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Manpower planning in Bangladesh

Introduction: In this part we will introduces this term paper. This term paper is structured into five major sections; first one is

a general context of the subject followed by purpose of the term paper. Second section of the term paper will describe the

present population scenario. Third section of the term paper will describe the economic situation and its element. Fourth section focuses on employment situation. Fifth section will describe and prescribe manpower planning in Bangladesh.

1. Contesxt: In global and regional context, Bangladesh population has drawn considerable attention of the social scientists, policy planners and international organizations. In global context, Bangladesh is now worlds eighth populous country having 168.5 million people, but occupying only 3000th part of the worlds land space. Such a huge concentration of population in small land space cannot but draw ones attention. About 2.3 million people are currently being added to its existing

population; and such pace will continue in the next one decade and a half, even if Bangladesh achieves 2- child family norm (i.e. TFR of 2.1 or NRR=1) in any time between 2015-2020. In regional context, South Asian countries including Bangladesh comprise worlds one-fourth population and contribute 24% to its annual increase of 80 million people. Therefore, focus on population increase lies in south Asia in which Bangladesh portion appears to be most volatile because of high population

density, poor land-man ratio, slow economic growth, massive unemployment, huge working age population relative to the size

of job market etc. The population problem arises out of past population growth which was regarded once as Number one national problem has lost its focus during the last one decade and a half owing to other overriding problems, such as, corruption and deteriorating law and order. Meanwhile, it has taken a new dimension that has to be recognized; and necessary civilized measures need to be taken to offset the ill -effects of phenomenal growth in human number

1.1Pupose of the study: The Central purpose of this term paper is to discuss Bangladesh population and its prospects and problems as well as some measures to manage its upcoming huge population

2. Present scenario: 2.1 Population: 15. (a) Population data as per SVRS Report (in millions)

Ist july07 Total Male Female Urban Rural Annual Growth Rate 142.6 73.1 69.5 35.7 106.9 1.40

1st July08 144.6 74.1 70.5 36.7 107.9 1.39 105.0 979 66.6 66.7 65.6 67.9

July09 (P) 146.6 75.0 71.6 37.4 109.2 1.39 104.8 993 66.9 65.7

Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 105.2 Density (per sq. km) Life expectancy at birth: Male Female 966 Both sex 65.4

2.2Demographic scenario: (A) Urban vs. rural population: The 2001 Population Census revealed rural-urban population distribution was 77:23. In

recent years, rural-urban migration has increased steadily. Expert opinion is that current rural urban population distribution is

73:27. Almost 85% of the rural migrants are absorbed in four main cities namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna and Rajshahi and thus overcrowding these cities, threatening the ecology and complicating the task of managing the urban life.

2.2Population control:

3. Economic situation of the country: GDP/GNP/IMPORT/Export/ foreign reserve: The current level of GNP per capita at US $240.00 is among the lowest in the world, and poor health indicators pose a major problem. State of Infrastructure: Natural resources: Foreign direct Investment: Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment There was an inflows of $666m foreign direct investment in 2007 which raised significantly in 2008 to $1086m. As of 2010, inflows of foreign direct investment recorded to $571m. Inflows of foreign direct investment during 2005-2010

Source: World Investment Report 2011

Private Investment Statistics Year Proposed Local Proposed Investment Foreign Investment Total Proposed Growth Investment %

20052006 20062007 20072008 20082009 20092010 20102011* * March, 2011

Project BDT 1754 18370 1930 1615 1336 1470 1298 19658 19553 17117 27414 39976

Project 135 191 143 132 160 148

BDT 24986 11925 5433 14749 6261 26935

Project 1889 2121 1758 1468 1630 1446

BDT 43356 31583 24986 31867 33678 66912

124.62 -27.15 -20.89 27.54 5.67 98.71

Source:Bangladesh Economic Review-2011 (Bangla version), Ministry of Finance Foreign and Joint Venture Investment In the year 2009-10 (February), there were 89 new foreign and joint venture investment projects registered to BOI which amount to $590m. The projects were invested to mainly in the service, engineering, clothing and agricultura l sectors.

Dimension of the labor force: According to Bureau of statistics Bangladesh the labor force increased from 49.5 million to 53.7 million from 2006 to 2009. The growth rate has been 2.7% a year. 62.7% of the population are of age 15 years and over and out of them 59.3% are economically active and 40.7% are economically not active. The volume of female labor force (13.5m) is much smaller than that of male (40.2m) and the volume of not in the labor force for female is larger than that of male. Employment rate for male (94.9%) was higher than female (92.5%) at the national level. Employment rate in urban area (59.5%) was slightly higher than that of rural area (59.2%). Unemployment was higher for female (7.7%) than male (4.3%). Unemployment rate was also higher in the rural area (5.1%) than in the urban area (5.0%).The population growth, size and structure are important determinant of labor force growth in Bangladesh. Changes in the size of the labor force are brought about by changes in the size of the population interacting with changes in the activity rate i.e., the percentage of the economically active persons in the total population. The crude activity rate for both sexes is 37.2 while the rate for male (54.6) is much more than that of female (19.1). It shows that only slightly over one third of the Population is engaged in incomeproducing activities and males are more active than the females. Both males and females of urban areas (56.2%, 19.7%) are more active than that of the rural Areas (54.1%, 18.9%). In addition to the youthful age structure of the population, the low level of the female activity rate is due to, among other things, the principal role of women considered to be in domestic work at home. While the levels of refined rates are, by definition, higher than those of crude rates, their trends are similar to the CARs. Refined Activity Rates (RAR) of both male and females of both the urban and rural areas are substantially more than those of the crude activity rates. Refined activity rates for males (87.5%) also are more than females (30.3%). Data show that both the men and women at old ages remain in the labor force as long as they are physically able, in order to share the burden of supporting their large and poor families. Since most of these aged men are independent workers in agriculture and trade and women are independent worker in agriculture, they can continue their participation in economic activities beyond the age at which wage earners retire. Impact of education appear to be very powerful factor tending to increase female participation in economic activities, not only by breaking down the traditional barriers, but also by opening up new and desirable employment opportunities.

