monks to sprinkle nutmeg on their pease pudding when required to eat it. In Elizabethan times, it was believed nutmeg could ward off the plague, so nutmeg became very popular and its price skyrocketed.[6] The small Banda Islands were, until the mid-19th century, the world's only source of nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg is noted as a very valuable commodity by Muslim sailors from the port of Basra, such as Sinbad the Sailor in the One Thousand and One Nights. Nutmeg was traded

by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for very high prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade, and no European was able to deduce their location. In August 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade, on behalf of the king of Portugal. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his friend Antnio de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.[7] The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about a month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrept trade.[8] The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tom Pires, based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515. Full control of this trade by the Portuguese was not possible, and they remained participants without a foothold in the islands themselves. The trade in nutmeg later became dominated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The English and Dutch engaged in prolonged struggles to gain control of Run Island, then the only source of nutmeg. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch gained control of Run, while England controlled New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. The Dutch waged a bloody war, including the massacre and enslavement of the inhabitants of the island of Banda, just to control nutmeg production in the East Indies in 1621. Thereafter, the Banda Islands were run as a series of plantation estates, with the Dutch mounting annual expeditions in local war-vessels to extirpate nutmeg trees planted elsewhere. In 1760, the price of nutmeg in London was 85 to 90 shillings per pound, a price kept artificially high by the Dutch voluntarily burning full warehouses of nutmegs in Amsterdam. As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars, the English took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees to their own colonial holdings elsewhere, notably Zanzibar and Grenada. The national flag of Grenada, adopted in 1974, shows a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit. The Dutch however continued to hold control of the spice islands until World War II Connecticut gets its nickname ("the Nutmeg State", "Nutmegger") from the legend that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg" (a term which came to mean any fraud).[9]

Commercial jar of mace

[edit] World production


World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10,000 and 12,000 tonnes (9,800 and 12,000 long tons; 11,000 and 13,000 short tons) per year, with annual world demand estimated at 9,000 tonnes (8,900 long tons; 9,900 short tons); production of mace is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 tonnes (1,500 to 2,000 long tons; 1,700 to 2,200 short tons). Indonesia and Grenada dominate production and exports of both products, with world market shares of 75% and 20% respectively. Other producers include India, Malaysia (especially Penang, where the trees are native within untamed areas), Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands, such as St. Vincent and Grenada, which produces 20% of the world's nutmeg supply. The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters.

[edit] Medical research


One study has shown that the compound macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae) may exert antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, but this is not a currently used treatment.[10] Nutmeg has been used in medicine since at least the seventh century. In the 19th century it was used as an abortifacient, which led to numerous recorded cases of nutmeg poisoning. Although used as a folk treatment for other ailments, nutmeg has no proven medicinal value today.[11]

[edit] Psychoactivity and toxicity


[edit] Effects
In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response, but in large doses, raw nutmeg has psychoactive effects. In its freshly-ground (from whole nutmegs) form, nutmeg contains myristicin, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and psychoactive substance. Myristicin poisoning can induce convulsions, palpitations, nausea, eventual dehydration, and generalized body pain.[12] It is also reputed to be a strong deliriant.[13]

Fatal myristicin poisonings in humans are very rare, but two have been reported: one in an 8year-old child[14] and another in a 55-year-old adult, the latter case attributed to a combination with flunitrazepam.[15] In case reports raw nutmeg produced anticholinergic-like symptoms, attributed to myristicin and elemicin.[16][14][17] In case reports intoxications with nutmeg had effects that varied from person to person, but were often reported to be an excited and confused state with headaches, nausea and dizziness, dry mouth, bloodshot eyes and memory disturbances. Nutmeg was also reported to induce hallucinogenic effects, such as visual distortions and paranoid ideation. In the reports nutmeg intoxication took several hours before maximum effect was reached. Effects and after-effects lasted up to several days.[18][12][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] Myristicin poisoning is potentially deadly to some pets and livestock, and may be caused by culinary quantities of nutmeg harmless to humans. For this reason, it is recommended not to feed eggnog to dogs.[27]

