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# EECS 117

## Lecture 1: Transmission Lines

Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

## First Trans-Atlantic Cable

Problem: A long cable the trans-atlantic telephone cable is laid out connecting NY to London. We would like analyze the electrical properties of this cable. For simplicity, assume the cable has a uniform cross-secitonal conguration (shown as two wires here)
RN Y VN Y (t) RLondon

## Trans-Atlantic Cable Analysis

Can we do it with circuit theory? Fundamental problem with circuit theory is that it assumes that the speed of light is innite. So all signals are in phase: V (z) = V (z + ) Consequently, all variations in space are ignored: z 0 This allows the lumped circuit approximation.

## Lumped Circuit Properties of Cable

Shorted Line: The long loop has inductance since the magnetic ux is not negligible (long cable) ( = LI )
I

## Open Line: The cable also has substantial capacitance (Q = CV )

V
++ +++++++++++ ++++ +++ _________ ++ ++ ___ ++ __ ++ __ ++ __ ++ +++++++++ ++ __ + + ++++++++++++ __ _____ _ ___ ___ ______

+Q

_Q

++++++++ +++ +++ ++ __ ++ _______ ++ __ __ ++ ++ __ ++ ++ _ _ + +++ __ _ +++ ++++ __ +++++++++++ __ __ __ ___ ___ _______
++
++
++

## Sectional Model (I)

So do we model the cable as an inductor or as a capacitor? Or both? How? Try a distributed model: Inductance and capacitance occur together. They are intermingled.
L L L L

Can add loss (series and shunt resistors) but lets keep it simple for now. Add more sections and solution should converge

## Sectional Model (II)

More sections The equiv LC circuit represents a smaller and smaller section and therefore lumped circuit approximation is more valid This is an easy problem to solve with SPICE. But the people 1866 didnt have computers ... how did they analyze a problem with hundreds of inductors and capacitors?

## EECS 117 Lecture 1 p. 6/1

Distributed Model
L = zL C = zC z L L L L

Go to a fully distributed model by letting the number of sections go to innity Dene inductance and capacitance per unit length L = L/, C = C/ For an innitesimal section of the line, circuit theory applies since signals travel instantly over an innitesimally small length
University of California, Berkeley

## KCL and KVL for a small section

KCL: i(z) = zC v(z) + i(z + z) t KVL: v(z) = zL i(z+z) + v(z + z) t Take limit as z 0 We arrive at Telegraphers Equatins
i i(z) i(z + z) v = =C lim z z t z0 v(z) v(z + z) v i lim = =L z z t z0

## Derivation of Wave Equations

We have two coupled equations and two unkowns (i and v ) ... can reduce it to two de-coupled equations:
2i 2v 2i 2v = L = C 2 tz t z 2 zt note order of partials can be changed (at least in EE)
2 2v v =LC 2 2 z t

## Same equation can be derived for current:

2i 2i = L C 2 z 2 t

## The Wave Equation

We see that the currents and voltages on the transmission line satisfy the one-dimensional wave equation. This is a partial differential equation. The solution depends on boundary conditions and the initial condition.
2i 2i = L C 2 z 2 t

## Wave Equation Solution

Consider the function f (z, t) = f (z vt) = f (u):
f f u f = = z u z u 2f 2f = 2z u2 f f u f = = v t u t u 2f = v 2 t u 1 2f 2f = 2 2 2 z v t f t 2f = v2 2 u

Wave Motion
f (z vt)

z f (z + vt)

1 LC

## EECS 117 Lecture 1 p. 12/1

Wave Speed
Speed of motion can be deduced if we observe the speed of a point on the aveform
z vt = constant

To follow this point as time elapses, we must move the z coordinate in step. This point moves with velocity
dz v =0 dt

## This is the speed at which we move with speed

v is the velocity of wave propagation

dz dt

= v

## Current / Voltage Relationship (I)

Since the current also satises the wave equation
i(z, t) = g + (z vt) + g (z + vt)

Recall that on a transmission line, current and voltage are related by i v = C z t For the general function this gives
g + g f + f + = C v +v u u u u

## Current / Voltage Relationship (II)

Since the forward waves are independent of the reverse waves
g + f + = C v u u Within a constant we have f+ g = Z0
+

g f = C v u u f g = Z0

L C

## Example: Step Into Innite Line

Excite a step function onto a transmission line The line is assumped uncharged: Q(z, 0) = 0, (z, 0) = 0 or equivalently v(z, 0) = 0 and i(z, 0) = 0 By physical intuiition, we would only expect a forward traveling wave since the line is innite in extent The general form of current and voltage on the line is given by v(z, t) = v + (z vt)
v + (z vt) i(z, t) = i (z vt) = Z0
+

## EECS 117 Lecture 1 p. 16/1

Example 1 (cont)
We may therefore model the line with the following simple equivalent circuit
is Rs v+ i = Z0
+

Vs

Z0

Since is = i+ , the excited voltage wave has an amplitude of Z0 + Vs v = Z0 + Rs Its surprising that the voltage on the line is not equal to the source voltage
University of California, Berkeley

## EECS 117 Lecture 1 p. 17/1

Example 1 (cont)
The voltage on the line is a delayed version of the source voltage
Z0 Vs Z0 + Rs v(z, t = /v) v z