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Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

Problem: A long cable the trans-atlantic telephone cable is laid out connecting NY to London. We would like analyze the electrical properties of this cable. For simplicity, assume the cable has a uniform cross-secitonal conguration (shown as two wires here)

RN Y VN Y (t) RLondon

Can we do it with circuit theory? Fundamental problem with circuit theory is that it assumes that the speed of light is innite. So all signals are in phase: V (z) = V (z + ) Consequently, all variations in space are ignored: z 0 This allows the lumped circuit approximation.

Shorted Line: The long loop has inductance since the magnetic ux is not negligible (long cable) ( = LI )

I

V

++ +++++++++++ ++++ +++ _________ ++ ++ ___ ++ __ ++ __ ++ __ ++ +++++++++ ++ __ + + ++++++++++++ __ _____ _ ___ ___ ______

+Q

_Q

++++++++ +++ +++ ++ __ ++ _______ ++ __ __ ++ ++ __ ++ ++ _ _ + +++ __ _ +++ ++++ __ +++++++++++ __ __ __ ___ ___ _______

++

++

++

So do we model the cable as an inductor or as a capacitor? Or both? How? Try a distributed model: Inductance and capacitance occur together. They are intermingled.

L L L L

Can add loss (series and shunt resistors) but lets keep it simple for now. Add more sections and solution should converge

More sections The equiv LC circuit represents a smaller and smaller section and therefore lumped circuit approximation is more valid This is an easy problem to solve with SPICE. But the people 1866 didnt have computers ... how did they analyze a problem with hundreds of inductors and capacitors?

Distributed Model

L = zL C = zC z L L L L

Go to a fully distributed model by letting the number of sections go to innity Dene inductance and capacitance per unit length L = L/, C = C/ For an innitesimal section of the line, circuit theory applies since signals travel instantly over an innitesimally small length

University of California, Berkeley

KCL: i(z) = zC v(z) + i(z + z) t KVL: v(z) = zL i(z+z) + v(z + z) t Take limit as z 0 We arrive at Telegraphers Equatins

i i(z) i(z + z) v = =C lim z z t z0 v(z) v(z + z) v i lim = =L z z t z0

We have two coupled equations and two unkowns (i and v ) ... can reduce it to two de-coupled equations:

2i 2v 2i 2v = L = C 2 tz t z 2 zt note order of partials can be changed (at least in EE)

2 2v v =LC 2 2 z t

2i 2i = L C 2 z 2 t

We see that the currents and voltages on the transmission line satisfy the one-dimensional wave equation. This is a partial differential equation. The solution depends on boundary conditions and the initial condition.

2i 2i = L C 2 z 2 t

Consider the function f (z, t) = f (z vt) = f (u):

f f u f = = z u z u 2f 2f = 2z u2 f f u f = = v t u t u 2f = v 2 t u 1 2f 2f = 2 2 2 z v t f t 2f = v2 2 u

Wave Motion

f (z vt)

z f (z + vt)

1 LC

Wave Speed

Speed of motion can be deduced if we observe the speed of a point on the aveform

z vt = constant

To follow this point as time elapses, we must move the z coordinate in step. This point moves with velocity

dz v =0 dt

v is the velocity of wave propagation

dz dt

= v

Since the current also satises the wave equation

i(z, t) = g + (z vt) + g (z + vt)

Recall that on a transmission line, current and voltage are related by i v = C z t For the general function this gives

g + g f + f + = C v +v u u u u

Since the forward waves are independent of the reverse waves

g + f + = C v u u Within a constant we have f+ g = Z0

+

g f = C v u u f g = Z0

L C

Excite a step function onto a transmission line The line is assumped uncharged: Q(z, 0) = 0, (z, 0) = 0 or equivalently v(z, 0) = 0 and i(z, 0) = 0 By physical intuiition, we would only expect a forward traveling wave since the line is innite in extent The general form of current and voltage on the line is given by v(z, t) = v + (z vt)

v + (z vt) i(z, t) = i (z vt) = Z0

+

Example 1 (cont)

We may therefore model the line with the following simple equivalent circuit

is Rs v+ i = Z0

+

Vs

Z0

Since is = i+ , the excited voltage wave has an amplitude of Z0 + Vs v = Z0 + Rs Its surprising that the voltage on the line is not equal to the source voltage

University of California, Berkeley

Example 1 (cont)

The voltage on the line is a delayed version of the source voltage

Z0 Vs Z0 + Rs v(z, t = /v) v z

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