[edit] History of use


Peter Stafford's Psychedelics Encyclopedia quotes an 1883 report from Mumbai noting that "the Hindus of West India take [nutmeg] as an intoxicant", and records that the spice has been used for centuries as a form of snuff in rural eastern Indonesia and India, latter seeing the ground seed mixed with betel and other kinds of snuff. In 1829, the Czech physiologist Jan Evangelista Purkinje ingested three ground nutmegs with a glass of wine and recorded headaches, nausea, hallucinations and a sense of euphoria that lasted for several days.[11] Harvard ethnobotanist Richard Evans Schultes and chemist Albert Hofmann, who discovered LSD, documented reports of nutmeg's use as an intoxicant by students, prisoners, sailors, alcoholics and marijuana smokers. In his autobiography, Malcolm X writes about taking nutmeg and other "semi-drugs" while serving time in prison.[11] The Angewandte Chemie International Edition records the use of nutmeg as an intoxicant in the United States in the post-World War II period, notably among young people, bohemians, and prisoners. A 1966 New York Times piece named it along with morning glory seeds, diet aids, cleaning fluids, cough medicine, and other substances as "alternative highs" on college campuses.[11]

[edit] Toxicity during pregnancy


Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient, but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy. However, it inhibits prostaglandin production and contains hallucinogens that may affect the fetus if consumed in large quantities.[28]

5.

Cubeb

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Cubebs) Jump to: navigation, search In West Africa, "cubeb" is usually the related West African Pepper (Piper guineense). Cubeb

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): Order: Family: Genus: Species: Plantae Angiosperms Magnoliids Piperales Piperaceae Piper P. cubeba

Binomial name Piper cubeba

L.

Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. It is mostly grown in Java and Sumatra, hence sometimes called Java pepper. The fruits are gathered before they are ripe, and carefully dried. Commercial cubebs consist of the dried berries, similar in appearance to black pepper, but with stalks attached the "tails" in "tailed pepper". The dried pericarp is wrinkled, its color ranges from grayish-brown to black. The seed is hard, white and oily. The odor of cubebs is described as agreeable and aromatic; the taste, pungent, acrid, slightly bitter and persistent. It has been described as tasting like allspice, or like a cross between allspice and black pepper. Cubeb came to Europe via India through the trade with the Arabs. The name cubeb comes from Arabic kabba ( ,)which is of unknown origin,[1] by way of Old French quibibes.[2] Cubeb is mentioned in alchemical writings by its Arabic name. In his Theatrum Botanicum, John Parkinson tells that the king of Portugal prohibited the sale of cubeb in order to promote black pepper (Piper nigrum) around 1640. It experienced a brief resurgence in 19th-century Europe for medicinal uses, but has practically vanished from the European market since. It continues to be used as a flavoring agent for gins and cigarettes in the West, and as a seasoning for food in Indonesia.

Contents
[hide]

