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Definite articles m.s. f.s. m.p. f.p. Indefinite articles

See usage notes at the end.


el la los las

il, l, lo le, l la, l i, gli le la, l les

un una unos unas

un, uno una, un dei, degli delle

un une des, d

Forms with an apostrophe are used before nouns starting with a vowel (or h in the case of French). In Italian, uno, lo and quello are used before nouns starting with z, gn, ps or s+consonant. Italian gli is the plural of lo and l.

masc. -o, -ma, -

-o, -ore


-acle, -al, -ail, -eau, -me, -et, -isme, -oir

-a, ion, in, dad, tad, tud, ez, umbre


-a, -t, -trice, -zione and -ance, -anse, -ense, most that end in -ione, -ise, -sion, -ti, -ure -i, -ie and -
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.

Singular -[consonant] +es -o -i -au, -eu, -ou +x -[vowel] +s -a -e -al, -ail -aux -z -ces -e -i -s, -z, -x -s, -z, -x -in -iones -i, -ie -i, -ie others +s In Italian, nouns ending in a consonant or an accented vowel, as well as family names, monosyllabic nouns and abbreviations, are invariable.

Subject tu manges une carrotte Direct lo lea concienzudamente

yo t l, ella nosotros vosotros ellos ellas

je tu il, elle nous vous ils elles

io tu lui, lei noi voi loro

me te lo, la nos os los/las

me te le, la nous vous les

mi ti lo, la ci vi li/le

Indirect dimmelo

Prepositional il reste chez eux

me te le nos os les

me te lui nous vous leur

mi ti gli/le ci vi gli/loro

m ti l, ella

moi toi lui, elle

me te lui, lei noi voi loro

nosotros nous vosotros vous ellos ellas mo tuyo suyo nuestro vuestro suyo eux elles mien tien sien ntre vtre leur

Reflexive te sentaste ah

Possessive pronouns quella la mia

me te se nos os se

me te se nous vous se

mi ti si ci vi si

mio tuo suo nostro vostro loro

ADJECTIVES Masc. sg. form -o -e -or, -n, -n, -n -[consonant] -o -e -a -e -el -en -eux -er -f -on others INTERROGATIVES which? cul cules
how much? cunto, cunta how many? cuntos, cuntas

Fem. sg. -a -e -ora, -na, -na, -na -[consonant] -a -e -a -e -elle -enne -euse -re -ve -onne +e quale quali

Masc. pl. -os -es -ores, -nes, -nes, nes +es -i -i -i -es -els -ens -eux -ers -fs -ons +s

Fem. pl. -as -es -oras, -nas, -nas, nas +es -e -i -e -es -elles -ennes -euses -res -ves -onnes +es quel, quelle quels, quelles combien de

blu, rosa, viola, marrone, ogni, qualsiasi, qualche are invariable

quanto, quanti quanta, quante


mi mis tu tus su sus nuestro, nuestra nuestros, nuestras vuestro, vuestra vuestros, vuestras su sus

il mio, la mia i miei, le mie il tuo, la tua i tuoi, le tue il suo, la sua i suoi, le sue il nostro, la nostra i nostri, le nostre il vostro, la vostra i vostri, le vostre il loro, la loro i loro, le loro este, esto esta estos estas esa esas ese, eso esos questo questi codesto codesti

mon, ma mes ton, ta tes son, sa ses notre nos votre vos leur leurs questa queste codesta codeste quella ce(t)...-l cette...-l ces...-l ces...-l ce(t)...-ci cette...-ci ces...-ci ces...-ci

close far further

aquel(lo) aquella quel(lo)

aquellos aquellas quei, quegli quelle


close far

ste, esto stos se, eso sos quellos

sta stas sa sas

questo questi

questa queste

celui-ci cette-ci ceux-ci celles-ci

codesto codesta codesti codeste quello quella quelle celui-l cette-l ceux-l celles-l

further quel, aquello quella

quellas quelli


A o as a is an

E o es e is en

I o es e s en

A o i a ate ano

E o i e ete ono

I o i e ite ono

ER e es e ons ez ent

RE s s ons ez ent

IR is is it issons issez issent 3p present ER 3p present IM

amos emos imos

iamo iamo iamo

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE Stem Endings Stem for 1p & 2p Endings for 1p & 2p Stem (ar) Stem (er/ir) Endings Exception

1s present

1s present

E for ar A for er/ir i,i,i... ino a,a,a... ano

3p preterite for -ir stemchangers; inf. stem for -ar/-er stem-changers

1p present iamo, iate

E inf. stem + ab inf. stem + A 1s = a


inf. stem + av, ev, iv A 2p = amo 2s preterite ssi, ssi, sse, ssimo, ste, ssero

1p present ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient 2s preterite sse, sses, ^t, ssions, ssiez, ssent


3p preterite on IM. Replace r with s and a with e for the alt. form

FUTURE. The infinitive is

[h]e, [h]as, [h]a, [h]emos, [hab]is, [h]an + IM

the stem (change a to e for -are verbs) [h]o, [h]ai, [h]a, ai, as, a, emo, [av]ete, [av]ons, [av]ez, ont [h]anno IM

the future. ei, esti, ebbe, emmo, este, ebbero (except for 1s, this is the preterite of avere)