Labor Force Structure For labor force structure analysis, three sector classifications in various forms have been Used the categories being (a) agricultural (b) secondary sector (c) tertiary sector. The rates of Growth of the Bangladesh labor force during 2005-2009 period were uneven among different Industries. The results are reflected in the changes of the industrial structure. The leading role played by agriculture is clearly revealed in the report. Its relative share in the economically active Population ranged between 43.6 and 48.1 percent during 2005-2009 period. The shares ofAgricultural and non-agricultural sectors in the labor force underwent some change. The nonagricultural labor force increased significantly, both in absolute number and in its proportionate share. Within the secondary sector, manufacturing has occupied a primary place; its share ranged between 11 and 13 percent of the labor force in that sector between 2006 and 2009. Tertiary sector provides higher employment opportunities for the females. There has been a sustained transformation, with two outstanding features: a shift from agricultural to non-agricultural activities and, within the non-agricultural sector, a shift from less productive to more productive industries and lines of activity. These features are indicative of progressive economic growth.

Occupation The proportion of workers in white-collar occupations amounted to about 33 percent of the economically active population while the proportion of blue-collar workers is rest. The occupational shifts observed overtime seems to be compatible with no increasing complexity of technology and economic organization. Females appear to have larger proportionate shares than males in both professional, service and agriculture occupations and smaller shares in other occupations. In short, the occupational structure is influenced not only by industrial shifts but also among other things, by occupational substitution and the increase of general education and vocational training of the population.

Status Composition: The status composition of the labor force varies significantly between the two sexes (males and females) as well as by age. Females, as compared with males, have in general lower proportioning the groups on independent workers and higher proportions of unpaid family workers. However, the trend for each sex follows the same pattern with varying rates of change. It is quite likely that the high and rising man/land ratio in Bangladesh with the concomitant rise in the number of land-less workers, who continue living on the farm and derive their livelihood by wage earning in agricultural activities, is a primary factor for the high proportion of employees in agriculture.

Unemployment and Underemployment: Although unemployment picture of Bangladesh depicts a very low level (5.0%), the real situation is reflected in the high underemployment rate (28.7%) and the statistical artifact emanated from the definition of labor force i.e. active and inactive population, unemployment and underemployment along with the questionnaire employed for measurement of the economically active and economically inactive population. Substantial underemployment exists both in rural and urban areas. Underemployment rates of females are more than those of males both in urban and rural areas. Similar scenario prevails for unemployment rates of males and females also.

Major industry Agri. forestry and fisheries Manufacturing Electricity, gas and water Construction Trade, hotel and restaurant Transport, storage and Communication Finance and business services Product and personal services Health, Education, Public Administration and Defence

1996 48.85 10.6 0.29 2.87 17.24 6.32 0.57 13.79 ----

2000 50.77 9.49 0.26 2.82 15.64 6.41 1.03 13.08 ------

2003 51.69 9.71 0.23 3.39 15.34 6.77 0.68 5.64 6.32

2006 48.10 10.97 0.21 3.16 16.45 8.44 1.48 5.49 5.49

Expatriate Bangladesh: There are an estimated 6.5 million Bangladeshis living and working abroad, mainly in the Middle East, South East Asia, Europe and the United States. Millions at home are dependent on money sent by their expatriate relatives - money that has been credited for the decline in poverty in the country. The boost to the Bangladeshi economy comes despite the global recession hitting overseas jobs. Remittances are the countrys second-highest revenue earner after exports .The amount of money sent home by Bangladeshis living abroad has reached a new record high, according to the Central Bank of Bangladesh. In August, the total sum of money sent home reached a historic peak of $937m - up 30% from a year ago.

Male vs. female work force: Skilled vs. unskilled workforce:

5. Manpower Planning: we discuss various implications of upcoming huge population In this part of the term paper some broad hints are given for management of growing population and also, as strategies for demo-economic development.

Population Management strategy:

Increase education: Education, especially for women, is the single most important social factor which can remove superstition, ignorance and misgivings and promote family planning in one hand and create aspirations and opportunities in life, on the other hand, to influence family size desire and generate further demand. In recent years, there has been significant increase in school enrolment, especially that for girls, though socio-cultural and economic barriers still pose as major hindrance in retention of girl children in school. Innovative policies, such as provision of lunch, books and supplies, stipends, parental education and community mobilization, are needed to improve retention in schools. It is particularly important to retain girl children in schools until physical and emotional maturity to understand the implications of early marriage and early child bearing. Suitably designed population subjects need to be integrated in education curricula, including that for existing madrasha education system, and reviewed on a regular basis to ensure these are in conformity with correct interpretation of knowledge. c.

Grab foreign labor market: Limitation of the study: There is some limitation of our study. Time constraint: The study has been conducted in a short time frame. Data unavailability:

Conclusion: Recommendation: