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Research in the cold padbatch dyeing process for wool pretreated by hydrogen peroxide 1. Xue Zhao1, 2.

Jin-xin He1, 3. Yi-zhen Zhan2 Article first published online: 9 JUN 2009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.2009.00192.x 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation 2009 Society of Dyers and Colourists Issue

Coloration Technology Volume 125, Issue 3, pages 172177, June 2009 A New One-bath Method for Continuous or PadRoll Vat Dyeing 1. F. L. J. van Lamoen, 2. H. Borsten Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.1960.tb02383.x 1960 Society of Dyers and Colourists Issue

Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists Volume 76, Issue 6, pages 349354, June 1960

New developments in cold pad batch dyeing Author Journal title INTERNATIONAL DYER Bibliographic details 2006, VOL 191; NUMB 3, pages 35-39 The Dyeing of Wool with Reactive Dyes(Not imp) 1. D M Lewis Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.1982.tb03631.x 1982 Society of Dyers and Colourists Issue

Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists Volume 98, Issue 5-6, pages 165175, May 1982 Pad-Batch Dyeing of Wool with Reactive Dyes 1. D. M. LEWIS, 2. I. SELTZER Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.1968.tb02787.x 1968 Society of Dyers and Colourists Issue

Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists Volume 84, Issue 10, pages 501507, October 1968

Radio-Frequency assisted fixation of reactive dyes by pad batch application Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists Volume 109, Issue 2, February 1993, Pages: 6571, Mark S Carlough and Warren S Perkins

Pad batch dyeing of wool fabric-development of an industrial process Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists Volume 86, Issue 7, July 1970, Pages: 298303, J. D. M. Gibson, D. M. Lewis and I. Seltzer n the process of semi-continuous dyeing that consists of pad-batch, pad-jig, pad-roll the fabric is first impregnated with the dye-liquor in, what is called a padding machine. Then it is subjected to batch wise treatment in a jigger. It could also be stored with a slow rotation for many hours. In the pad-batch this treatment is done at room temperature while in pad-roll it is done at increased temperature by employing a heating chamber. This helps in fixation of the dyes on to the fibre. After this fixation process, the material in full width is thoroughly cleansed and rinsed in continuous washing machines. There is only one point of difference between Continuous and semi-continuous dyeing process is that in semi-continuous dyeing, the dye is applied continuously by a padding. The fixation and washing remaining discontinuous. Liquor Ratio in semi-continuous dyeing is not of much importance and is not taken as a parameter. One of the widely used techniques for semi-continuous dyeing process is the Pad Batch Dyeing a schematic diagram is given here for the semi-continuous dyeing process.

The following table shows some of the important machineries for semi-continuous and continuous dyeing processes. Make up Process Rope Woven and Knitted Fabric, tufted carpet Open width Equipment Padding Machine for Piece in Continous rope form Pad batch (or carp- Padding Machine+ Washing o-roll for carpet) Machine Pad batch (or carp- Padding Machine+ Washing Semi Machine Continous o-roll for carpet) Pad -jig Pad stream Continous Pad Dry Padding Machine+ Jigger+ Washing Machine Padding Machine+ Steamer+ Washing Machine Padding Machine+ Stenter frame+ Washing Machine

Pad Batch Dyeing

Pad Batch Dyeing is one of the widely used technique for semicontinuous dyeing process. It is mainly used in the dyeing of cellulosic fibre like cotton or viscose (knit and woven fabric) with reactive dyes. Pad batch dyeing is a textile dyeing process that offers some unique advantages in the form of versatility, simplicity, and flexibility and a substantial reduction in capital investment for equipment. It is primarily a cold method that is the reason why it is sometimes referred to as the cold pad batch dyeing. Working of a Cold Pad Dyeing Process The technique or process used in pad-batch dyeing starts with saturating first the prepared fabric with pre-mixed dye liquor. Then it is passed through rollers. The rollers, or padders, effectively forces the dyestuff into the fabric. In the process, excess dye solution is also removed. After

removal of excess dye stuff the fabric is subsequently "batched". This batching is done by either storing it in rolls or in boxes. It takes a minimum of 4-12 hours. The batches are generally enclosed by plastic films. This prevents absorption of carbon dioxide and water evaporation. Finally as the reaction is complete the fabrics are washed. This is done by becks, beams, or any other washing devices. Special Features of Pad Batch Dyeing Process
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Significant cost and waste reduction as compared to other conventional dyeing processes. Total elimination of the need for salt and other specialty chemicals. For example there is no need for anti-migrants, leveling agents and fixatives that are necessary in conventional dyebaths. Optimum utilisation of dyes that eliminates specialty chemicals, cuts down chemical costs and waste loads in the effluent. All this results in a formidable reduction in wastewater treatment costs. Excellent wet fastness properties. Pad batch dyeing cuts energy and water consumption owing to low bath ratio (dye:water) required for the process. This is because unlike other dyeing processes it does not function at high temperatures. A uniform dye quality is achieved with even color absorbency and colour fastness. As compared to rope dyeing, Pad batch dyeing produces much lower defect levels. In pad batch dyeing, qualities like high shade reliability and repeatability are common. This is because of high reactivity dyes with rapid fixation rate and stability. Lastly Pad batch dyeing can also improve product quality. The fabric undergoing the cold pad batch dyeing process is able to retain an uniformly coloured appearance. It shows added luster and gives a gentle feel. The fabric gives a brighter look in shades.

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Covalent fixation of hydroxyethyl sulphone dye on cotton by the use of crosslinking agent via a pad-batch process

1. J Yao, 2. D M Lewis Article first published online: 22 JUN 2006 DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.2000.tb00038.x Issue

Coloration Technology Volume 116, Issue 7-8, pages 198203, July 2000

Journal of Xi'an Polytechnic University Cold pad-batch and micro-suspension dyeing with reactive dyes REN Yan,XU Cheng-shu,WANG Yue-hu,XING Jian-wei,ZHENG Yan-lan(School of Textile & Materials,Xi an Polytecnical University,Xi an 710048,China) The cold pad-batch micro-suspension dyeing with reactive dyes were introduced.The possible effects brought about by each process in pretreatment for the purpose of optimizing the consumption of each factor and the optimum pretreatment approach were discussed.Compared with traditional cold pad-batch dyeing,micro-suspension dyeing features in darkening the fabric obviously,reducing the amount of waste dye in the production wastewater,easing the burden of sewage treatment system and bringing social and economic benefit to the factory.

COLD PAD BATCH DYEING Principle of the Technology Pad batch dyeing is a textile dyeing process which offers simplicity, versatility and flexibility without major capital investment in equipment. It is a cold method used for dyeing cellulosic fibers (cotton and polyester/cotton blend fabrics).

The basic technique used in pad-batch dyeing is to saturate the prepared fabric with pre-mixed dye liquor and pass it through rollers. The rollers, also called padders, force the dyestuff into the fabric while removing excess dye solution. The fabric being dyed is then batched by storing it in rolls or in boxes for 4 12 hours. The batches are covered with plastic film to prevent carbon dioxide absorption and water evaporation (USEPA, 1996). While in batching, the dyestuff is reacting and penetrating the fabric resulting in an even and consistent color. When the reaction is complete, the fabric is washed with becks, beams, or other available washoff devices. Special Features and Applications Pad batch dyeing is a process change that offers several significant advantages, primarily cost and waste reduction, over other conventional dyeing processes. This method eliminates the need for salt and specialty chemicals such as anti-migrants, leveling agents and fixatives required in conventional dyebaths. In turn, efficient use of dye and the elimination of specialty chemicals reduce chemical costs and waste loads in the effluent resulting to reduced wastewater treatment cost. Pad batch dyeing reduces water and energy consumption due to the low bath ratio (dye: water) required for the process and since it does not operate at high temperatures as required in other dyeing processes. Consistent dye quality is achieved resulting to even color absorbency and color fastness. This method also produces much lower defect levels than rope dyeing, wherein the fabric is transported through the dyeing machine in a loosely collapsed form resembling a rope. When used in this process, high reactivity dyes have rapid fixation and stability resulting in shade reliability and repeatability. Pad batch dyeing also improves product quality. The fabric that undergoes the cold pad batch dyeing process retains a smooth, uniformly colored appearance with added luster and a soft touch and drape. It is also brighter in shade, has superior wet fastness properties, and has a better look and feel A New One-bath Method for Continuous or PadRoll Vat Dyeing 1. F. L. J. van Lamoen, 2. H. Borsten Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.1960.tb02383.x 1960 Society of Dyers and Colourists Issue

Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists Volume 76, Issue 6, pages 349354, June 1960 n the process of semi-continuous dyeing that consists of pad-batch, pad-jig, pad-roll the fabric is first impregnated with the dye-liquor in, what is called a padding machine. Then it is subjected to batch wise treatment in a jigger. It could also be stored with a slow rotation for many hours. In the pad-batch this treatment is done at room temperature while in pad-roll it is done at increased temperature by employing a heating chamber. This helps in fixation of the dyes on to the fibre. After this fixation process, the material in full width is thoroughly cleansed and rinsed in continuous washing machines. There is only one point of difference between Continuous and semi-continuous dyeing process is that in semi-continuous dyeing, the dye is applied continuously by a padding. The fixation and washing remaining discontinuous. Liquor Ratio in semi-continuous dyeing is not of much importance and is not taken as a parameter. One of the widely used techniques for semi-continuous dyeing process is the Pad Batch Dyeing a schematic diagram is given here for the semi-continuous dyeing process.

The following table shows some of the important machineries for semi-continuous and continuous dyeing processes. Make up Process Rope Woven and Knitted Fabric, tufted carpet Open width Equipment Padding Machine for Piece in Continous rope form Pad batch (or carp- Padding Machine+ Washing o-roll for carpet) Machine Pad batch (or carp- Padding Machine+ Washing Semi Machine Continous o-roll for carpet) Pad -jig Padding Machine+ Jigger+ Washing Machine

Pad stream Continous Pad Dry

Padding Machine+ Steamer+ Washing Machine Padding Machine+ Stenter frame+ Washing Machine

Pad Batch Dyeing

Pad Batch Dyeing is one of the widely used technique for semicontinuous dyeing process. It is mainly used in the dyeing of cellulosic fibre like cotton or viscose (knit and woven fabric) with reactive dyes. Pad batch dyeing is a textile dyeing process that offers some unique advantages in the form of versatility, simplicity, and flexibility and a substantial reduction in capital investment for equipment. It is primarily a cold method that is the reason why it is sometimes referred to as the cold pad batch dyeing. Working of a Cold Pad Dyeing Process The technique or process used in pad-batch dyeing starts with saturating first the prepared fabric with pre-mixed dye liquor. Then it is passed through rollers. The rollers, or padders, effectively forces the dyestuff into the fabric. In the process, excess dye solution is also removed. After removal of excess dye stuff the fabric is subsequently "batched". This batching is done by either storing it in rolls or in boxes. It takes a minimum of 4-12 hours. The batches are generally enclosed by plastic films. This prevents absorption of carbon dioxide and water evaporation. Finally as the reaction is complete the fabrics are washed. This is done by becks, beams, or any other washing devices. Special Features of Pad Batch Dyeing Process
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Significant cost and waste reduction as compared to other conventional dyeing processes. Total elimination of the need for salt and other specialty chemicals. For example there is no need for anti-migrants, leveling agents and fixatives that are necessary in conventional dyebaths. Optimum utilisation of dyes that eliminates specialty chemicals, cuts down chemical costs and waste loads in the effluent. All this results in a formidable reduction in wastewater treatment costs. Excellent wet fastness properties.

Pad batch dyeing cuts energy and water consumption owing to low bath ratio (dye:water) required for the process. This is because unlike other dyeing processes it does not function at high temperatures. A uniform dye quality is achieved with even color absorbency and colour fastness. As compared to rope dyeing, Pad batch dyeing produces much lower defect levels. In pad batch dyeing, qualities like high shade reliability and repeatability are common. This is because of high reactivity dyes with rapid fixation rate and stability. Lastly Pad batch dyeing can also improve product quality. The fabric undergoing the cold pad batch dyeing process is able to retain an uniformly coloured appearance. It shows added luster and gives a gentle feel. The fabric gives a brighter look in shades.

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Cold pad batch dyeing in textile industries. Colourage, May 2010 Summary: The article offers information on the cold patch dyeing method in textile industries, which is more environmentally sound and higher quality method. It states that this new dyeing system is specially created for dying circular knits that contain cotton and was developed by Beautech Ltd. of Rock Hill, South Carolina. Moreover, the machineries used in this dying method will include these features, paddling mangle with two swimming rolls, metering pump, and batching arrangement. Excerpt from Article: Cold pad batch dyeing in textile industries COLD Pad Batch dyeing is a more environmentally sound and higher quality dyeing method. The process removes salt from the effluent, reduces the use of water and energy, reduces the volumes of effluent and occupies less space on the production floor. It also uses fewer chemicals, and the switch to Gbacron C dyes further reduces the color carried in the effluent. The new dyeing system, specially designed for dyeing circular knits containing cotton, was developed by Beautech Ltd of Rock Hill, . Most textile mills still use traditional dyeing methods. To enable the dye to take to the fabric, undyed rolls undergo many hours of rough treatment, including the use of a variety of chemicals, wear and tear by machines, large amounts of hot and cold water; and treatment with up to 0.5 kg (1.10 pounds) of salt per kilogram (2.20 pounds) of fabric. Technology Used: Cold pad batch dyeing is a more environmentally sound and higher quality dyeing method. The process removes salt from the effluent, reduces the use of water and energy, reduces the volumes of effluent and occupies less space on the production floor. It also uses fewer chemicals, and the

switch to Cibacron C dyes further reduces the color carried in the effluent. The new dyeing system, specially designed for dyeing circular knits containing cotton, was developed by Beautech Ltd of Rock Hill, South Carolina, United States. It is simple and compact, and the dyeing machine is driven at running speeds of up to 55 meters (60 yards) a minute while reducing water consumption by 88%. Benefits: Reduced Water Pollutants, Reduced Solid Waste Production:

Details: The process involved the purchase of two pieces of special equipment: a padding machine which dyes the fabric, and a trickle or rinsing machine. This purchase marginally increased the company's costs. The company promoted the environmental benefits of the process, which enabled it to charge marginally more for the product to cover these extra costs. After about six months, the company began to notice an improvement in the environment and in consumer awareness. The fabric undergoes less turbulence and so retains a smooth, uniformly colored appearance with added luster and a soft drape and handle. Larger runs of fabric of the same color can be made Cost is comparable with traditional dyeing, but the quality is improved The company's image has improved as a result of the superior product. Capital investment: 280 000 US$ COLD PAD BATCH DYEING Principle of the Technology Pad batch dyeing is a textile dyeing process which offers simplicity, versatility and flexibility without major capital investment in equipment. It is a cold method used for dyeing cellulosic fibers (cotton and polyester/cotton blend fabrics). The basic technique used in pad-batch dyeing is to saturate the prepared fabric with pre-mixed dye liquor and pass it through rollers. The rollers, also called padders, force the dyestuff into the fabric while removing excess dye solution. The fabric being dyed is then batched by storing it in rolls or in boxes for 4 12 hours. The batches are covered with plastic film to prevent carbon dioxide absorption and water evaporation (USEPA, 1996). While in batching, the dyestuff is reacting and penetrating the fabric resulting in an even and consistent color. When the reaction is complete, the fabric is washed with becks, beams, or other available washoff devices.

Special Features and Applications Pad batch dyeing is a process change that offers several significant advantages, primarily cost and waste reduction, over other conventional dyeing processes. This method eliminates the need for salt and specialty chemicals such as anti-migrants, leveling agents and fixatives required in conventional dyebaths. In turn, efficient use of dye and the elimination of specialty chemicals reduce chemical costs and waste loads in the effluent resulting to reduced wastewater treatment cost. Pad batch dyeing reduces water and energy consumption due to the low bath ratio (dye: water) required for the process and since it does not operate at high temperatures as required in other dyeing processes. Consistent dye quality is achieved resulting to even color absorbency and color fastness. This method also produces much lower defect levels than rope dyeing, wherein the fabric is transported through the dyeing machine in a loosely collapsed form resembling a rope. When used in this process, high reactivity dyes have rapid fixation and stability resulting in shade reliability and repeatability. Pad batch dyeing also improves product quality. The fabric that undergoes the cold pad batch dyeing process retains a smooth, uniformly colored appearance with added luster and a soft touch and drape. It is also brighter in shade, has superior wet fastness properties, and has a better look and feel. Reacatives -Cold Silicate Pad Batch Exhaust method of dyeing and the related issues were discussed in the previous two articles and the other important methods of dyeing of fabrics in open width with Reactives are: Cold Pad batch Pad dry - Alkalie pad batch Pad dry or wet on wet Alkalie pad steam Pad dry - bake Cold pad batch system offers the most economical and most convenient method of dyeing Reactives. The energy and water consumptions are the lowest and salt addition is totally made redundant thus rendering it more eco friendly. Dyestuffs with relatively lower affinity and high reactivity make them most suited for cold pad batch techniques. Because of the high reactivity, fixation of the component colours is fully ensured and consequently reproducibility of shades is more assured. Primarily it was being applied to woven fabrics and with specialized features in the pad box and the guiding systems this is extended to knit wares also. With the least inputs in terms of capital outlay energy, water, manpower and Right First Time (RFT) capabilities, this method is the most cost effective option for dyeing substrates that are amenable to padding operation. Cold Silicate Pad Batch:

This is the most commonly adopted method by most of the Process houses. Since the Reactive colours are sensitive to alkalie to a lesser or greater extent and the general approach is to apply the colour at neutral pH.and after the distrubution of the colour on the substrate, the pH is raised for fixation. In an exhaust-dyeing situation we are able to provide the required time dimension and Salt to facilitate exhaustion. In a pad situation, the exhaustion phenomenon is replaced by the positive add on of the colour on the substrate and the elaborate conditions of exhaustion and fixation are eliminated by padding the alkalie along with the colour. The colour with the alkalie is mechanically squeezed between the mangles of a padder and applied evenly on the substrate. Since the alkalie is added with the colour the primary precaution is to ensure that the reactive dyestuff does not hydrolyze. High (with respect to speed) reactive colours generally are not stable and would loose the colour yield due to hydrolysis with water. Even more stable reactive colours have their limitations in that the different clolours in the recipe will have relatively different rates of hydrolysis and thus not likely to give reproductive results. This problem has been overcome by the development of ingenious alkalie proportionator units that help in mixing the alkalie and the dye in the required proportions just before feeding into the pad bath, thus avoiding the propensity to hydrolyze. Due to the high degree of reactivity, the dye fixes on the substrate during the reaction dwell time that is dictated by the alkalie (pH.) and the time taken (rate of reaction) by the slowest of the component dyes to fully react with the substrate at that pH. Vinyl Sulphones that are relatively slow reactive class of Colours are generally preferred for this method of dyeing The alkalie proportionator is an equipment that facilitates mixing of the colour and the alkalie in the required quantities and proportions just before the liquor is delivered to the pad box for application; otherwise they are stored as two different stock solutions. The dye and alkalie are mixed at a convenient volume ratio (generally 4:1) and correspondingly they are made up to that extent stronger so that in the final liquor, the dyes and chemicals are present in the required recipe concentrations The principle is very convincing but the problems arise in the execution. Factors Influencing Cold Pad Barch Dyeing Substrate preparation and pH Substrate preparation has to be thorough as there is no scope for diffusion and migration aspects of Exhaust dyeing and whatever applied through padding mangle should penetrate uniformly across and along the fabric as the fabric speeds through the mangle at speed, where the contact time could be just a few seconds. The preparation process is generally alkaline and particularly after mercerization the fabric is rendered alkaline requiring effective neutralization. This is best achieved with mineral acids preferably HCl; however the residual mineral acid that would damage the cellulose needs to be neutralized again with Soda Ash or Bicarbonate rendering the pH invariably 8.5 or more and therefore again neutralized with Acetic Acid. Secondly the neutralization is carried out in the wash compartments of the Mercerizer washing range and invariably the caustic carry over from the recuperator which is a wet on wet leaching process shall not be efficient compounded by uneven expression at the mangle. Unlike add-on mangles like dye pad the washing unit mangles invariably are less maintained resulting in variation in alkalie across the width and length of the fabric causing different levels of left over

caustic reaching the neutralization zone. With limited contact time in a speeding fabric movement in the washing range the neutralization invariably remains incomplete in core areas and even in the surface areas where the caustic carried over is not uniform as pointed out earlier. Such a fabric .shall measure different pH levels across the width and length of the fabric causing hydrolysis/spontaneous fixation however small selectively on the surface of the fabric resulting in delta E variations exceeding 0.5 in the pad batch/continuous dyeing systems causing selvedge centre variations, shade variation across the width and length apparently insignificant but when cut and stitched juxtaposition would show marked deviation in shade. This problem is best addressed by the following procedure. It is imperative that the caustic leached/extracted out at the recuperator of the Mercerizer should be most efficient and the residual caustic carried over is minimal. A mineral acid passage followed by neutralization of the mineral acid with Soda Ash and again a passage through Acetic Acid to remove residual Soda Ash alkalinity does not guarantee uniform and or core neutralization. Doing away with Mineral acid and employment of specialty chemicals -Organic acids based Poly Carboxylates, substituted poly Carboxylic acids, hydroxy Carboxylic acids (Gluconates, Citrates) and Sugar-Acrylic acid copolymers are in practice. The hydroxy Carboxylic Acids and Sugar-Acrylic acid copolymers have the additional advantage of ready biodegradability. Such Specialty chemicals like Invatex AC of Ciba or Sirrix 2UDI of Clariant or Neutracid Organic (organic +Inorganic buffers) of CHT, - through a dozing system governed by a pH control counter current closed circuit neutralization zone that give a steady uniform pH that is faintly acidic (pH 6 to6.5) at the end of the range. With a higher dissociation constant (Ka) than that of Acetic Acid the organic protonizer ionizes more and faster and therefore neutralizes more efficiently and faster; at the same time it does not tender or damage cellulose Secondly the residual organic acid/ salt forms a buffer in the subsequent dyeing operations giving a stable and uniform pH to start with. Fabric can be controlled to a uniform pH of 6 to 6.5 (by extraction method) confirming that the core portion is also neutralized. Such processed fabric when dyed by Pad- Batch technique invariably gives delta E variations less than 0.5 when checked any where on the fabric. The neutralization system can be retrofitted in a Mercierizer washing range with very minimal modifications to include dozing /control. Residual peroxide after peroxide bleach needs to be removed by peroxide killers preferably by specialty chemicals of enzymatic sources Making up of Colour and Chemicals The colours have to be dissolved and made up with cold water (in tropical countries with ice cooled water) . as per the directions of the manufacturer to obtain a temperature of the liquor below 20 deg C. The required amount of Urea is to be added for breaking of the hydrogen bonding and disaggregation of the colour for easy dissolution. Filtering and cooling with ice are recommended while making up to volume. The made up colour should be tested for complete dissolution by drop test on the filter paper. The Silicate should be from reliable sources without contamination of heavy metals and Na2O : SiO2 ratio of 1 : 2 .1.The chemical should be suitably diluted to obtain a 40 Tw solution and the recommended quantity of Caustic Soda for the

different depths of shades should be added and filtered through a strainer. This would form the stock solution. Alkalie Proportionator The proportionators capability to pump the required quantity linearly and not at intervals has a direct influence on the uniformity of the shade. Some of the simpler designs operate on the level control principle and therefore the liquor flow would be as per the signals from the level controller. The limits for this operation cannot be set very precisely such that there is no perceptible delay in the intermittent flow of the liquor. Therefore there is bound to be certain disruption in the continuity of the liquor flow. Where the substantiality of the dyestuff is higher, there will be preferential absorption of the relevant colour from the bath resulting in that much depletion in concentration of that colour. In ternary matchings where contribution of all the colors is important for the shade like in a Grey or Khaki, variation in shade cannot be ruled out. Where the pad box volume is high this problem would be more pronounced. Colours with moderate substantivity and high reactivity in terms of fixation and higher stability to hydrolysis (in time dimension) would be more ideal.for cold silicate pad batch method of dyeing. In the context of exact colour matching, the reproducibility is difficult unless care is taken to eliminate the variables. Modern Pad batch systems provide the answers to the problems with Proportioning units that synchronize with the speed of the machine and the liquor off take - to continuously mix dye and alkalie in the required proportion just before feeding the pad box in a linear fashion. Fabric guiding System The fabric guiding system should be able to feed the fabric in a fully open form without selvedge curls, creases or distortion. In the case of warp knit ware the guiders should have the capability to uncurl the selvedges. At the batching stage there should be expander system to ensure the batch is wound without creases. Pad box The pad box volume needs to be as low as possible. A narrow U tube like pad box with a dummy / spacer in the center would help achieve sufficient long dwell time and also reduce the pad box volume. While this arrangement helps immediate application (consumption) of the alkalie mixed colour on the substrate, it may not as much help in the penetration of the colour in to fabric substrate particularly heavy fabrics. Therefore it would be helpful to have built in lay on rollers in the pad box to facilitate penetration by additional squeeze passages. Where sensitive /thin/delicate fabrics are involved the lay on rollers may be by-passed or can be replaced by dummies to reduce the liquor volume. . The dwell time once established for a given pad box features, the same speed should be maintained for the relevant fabric sort. Therefore it would be prudent to establish two or three speed categories for different sort groups and maintain these conditions every time. As the speed also would influence the liquor pick up and the preferential pick up of the dye, it plays an important part in the shade reproduction. This aspect also emphasizes the importance of the

fabric preparation that needs to be absolutely perfect with respect to absorbency, evenness of the whiteness and dryness as discussed under fabric preparation. It is also necessary to maintain the padding liquor tmperature at below 20 deg. C for which jacketed pad box with cold (ice cold water in the tropical countries where the temperatues can go vdry high) to avoid destabilisation of the bath by hydrolyzation of component colours to different degrees depending on their Reactivity and consequent tailing with variation in saturation and hue, particularly for colours with lower stability at higher temperatures.. Loading of the Mangles The success of a pad batch system is in the capability of the pad box to uniformly apply the colour on the fabric substrate. Different loading systems with ingenious designs to avoid deflection of the padding mangles under load have been discussed at length in earlier issue under padding. The choice of such systems will depend on fabric types in terms of their construction, weight and width. Where there are frequent changes in the fabric characteristics, care need to be exercised to provide for suitable facilities to accommodate changes. Continuous running of narrow width fabric followed by a run on wide width fabric could cause problem of center selvedge variation even with the modern mangles. Alternate running of both wide and narrow width fabrics in frequent intervals would reduce this problem. Also periodical buffing of the bowls would be advantageous. Thick Selvedge Fabrics with selvedges thicker than the body have always posed problems during winding into a big batch after padding. The batch tends to develop a ridge at the selvedges as it builds up and beyond certain size it becomes unmanageable where the fabric starts rolling over at the selvedge giving crimps or short creases oblique to the selvedge. In a stenter batching operation this problem is over come by selvedge shifting device and this may not be successful in a pad operation. When such observations are made the best solution would be to limit the batch to that size where the problem is not there. Some of the process houses resort to insertion of flat paper at intervals at both the selvedges as the batch builds up and even out the ridge. This works to a point. The best and permanent solution to this problem is to ensure that the selvedge construction is taken care of at the weaving stage Laboratory - Bulk Reproducibility The padding mangle expression plays an important role as the colour picked up is directly related to the expression. The absorbency of the substrate besides the additional features like lay on rollers would also influence the pick up as already discussed. Therefore, standardization of these parameters to meet certain norms should be established, monitored and controlled every time. While matching the shade in Laboratory, the bulk application parameters should be borne in mind and the parameters for the lab Pad should be modified suitably such that the shade produced in the lab pad is reproducible in the bulk. As the dyestuff is already mixed with alkalie,