CONDITIONAL. Same stem as

PRETERITE. In the case of -ir stem-changers, use the 3p preterite stem for

3s as well (e.g. durmi). Use inf. stem for all else. Use 1p present stem.

ar aste amos asteis aron

er/ir iste i imos isteis ieron

are ai asti ammo aste

ere ei/etti esti /ette emmo este

ire ii isti immo iste

er ai as a mes tes rent

er e Present indicative

re/ir is is it mes tes irent

re/ir Present indicativ e

arono erono/ettero irono

IMPERATIVE are ere/ire

2s 1p 2p

Remove s from present Present subjunctive inf. stem + d

a Present indicative

Present indicative

Formal 3rd person present subjunctive In the negative imperative, Italian 2s uses the infinitive; Spanish uses the present subjunctive for all forms. NON-FINITE Infinitive ar er/ir are ere ire er re Past pp.

ir i




uto ito

Present pp. Gerund






ando iendo/yendo ando endo In Spanish, use the 3p preterite stem for the gerund and present participle. AUXILIARY VERBS Used for the continuous tenses:
to stay Present indic. Present subj. Imp. subj. Future Preterite

estar estoy, ests, est, estamos, estis, estn est, ests, est, estemos, estis, estn regular regular estuv- + e, iste, o, imos, isteis, ieron estado avere

stare sto, stai, sta, stiamo, state, stanno stia, stia, stia, stiamo, stiate, stiano stem: ste stem: sta stetti, stesti, stette, stemmo, steste, stettero 2s: sta or stai stato avoir aie, aies, aie, ayons, ayez, aient regular (stem: eu) aur-

Imperative regular Past pp. Used for the perfect tense: to have haber Pres. subj.


abbia, abbia, abbia, abbiamo, abbiate, abbiano regular avr-

Imp. subj. hubFuture Preterite


hub- + e, iste, ebbi, avesti, ebbe, eus, eus, eut, o, imos, isteis, avemmo, aveste, ebbero emes, etes, ieron eurent 2s: he/h 2s: abbi; use the present 2s: aie, 1p: ayons, subjunctive for the rest 2p: ayez


Past pp. Pres. pp.

(habido) (habiendo)

(avuto) (avendo)

eu ayant tre suis, es, est, sommes, tes, sont

Used for the perfect tense and/or for the passive voice: to be ser essere Pres. indic.

soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son

sono, sei, , siamo, siete, sono

Present sea, seas, sea, subj. seamos, seis, sean Imp.

sia, sia, sia, sois, sois, soit, siamo, siate, siano soyons, soyez, soient ero, eri, era, eravamo, eravate, erano stem: sar tais, tais, tait, tions, tiez, taient stem: ser

era, eras, era, ramos, erais, eran regular

Future Pret. Imper.

fui, fuiste, fue, fui, fosti, fu, fus, fus, ft, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron fummo, foste, furono fmes, ftes, furent

2s: s

2s: sii; use present 2s: sois, 1p: subjunctive for rest soyons, 2p: soyez stato andare t aller

Pst pp. sido to go


Pres. voy, vas, va, indic. vamos, vais, van Pres. subj. Imp. Pret.

vado (vo), vai, va, vais, vais, va, andiamo, andate, vanno allons, allez, vont vada, vada, vada, andiamo, andiate, vadano aille, ailles, aille, allions, alliez, aillent regular regular 2s: va

vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayis, vayan

iba, ibas, iba, regular bamos, ibais, iban see ser regular 2s: va or vai

Imper 2s: ve

By Justin Morgan, with thanks to Maarten van Gompel (Proycon).

Fritaliaol Usage Notes Spanish is rendered in light yellow; Italian in light green; French in light blue. A minus sign, such as in -eux or habr- indicates that these letters appear at the end or at the beginning of a word. A plus sign, such as in +es means that es should be appended to the end of the word in question (in this case, to the end of a French noun that is feminine plural, if given the masculine singular form). Remember that possessive adjectives agree with the noun that is possessed, not the possessor. Thus, in Spanish, su padre could mean his father, her father or their father, because su agrees in number with padre. 1s refers to first person singular; 3p refers to third person plural and so on. inf. stem means the infinitive stem. Stem-changers in Spanish refers to verbs like pensar, whose stems change to diphthongs when stressed (pienso etc.). Verb Conjugation System The system outlined here is based on the idea of learning principal parts and ending sets and then putting them together according to some fairly simple rules. To use this system, you would only need to learn... Principal Infinitive Infinitive Infinitive parts 1s present 1s present 1p present [learn 3p preterite 2s preterite 3p present for each Past participle Past participle 2s preterite verb] Past participle -are endings (A) -er endings (ER) -ere endings (E) -re endings (RE) -ire endings (I) -ir endings (IR) Present subj. endings Imperfect endings (IM) Imperfect subj. endings Imp. subj. endings Preterite endings Preterite endings well as the appropriate auxiliary verbs (all of which are listed), as well as the few little complications noted... and then you should be able to conjugate any regular verb in any tense, as well as cope with a few of the most common irregularities. The future tense endings for all 3 languages are merely the endings of the present indicative of to have, although accents need to be inserted on the underlined letters, and Italian has one annoying exception. Ending sets -ar endings (A) -er endings (E) -ir endings (I) Preterite endings