1 History 2 Chemistry 3 Uses


3.1 Medicinal 3.2 Culinary 3.3 Cigarettes and spirits 3.4 Other 4.1 Notes 4.2 Works cited

4 References

[edit] History

Piper cubeba, from Khler's Medicinal Plants (1887) In the 4th century BC, Theophrastus mentioned komakon, including it with cinnamon and cassia as an ingredient in aromatic confections. Guillaume Bud and Claudius Salmasius have identified komakon with cubeb, probably due to the resemblance which the word bears to the Javanese name of cubeb, kumukus. This is seen as a curious evidence of Greek trade with Java in a time earlier than that of Theophrastus.[3] It is unlikely Greeks acquired them from somewhere else, since Javanese growers protected their monopoly of the trade by sterilizing the berries by scalding, ensuring that the vines were unable to be cultivated elsewhere.[1] In the Tang Dynasty, cubeb was brought to China from Srivijaya. In India the spice came to be called kabab chini, that is, "Chinese cubeb", possibly because the Chinese had a hand in its trade, but more likely because it was an important item in the trade with China. In China this pepper was called both vilenga, and vidanga, the cognate Sanskrit word.[4] Li Hsun thought it grew on the same tree as black pepper. Tang physicians administered it to restore appetite, cure "demon vapors", darken the hair, and perfume the body. However, there is no evidence showing that cubeb was used as a condiment in China.[4] The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, compiled in the 9th century, mentions cubeb as a remedy for infertility, showing it was already used by Arabs for medicinal purposes. Cubeb was introduced to Arabic cuisine around the 10th century.[5] The Travels of Marco Polo, written in late 13th century, describes Java as a producer of cubeb, along with other valuable spices. In the 14th century, cubeb was imported into Europe from the Grain Coast, under the name of pepper, by merchants of Rouen and Lippe. A 14th-century morality tale exemplifying gluttony by the Franciscan writer Francesc Eiximenis describes the eating habits of a worldly cleric who consumes a bizarre concoction of egg yolks with cinnamon and cubeb after his baths, probably as an aphrodisiac. Cubeb was thought by the people of Europe to be repulsive to demons, just as it was by the people of China. Ludovico Maria Sinistrari, a Catholic priest who wrote about methods of exorcism in the late 17th century, includes cubeb as an ingredient in an incense to ward off incubus.[6] Even today, his formula for the incense is quoted by neopagan authors, some of whom also claim that cubeb can be used in love sachets and spells.

After the prohibition of sale, culinary use of cubeb decreased dramatically in Europe, and only its medicinal application continued to the 19th century. In the early 20th century, cubeb was regularly shipped from Indonesia to Europe and the United States. The trade gradually diminished to an average of 135 t (133 long tons; 149 short tons) annually, and practically ceased after 1940.[7]

[edit] Chemistry
The dried cubeb berries contain essential oil consisting monoterpenes (sabinene 50%, -thujene, and carene) and sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene, copaene, - and -cubebene, -cadinene, germacrene), the oxides 1,4- and 1,8-cineole and the alcohol cubebol. About 15% of a volatile oil is obtained by distilling cubebs with water. Cubebene, the liquid portion, has the formula C15H24. It is a pale green or blue-yellow viscous liquid with a warm woody, slightly camphoraceous odor.[8] After rectification with water, or on keeping, this deposits rhombic crystals of camphor of cubebs. Cubebin (C10H10O3) is a crystalline substance existing in cubebs, discovered by Eugne Soubeiran and Capitaine in 1839. It may be prepared from cubebene, or from the pulp left after the distillation of the oil. The drug, along with gum, fatty oils, and malates of magnesium and calcium, contains also about 1% of cubebic acid, and about 6% of a resin. The dose of the fruit is 30 to 60 grains, and the British Pharmacopoeia contains a tincture with a dose of 4 to 1 dram.

[edit] Uses
[edit] Medicinal
In India, Sanskrit texts included cubeb in various remedies. Charaka and Sushruta prescribed a cubeb paste as a mouthwash, and the use of dried cubebs internally for oral and dental diseases, loss of voice, halitosis, fevers, and cough. Unani physicians use a paste of the cubeb berries externally on male and female genitals to intensify sexual pleasure during coitus. Due to this attributed property, cubeb was called "Habb-ul-Uruus".[9] In traditional Chinese medicine cubeb is used for its alleged warming property. In Tibetan medicine, cubeb (ka ko la in Tibetan) is one of bzang po drug, six fine herbs beneficial to specific organs in the body, with cubeb assigned to the spleen.[10] Arab physicians of the Middle Ages were usually versed in alchemy, and cubeb was used, under the name kababa, when preparing the water of al butm.[11] The Book of One Thousand and One Nights mentions cubeb as a main ingredient in making an aphrodisiac remedy for infertility:

The mixture, called "seed-thickener", is given to Shams-al-Din, a wealthy merchant who had no child, with the instruction that he must eat the paste two hours before having intercourse with his wife. According to the story, the merchant did get the child he desired after following these instructions. Other Arab authors wrote that cubeb rendered the breath fragrant, cured affections of the bladder, and that eating it "enhances the delight of coitus".[13] In 1654, Nicholas Culpeper wrote in the London Dispensatorie that cubebs were "hot and dry in the third degree... (snip) they cleanse the head of flegm and strengthen the brain, they heat the stomach and provoke lust".[14] A later edition in 1826 informed the reader that "the Arabs call

them Quabebe, and Quabebe Chine: they grow plentifully in Java, they stir up venery. (snip) ...and are very profitable for cold griefs of the womb". The modern use of cubeb in England as a drug dates from 1815. There were various preparations, including oleum cubebae (oil of cubeb), tinctures, fluid extracts, oleo-resin compounds, and vapors, which were used for throat complaints. A small percentage of cubeb was commonly included in lozenges designed to alleviate bronchitis, in which the antiseptic and expectoral properties of the drug are useful. The most important therapeutic application of this drug, however, was in treating gonorrhea, where its antiseptic action was of much value. William Wyatt Squire wrote in 1908 that cubebs "act specifically on the genito-urinary mucous membrane. (They are) given in all stages of gonorrhea".[15] As compared with copaiba in this connection cubeb has the advantages of being less disagreeable to take and somewhat less likely to disturb the digestive apparatus in prolonged administration. The volatile oil, oleum cubebae, was the form in which cubeb is most commonly used as a drug, the dose being 5 to 20 minims, which may be suspended in mucilage or given after meals in a wafer. The drug exhibited the typical actions of a volatile oil, but exerted some of these to an exceptional degree. As such, it was liable to cause a cutaneous erythema in the course of its excretion by the skin, had a marked diuretic action, and was a fairly efficient disinfectant of the urinary passages. Its administration caused the appearance in the urine of a salt of cubebic acid which was precipitated by heat or nitric acid, and was therefore liable to be mistaken for albumin, when these two most common tests for the occurrence of albuminuria were applied. The National Botanic Pharmacopoeia printed in 1921 tells that cubeb was "an excellent remedy for flour albus or whites."[16]

[edit] Culinary
In Europe, cubeb was one of the valuable spices during the Middle Ages. It was ground as a seasoning for meat or used in sauces. A medieval recipe includes cubeb in making sauce sarcenes, which consists of almond milk and several spices.[17] As an aromatic confectionery, cubeb was often candied and eaten whole.[18] Ocet Kubebowy, a vinegar infused with cubeb, cumin and garlic, was used for meat marinades in Poland during the 14th century.[19] Cubeb can still be used to enhance the flavor of savory soups. Cubeb reached Africa by way of the Arabs. In Moroccan cuisine, cubeb is used in savory dishes and in pastries like markouts, little diamonds of semolina with honey and dates.[5] It also appears occasionally in the list of ingredients for the famed spice mixture Ras el hanout. In Indonesian cuisine, especially in Indonesian guls (curries), cubeb is frequently used.

[edit] Cigarettes and spirits

A Victorian advertisement for Dr. Perrin's Medicated Cubeb Cigarettes Cubeb was frequently used in the form of cigarettes for asthma, chronic pharyngitis and hay fever. Edgar Rice Burroughs, being fond of smoking cubeb cigarettes, humorously stated that if he had not smoked so many cubebs, there might never have been Tarzan. "Marshall's Prepared Cubeb Cigarettes" was a popular brand, with enough sales to still be made during World War II. [20] Occasionally, marijuana users claimed that smoking marijuana is no more harmful than smoking cubeb.[21] Cubeb oil was included in the list of ingredients found in cigarettes, published by the Tobacco Prevention and Control Branch of North Carolina's Department of Health and Human Services.
[22]

Bombay Sapphire gin is flavored with botanicals including cubeb and grains of paradise. The brand was launched in 1987, but its maker claims that it is based on a secret recipe dating to 1761. Pertsovka, a dark brown Russian pepper vodka with a burning taste, is prepared from infusion of cubeb and capsicum peppers.[23]

