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**Lecture 2: Transmission Line Discontinuities
**

Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p. 1/2

**Energy to “Charge” Transmission Line
**

Rs v+ i = Z0

+

+ Vs −

+ v+ −

Z0

**The power ﬂow into the line is given by
**

+ Pline

v + (0, t) = i+ (0, t)v + (0, t) = Z0

2

**Or in terms of the source voltage
**

+ Pline =

Z0 Z0 + R s

2

Z0 Vs2 = Vs2 Z0 (Z0 + Rs )2

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p. 2/2

a length of ℓ = vtd has been “charged”: 1 1 ′ 2 CV = ℓC 2 2 1 2 1 ′ LI = ℓL 2 2 Z0 Z0 + R s Vs Z0 + R s 2 Vs2 2 The total energy is thus 1 2 1 1 ℓVs2 2 LI + CV 2 = L′ + C ′ Z0 2 2 2 (Z0 + Rs )2 University of California. 3/2 . Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.Energy Stored in Inds and Caps (I) But where is the power going? The line is lossless! Energy stored by a cap/ind is 1 CV 2 / 1 LI 2 2 2 At time td .

4/2 . the results match (conservation of energy). The total energy stored on the line at time td = ℓ/v : Vs2 Eline (ℓ/v) = ℓL′ (Z0 + Rs )2 And the power delivered onto the line in time td : l Z0 Vs2 ℓ Pline × = v =ℓ 2 v (Z0 + Rs ) Vs2 L′ √ ′ ′ LC ′ C (Z0 + Rs )2 As expected. University of California.Energy Stored (II) Recall that Z0 = L′ /C ′ . Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.

our pulse reaches the load. 5/2 .Transmission Line Termination Rs v+ i = Z0 + + Vs − Z0 . a discontinuity is produced at the load. Since the current on the T-line is i+ = v + /Z0 = Vs /(Z0 + Rs ) and the current at the load is VL /RL . University of California. td ℓ + v+ − i= vL RL Consider a ﬁnite transmission line with a termination resistance At the load we know that Ohm’s law is valid: IL = VL /RL So at time t = ℓ/v . Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.

t) + v − (ℓ. t) − v (ℓ. t) = VL (t)/RL IL (t) = Z0 Z0 Solving for the forward and reﬂected waves 2v + (ℓ. Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p. t) = VL (t)(1 + Z0 /RL ) 2v − (ℓ.Reﬂections Thus a reﬂected wave is created at discontinuity VL (t) = v + (ℓ. 6/2 . t) 1 − 1 + v (ℓ. t) = VL (t)(1 − Z0 /RL ) University of California.

Reﬂection Coefﬁcient And therefore the reﬂection from the load is given by V − (ℓ. t) R L − Z0 ΓL = + = V (ℓ. t) R L + Z0 Reﬂection coefﬁcient is a very important concept for transmisslin lines: −1 ≤ ΓL ≤ 1 ΓL = −1 for RL = 0 (short) ΓL = +1 for RL = ∞ (open) ΓL = 0 for RL = Z0 (match) Impedance match is the proper termination if we don’t want any reﬂections University of California. 7/2 . Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.

a superposition of any number of solutins is also a solution. At the source end the boundary condition is as follows + − + Vs − Is Rs = v1 + v1 + v2 + The new term v2 is used to satisfy the boundary condition University of California. 8/2 .Propagation of Reﬂected Wave (I) If ΓL = 0. Recall that since the wave PDE is linear. another reﬂection also occurs at source! To see this consider the wave arriving at the source. Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p. a new reﬂected wave travels toward the source and unless Rs = Z0 .

Berkeley Rs + 1+ Z0 + v2 EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.Propagation of Reﬂected Wave (II) The current continuity requires Is = i+ + i− + i+ 2 1 1 Vs = + (v1 − − v1 + Rs + v2 ) Z0 + − + + v1 + v1 + v2 + Solve for v2 in terms of known terms Vs = + But v1 = Rs 1+ Z0 + (v1 + + v2 ) + Rs 1− Z0 − v1 + Z0 Rs +Z0 Vs − v1 R s + Z0 Z0 Rs Vs = Vs + 1 − Z0 R s + Z 0 Z0 University of California. 9/2 .

Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.. 10/2 .Propagation of Reﬂected Wave (III) So the source terms cancel out and + v2 R s − Z0 − − = v1 = Γs v1 Z0 + R s The reﬂected wave bounces off the source impedance with a reﬂection coefﬁcient given by the same equation as before R − Z0 Γ(R) = R + Z0 The source appears as a short for the incoming wave + Invoke superposition! The term v1 took care of the + source boundary condition so our new v2 only needed − to compensate for the v1 wave . the reﬂected wave is − only a function of v1 University of California..