the mobility of the dyestuff to migrate would be limited and the fixation phenomenon would restrict such mobility, unlike in an exhaust-dyeing situation. The pressure applied on the padding mangle, the dwell time (function of the speed of the machine and the length of fabric immersed in the pad liquor - i.e. starting from entry in to the liquor level in the pad box to the nip) should be manipulated and established to obtain the shade that would reproduce in bulk with the same recipe. This can be established carrying out a few trials. This exercise would be easier where the configuration of Bulk and Laboratory pad boxes are similar. Where the lab pad box does not provide the features available in the bulk, say as in the case of an ordinary pad box without lay on rollers and the bulk padder having advanced features, even under identical expressions, the laboratory matching would tend to give higher colour yield than the bulk for the same recipe. The bulk would require increase in recipe concentrations, particularly in heavier fabrics. In other words the estimates of cost based on Lab recipe would be adverse. In this instance, the explanation for this phenomenon is that the colour picked up does not penetrate in to the fabric substrate as much as it does in the bulk model due to better facilities and hence in the lab match ring dyeing type of application results giving an apparent colour yield on the surface. In bulk, relatively more inner substrate cross section also gets dyed and therefore requires that much extra colour for obtaining the same shade. If the laboratory could simulate the same level of efficiency of the dye penetration as in bulk the laboratory recipe would be reproducible every time. Process houses tend to believe that when expressions of the bulk and laboratory pad boxes are made identical there is nothing further that can be done. They accept this as unavoidable and provide a factor for conversion to bulk, which does not work every time as different dyestuffs would penetrate to different extents and a single conversion factor would not be valid. It would therefore be necessary to match any shade in Laboratory to the same efficiency of penetration/diffusion across the cross section of the substrate in order to get reproducible results as for as the padding mangle operation is concerned. In a real situation quite a number of trials had to be taken to simulate bulk-dyeing results at the stage of laboratory matching. Once such conditions and parameters are set, the Laboratory pad would behave in the same fashion as the bulk and therefore each of the dyestuffs would tend to behave similarly at the laboratory and bulk padding stages.Establishing laboratory padding conditions and parameters that would correspond to bulk would solve most of the problems related to Laboratory to bulk reproducibility. The padded fabric may be checked for shade by drawing a sample and exposing the same over a water bath in a micro oven that facilitates an accelerated fixation. Batch Rotation / Reaction time The dwell time for reaction (fixation) to complete would vary with the alkalie concentration and the class of reactive colours used. There are shock develop (short time of 4 to 6 Hours) and the

long cycle times of 12 to 18hours systems -whichever the process, the dwell time period should not be compromised. Care should be taken to ensure the batch is protected from water drops or acid fumes during the period of fixation. Polythene covers that tightly enclose the batch would serve the purpose. It is also necessary to rotate the batch during the period of fixation, lest the alkaline liquor should collect at the lower portions of the batch due to gravity that could result in intermittent variation in shade along the length of the fabric Though these are elementary precautions, the operators tend to ignore, particularly when there is a breakdown of the rotating motor. It would be prudent to have alternate banks for rotating the batches to take care of such breakdowns. Washing off and Soaping Soaping is an important operation where the washing and soaping sequence has to be followed meticulously to ensure complete removal of the silicate and the hydrolyzed colour. Silicate on fabric needs to be washed off in the first two compartments with warm over flowing water and then followed by soaping at near boil (need to establish temperature charts for different dyestuff combinations) with good anionic soaping agents with small additions of polyphosphate in the wash baths. While soaping, where Vinyl Sulphone based dyestuffs are involved, it is necessary to have luke warm / preferably cold water over flow in the initial soaping baths to remove unfixed colour followed by acidification to bring the pH to 5- 6 or neutral before raising the temperature to boil to avoid the possible dye fibre bond cleavage, whereas this precaution is not required in the case of Chloro Triazine based dyes. Once the silicate is eased out soaping operation is rendered more efficient. Compartment nos. 3, 4 and 5 are with soaping chemicals. Compartment 6- washing off; 7 and 8 wash/rinse at lower temperatures Nos.3 to 6.can be counter current An eight-compartment soaper with an average of 20 meters capacity in each compartment should serve the purpose for a good soaping for fabric weights up to 200 grms of plain weave at a speed of 50 meters/min. The soaping compartments need to be totally enclosed to maintain temperature parameters. The guide rollers should be absolutely true and smooth on their ball bearings with tension adjustments to ensure crease free passage of the fabric through the soaping range. As the fabric weight increases either the speed need to be reduced or number of compartments should increase. Wash boxes with advanced designs provide accessories to facilitate good agitation and therefore are efficdient over a range of speeds. Also certain levels of over flow in the soaping zone (compartments Nos. 3 to 5) may be necessary particularly for heavy shades. The last two compartments need to be lukewarm or cold. For heavier weight fabrics neutralization of core alkalie to satisfy the extraction method, addition of specialty chemicals like Invatex AC by itself or mixed with Acetic Acid (to save costs) may be helpful instead of only Acetic Acid in the seventh compartment with a dozing system like what is mentioned under neutralization in the Mercerizer. Compartments 7 and 8 can be counter current.