[edit] Other

John Varvatos Vintage uses cubeb as one of the ingredients for fragrance. Cubeb is sometimes used to adulterate the essential oil of Patchouli, which requires caution for Patchouli users.[24] In turn, cubeb is adulterated by Piper baccatum (also known as the "climbing pepper of Java") and Piper caninum.[25] Cubeb berries are used in love-drawing magic spells by practitioners of hoodoo, an AfricanAmerican form of folk magic. In 2000, Shiseido, a well-known Japanese cosmetics company, patented a line of anti-aging products containing formulas made from several herbs, including cubeb.[26] In 2001, the Swiss company Firmenich patented cubebol, a compound found in cubeb oil, as a cooling and refreshing agent.[27] The patent describes application of cubebol as a refreshing agent in various products, ranging from chewing gum to sorbets, drinks, toothpaste, and gelatin-based confectioneries

6.

Thistle
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Thistle (disambiguation).

Milk thistle flowerhead

Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae. Prickles often occur all over the plant on surfaces such as those of the stem and flat parts of leaves. These are an adaptation that protects the plant against herbivorous animals, discouraging them from feeding on the plant.

Typically, an involucre with a clasping shape of a cup or urn subtends each of a thistle's flowerheads. The term thistle is sometimes taken to mean exactly those plants in the tribe Cynareae (synonym: Cardueae),[1] especially the genera Carduus, Cirsium, and Onopordum.[2] However, plants outside this tribe are sometimes called thistles, and if this is done thistles would form a polyphyletic group. Thistle is the floral emblem of Scotland.

Contents
[hide]

1 Taxonomy 2 Heraldry

2.1 Origin as a symbol of Scotland

3 Place names 4 Ecology 5 Literary references 6 Medical uses 7 Notes and references 8 External links

[edit] Taxonomy

thistledown, a method of seed dispersal by wind. The tiny seeds are a favorite of goldfinches and some other small birds. Genera in the Asteraceae with the word thistle often used in their common names include:

Arctium Burdock Carduus Musk Thistle and others Carlina Carline Thistle Centaurea Star Thistle Cicerbita Sow Thistle

Cirsium Common Thistle, Field Thistle and others Cnicus Blessed Thistle Cynara Artichokes, Cardoon Echinops Globethistle Notobasis Syrian thistle Onopordum Cotton Thistle, also known as Scots or Scotch Thistle Scolymus Golden Thistle or Oyster Thistle Silybum Milk Thistle Sonchus Sow Thistle Salsola Saltwort, Tumbleweed, or Russian Thistle (family Chenopodiaceae)

Plants in families other than Asteraceae which are sometimes called thistle include:

[edit] Heraldry

Scottish thistle as a Heraldic badge. In the language of flowers, the thistle (like the burr) is an ancient Celtic symbol of nobility of character as well as of birth, for the wounding or provocation of a thistle yields punishment.[citation
needed]

The thistle has been the national emblem of Scotland since the reign of Alexander III (1249 1286) and was used on silver coins issued by James III in 1470. It is the symbol of the Order of the Thistle, a high chivalric order of Scotland. It is found in many Scottish symbols and as the name of several Scottish football clubs. The thistle, crowned with the Scottish crown, is the symbol of seven of the eight Scottish Police Forces (the exception being the Northern Constabulary). The thistle is also the emblem of Encyclopdia Britannica, which originated in Edinburgh, Scotland. Carnegie Mellon University features the thistle in its crest in honor of the Scottish heritage of its founder, Andrew Carnegie.

[edit] Origin as a symbol of Scotland


According to a legend, an invading Norse army was attempting to sneak up at night upon a Scottish army's encampment. During this operation one barefoot Norseman had the misfortune to step upon a thistle, causing him to cry out in pain, thus alerting Scots to the presence of the Norse invaders. Some sources suggest the specific occasion was the Battle of Largs, which marked the beginning of the departure of King Haakon IV (Haakon the Elder) of Norway who,

having control of the Northern Isles and Hebrides, had harried the coast of the Kingdom of Scotland for some years.[3] Which species of thistle is referred to in the original legend is disputed. Popular modern usage favours Cotton Thistle Onopordum acanthium, perhaps because of its more imposing appearance, though it is unlikely to have occurred in Scotland in mediaeval times; the Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare, an abundant native species in Scotland, is a more likely candidate.[4][5] Other species, including Dwarf Thistle Cirsium acaule, Musk Thistle Carduus nutans, and Melancholy Thistle Cirsium heterophyllum have also been suggested.[6]

[edit] Place names


Carduus is the Latin term for a thistle (hence cardoon, chardon in French), and Cardonnacum is the Latin word for a place with thistles. This is believed to be the origin of name of the Burgundy village of Chardonnay, Sane-et-Loire, which in turn is thought to be the home of the famous Chardonnay grape variety.

[edit] Ecology

Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) Thistle flowers, along with bugle and brambles flowers, are favourite nectar sources of the Pearlbordered Fritillary, Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary, High Brown Fritillary, and Dark Green Fritillary butterflies.[7] Thistles (and thistle-seed feeders) also attract the North American goldfinch. Some thistles (for example Cirsium vulgare, native to Eurasia), have been widely introduced outside their native range.[8] Control measures include Trichosirocalus weevils, but a problem with this approach, at least in North America, is that the introduced weevils may affect native thistles at least as much as the desired targets.[9]

[edit] Literary references


Hugh MacDiarmid's poem A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle is an extended meditation on themes which are in part derived from the position of the plant in secular Scottish iconography. Nicholas Sayre and the Creature in the Case, Garth Nix's novella in Across the Wall: A Tale of the Abhorsen and Other Stories, involves a rare Free Magic creature, a Hrule, being defeated by a thistle. The thistle also features in the song The Thistle o' Scotland which uses the plant as a humorous metaphor for the prickly determinations of the Scots: Wha daur meddle wi' me! which is the Scots translation of the motto, Nemo me impune lacessit.

They Burn the Thistles is the second part of the nce Memed tetralogy by one of Turkey's leading writers, Yaar Kemal. The poem Thistles by Ted Hughes The thistle is Eeyore's favourite food in Winnie the Pooh. There are references to thistles in the Tinker Bell fairy tale series. In the 2008 Tinker Bell (film) the thistles are "sprinting thistles". They tend to cause a lot of mess and damage in their path.

[edit] Medical uses


Maud Grieve recorded that Pliny and medieval writers had thought it could return hair to bald heads and that in the early modern period it had been believed to be a remedy for headaches, plague, canker sores, vertigo, and jaundice.[10]

7.

Cardamom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Cardamom (disambiguation). Cardamom

True Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

Scientific classification

Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Monocots (unranked): Commelinids Order: Family: Zingiberales Zingiberaceae Genera

Amomum Elettaria

Cardamom (or cardamon) refers to several plants of the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to India,Nepal and Bhutan; they are recognised by their small seed pod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Today, the majority of cardamom is still grown in southern India, although some other countries, such as Guatemala and Sri Lanka, have also begun to cultivate it. Elettaria pods are light green while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown. It is the world's third most expensive spice by weight, outstripped in terms of its market value by only saffron and vanilla.

Contents
[hide]

1 Etymology 2 Types and distribution 3 Ecology 4 Varieties 5 Uses


5.1 Food and drink 5.2 Traditional medicine

6 Gallery

7 References

7.1 Notes 7.2 Bibliography

[edit] Etymology
The word cardamom is derived from the Latin cardamomum,[1] itself the latinisation of the Greek (kardamomon),[2] a compound of (kardamon), "cress"[3] + (amomon), which was the name for a kind of an Indian spice plant.[4] The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ka-da-mi-ja, written in Linear B syllabic script[5] in the list of flavourings on the "Spice" tablets found among palace archives in the House of the Sphinxes in Mycenae.[6]

[edit] Types and distribution


The two main genera of the ginger family that are named as forms of cardamom are distributed as follows:

Elettaria (commonly called cardamom, green cardamom, or true cardamom) is distributed from India to Malaysia. Amomum (commonly known as black cardamom, brown cardamom, Kravan, Java cardamom, Bengal cardamom, Siamese cardamom, white cardamom, or red cardamom) is distributed mainly in Asia and Australia.

The two types, and were distinguished in the fourth century BCE by the Greek father of botany Theophrastus, some of whose informants told him that they came to Greece from the land of the Medes in northern Persia, while others were aware that it came originally from India.[7]

[edit] Ecology
Elettaria cardamomum is used as a food plant by the larva of the moth Endoclita hosei.[citation needed]

[edit] Varieties
There were initially three natural varieties of green cardamom plants.

Malabar (Nadan/Native) As the name suggests, this is the native variety of Kerala. These plants have panicles which grow horizontally along the ground. Mysore As the name suggests, this is a native variety of Karnataka. These plants have panicles which grow vertically upwards. Vazhuka This is a naturally occurring hybrid between Malabar and Mysore varieties, and the panicles grow neither vertically nor horizontally, but in between.

Recently, a few planters isolated high yielding plants and started multiplying them on a large scale. The most popular high yielding variety is "Njallani." Njallani, also known as "rup-ree-t", is a unique high-yielding cardamom variety developed by an Indian farmer, Sebastian Joseph, at Kattappana in the South Indian state of Kerala.[8][9][10][11] K J Baby of Idukki district, Kerala has developed a purely white flowered variety of Vazhuka type green cardamom having higher yield than Njallani. The variety has high adaptability to different shade conditions and can also be grown in waterlogged areas.[12]

[edit] Uses

Green and black cardamom Both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings in both food and drink, as cooking spices and as a medicine. Elettaria cardamomum (the usual type of cardamom) is used as a spice, a masticatory, and in medicine; it is also smoked sometimes.

[edit] Food and drink


Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic, resinous fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more smokey, though not bitter, aroma with a coolness some consider similar to mint. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight, but little is needed to impart the flavor. Cardamom is best stored in pod form because once the seeds are exposed or ground they quickly lose their flavor. However, high-quality ground cardamom is often more readily (and cheaply) available and is an acceptable substitute. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1 teaspoons of ground cardamom. It is a common ingredient in Indian cooking and is often used in baking in Nordic countries, such as in the Finnish sweet bread pulla or in the Scandinavian bread Julekake. In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom pods are ground together with coffee beans to produce a powdered mixture of the two, which is boiled with water to make coffee. Cardamom is used in some extent in savoury dishes. In some Middle Eastern countries, coffee and cardamom are often ground in a wooden mortar, a mihbaj, and cooked together in a skillet, a "mehmas," over wood or gas, to produce mixtures that are as much as forty percent cardamom. In South Asia, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in Masala chai (spiced tea). Black cardamom is sometimes used in garam masala for curries. It is occasionally used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. It is often referred to as fat cardamom due to its size. Individual seeds are sometimes chewed and used in much the same way as chewing gum; it is even used by Wrigley's ('Eclipse Breeze Exotic Mint') where it states "with cardamom to neutralize the toughest breath odors." It has been known to be used for gin making.

[edit] Traditional medicine


This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011)

Green cardamom is broadly used in South Asia to treat infections in teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders. It also is used to break up kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and scorpion venom. Amomum is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Pakistan, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Species in the genus Amomum are also used in traditional Indian medicine. Among other species, varieties and cultivars, Amomum villosum cultivated in China, Laos and Vietnam is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach issues, constipation, dysentery, and other digestion problems. "Tsaoko" cardamom Amomum tsao-ko is cultivated in Yunnan, China and northwest Vietnam, both for medicinal purposes and as a spice. Increased demand since the 1980s, principally from China, for both Amomum villosum and Amomum tsao-ko has provided a key source of income for poor farmers living at higher altitudes in localized areas of China, Laos and Vietnam, people typically isolated from many other markets. Until recently, Nepal had been the world's largest producer of large cardamom. Guatemala has become the world's biggest producer and exporter of cardamom, with an export total of US$137.2 million for 2007.

[edit] Gallery

Cardamom plant

Cardamom flowers

Cardamom fruit and seeds

Green cardamom pods and seeds

Jar of green cardamom

Green cardamom pods in a bowl