It is pertinent to caution that Bi-carbonate hardness in water is generally neglected. The water may apparently show neutral pH in cold but the fabric rinsed with this water in the last compartment will show alkalinity after drying. Where the water is bought from different sources and if this aspect is not taken into consideration one can get different results despite other stringent controls. Check for Bicarbonate hardness and include removal of bicarbonate hardness sequence in the process water treatment. Otherwise provision to neutralize bicarbonate if any is to be built in the dozing and control system in the neutralization compartment Cleaning of Pad Box /Soaper Cleaning of the Pad box, feed lines stock tanks and the pump is an important function after every shade change. Likewise the cloth guiders and both the fixed and rotating tension bars are to be meticulously cleaned. It is a general principle to plan discretely.the sequence of change of shades from light to dark or from dark to light depending on the days programme for dyeing Sensitive shades like yellows and blues and pastel shades that show up contamination of colour glaringly need to be handled separately after thorough cleaning.Similarly at the washing off and soaping stages also the precautions need to be taken to empty and clean the different compartment bath after shade runs that could cause contamination in the next shade.Washing of the Padding mangle and unloading and lifting /separating the bowls after the run before stopping for the day is mandatory as the silicate is difficult to wash off once dried up and the Mangle will be rendered unfit for carrying out padding of colour. Cold Silicate Pad Batch Quality Control Check List Fabric ready for Dyeing Method of Checking White/Yellownes AATCC Test Index Method110 of 1979 Whiteness Yellowness Absorbency pH. Spot test Indicator Parameters Frequency Norms/Limits Left Cen Right Action

Every lot Every lot Every lot Every lot

Drying

Defects

Feel at Every lot different places Check lot card Every lot remarks

Reject,reProcess or < 2 Secs. segregate Left Cen Right ---------- 6 6.5 ---- before use for ------dyeing Dry / room temperature No compromise

--- 80 (not < 75) -0.07 to 0.08

Dye Make up

Parameters Recipe

Method of Checking Against Lab/Std.

Frequency Every Recipe Before every make up

Norms/Limits

Make up tank Visual cleaning Sequence of colour /chemical addition Silicate strength Addition of Caustic Make up of colour to volume Dissolution Against std. sequence displayed Tw. As per table* Metering device or by dip rod Spot test on filter paper

No tolerance

Every time silcate is made up. Every shade group.

No tolerance

No tolerance No tolerance Clear circular spreading; No sediments.

Every make up

*Caustic Soda addition to 40 Tw Silicate in the following table . Concentration Caustic (38 Be /72 Tw / 32.5% w/w or 450g p l) Light <30gpl 6.5 g p l Medium 30 to 50 g p l 11.5 g p l Dark 50 to 60 g p l 16.5 g p l Very dark >70 g p l 21.5 g p l The Process house can decide on the alkalie additions based on their Silicate quality and working results. Dye Pad Parameters Cleanliness Feeding line Pad box

Method of Checking Visual /Manual Visual / Manual Visual

Frequency Start of every shade Start of every padding At the start

Norms/Limits Action

liquor level Mangle Pressure Speed Read on dial

of every padding Start of Padding

As per settingL M R Look for ridges and take action

Speedometer As per table Even batch without creases/ other Continuously defects*

Batching

Visual

The cloth guiders

Should be fully functional

*If fluff or thread attaches to the bowl repeat spots may occur, the bowl should be cleared of the contamination

Fixation / Batch Rotation Parameters Dwell Time Covering of the Batch Precautions Method of Checking Tag the batch Indicate time of start and end Polythene cover fully enclosed and secured Keep away from steam, water spray or acid fumes Ensure uninterrupted rotation

Rotation Washing and Soaping Compartment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Temperature Display norm temp for each compartment. Check and record every 15 min. The dial thermometers should be functional. Additions of Display starting, feeding quantities and frequency of soaping addition for each bath, Monitor additions. chemicals Alternatively dozing can be arranged. The efficiency of soaping may be checked - take a window sample at the delivery end nip and sandwich between bleached poplin (without optical brightener); contact dry on a hot steam cylinder and check any staining of the white. There should be no staining.

Cold Pad-Batch Dyeing. Dye and alkali (eg, 530 g/L soda ash or sodium silicate, depending on shade and dyestuff) are padded, and the whole batched for 424 h at ambient temperature, the time depending on the dye. As in all other methods a nal washing-off process is needed to remove hydrolyzed dye. This application method is of growing popularity because of the increased demand for short yardages to a particular shade which are not economically suited for coloration by continuous methods, the simplicity and low capital cost of the equipment, and the low energy usage. The inability to make adds to correct the shade is a limitation to more widespread implementation of this method. Pad-batch dyeing shows its primary benets over other methods where it is possible to apply the dye on gray (unbleached) minimally prepared fabric, eg, T-shirts, followed by washing on the same perforated beam used to batch the fabric after dyeing. Where a bleached fabric base is needed, the bleaching is best carried out using peroxide by pad-batch technique in order to ensure an even effect and pick up when padding the dye liquor. Similarly all other prepara- tion is best carried out in open-width.