Bounce Diagram We can track the multiple reﬂections with a “bounce diagram” Space T i m e v− 1 + v1 = ΓL v 1 + td + v2 = Γ v − s 1 =Γ s ΓL v + 1 2td v− = 2 + ΓL v 2 = Γs Γ Lv 1 2 + 3td + v3 = Γ v − s 2 = Γ2 2 + sΓ v L 1 4td v− = 3 + ΓL v 3 = Γ s Γ Lv 1 2 3 + 5td + v4 = Γ v − s 3 = Γ3 3 Γ 6td + s L v1 ℓ/4 ℓ/2 3ℓ/4 ℓ University of California. 11/2 . Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.

Freeze time If we freeze time and look at the line. the voltage is a summation of three + + − + components: v = v1 + v1 + v2 = v1 (1 + ΓL + ΓL Γs ). v2 ).5ℓ/v three waves have + − + + been excited (v1 .v1 . but v2 has only travelled a distance of ℓ/2 To the left of ℓ/2.5td = 2. at time 2. University of California. 12/2 . using the bounce diagram we can ﬁgure out how many reﬂections have occurred For instance. To the right of ℓ/2. the voltage has only two + − + components: v = v1 + v1 = v1 (1 + ΓL ). Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.

6 − v1 = . 13/2 .002 td 2td 3td 4td 5td 6td t University of California.664 + v3 = .666 vss = 2/3V − v3 = .4 .004 . so that Γs.Freeze Space We can also pick at arbitrary point on the line and plot the evolution of voltage as a function of time For instance. assuming RL > Z0 and RS > Z0 .L > 0. Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.04 . the voltage at the load will will increase with each new arrival of a reﬂection vL (t) Rs = 75Ω RL = 150Ω Γs = 0.2 ΓL = 0.5 + v1 = .02 . at the load.2 .66 − v2 = .64 + v2 = .

Steady-State Voltage on Line (I) To ﬁnd steady-state voltage on the line. we sum over all reﬂected waves: + − + − + − + − vss = v1 + v1 + v2 + v2 + v3 + v3 + v4 + v4 + · · · Or in terms of the ﬁrst wave on the line + vss = v1 (1 + ΓL + ΓL Γs + Γ2 Γs + Γ2 Γ2 + Γ3 Γ2 + Γ3 Γ3 + · · · L L s L s L s Notice geometric sums of terms like Γk Γk and Γk+1 Γk . Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p. s L s L Let x = ΓL Γs : + vss = v1 (1 + x + x2 + · · · + ΓL (1 + x + x2 + · · ·)) University of California. 14/2 .

Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p. 15/2 .Steady-State Voltage on Line (II) The sums converge since x < 1 vss = + v1 ΓL 1 + 1 − ΓL Γs 1 − ΓL Γs Or more compactly vss = + v1 1 + ΓL 1 − ΓL Γs Substituting for ΓL and Γs gives vss RL = Vs RL + Rs University of California.

What Happend to the T-Line? For steady state. the effects of propagation delay do not matter Conversly. This happens because if we wait long enough. Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p. then the T-line would not matter But the presence of the T-line will be felt if we disconnect the source or load! That’s because the T-line stores reactive energy in the capaciance and inductance Every real circuit behaves this way! Circuit theory is an abstraction University of California. the equivalent circuit shows that the transmission line has disappeared. if the propagation speed were inﬁnite. 16/2 .

Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.PCB Interconnect Suppose ℓ = 3cm. the voltages on interconnect act like transmission lines! Fast digital circuits need to consider T-line effects ground conductor PCB substrate dielectric logic gate University of California. so that tp = ℓ/v = 10−10 s = 100ps On a time scale t < 100ps. v = 3 × 108 m/s. 17/2 .

a reﬂected wave of of equal amplitude is generated and the load voltage overshoots − + vL = v1 + v1 = 1. so Γs = −0.Example: Open Line (I) Source impedance is Z0 /4. Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.6. 18/2 .6V Note that the current reﬂection is negative of the voltage i− v− Γi = + = − + = −Γv i v This means that the sum of the currents at load is zero (open) University of California. load is open so ΓL = 1 + As before a positive going wave is launched v1 Upon reaching the load.

48. Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.6 − 2 × . and + note Γs < 0.6 × 0.8 = −0. 19/2 .48 = . − + At a time 3tp . so v2 = −. the line charged initially to v1 + v1 drops in value − + − + vL = v1 + v1 + v2 + v2 = 1.Example: Open Line (II) + + At source a new reﬂection is created v2 = ΓL Γs v1 .64 So the voltage on the line undershoots < 1 And on the next cycle 5tp the load voltage again overshoots We observe ringing with frequency 2tp University of California.

Example: Open Line Ringing Observed waveform as a function of time. 20/2 . Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p. University of California.

21/2 ... Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p. the inductor is an open Each successive capacitor is charged by “its” inductor + in a uniform fashion . this is the forward wave v1 i+ L i+ L i+ L i+ L v+ v+ v+ v+ University of California.Physical Intuition: Shorted Line (I) The intitial step charges the “ﬁrst” capacitor through the “ﬁrst” inductor since the line is uncharged There is a delay since on the rising edge of the step.

. the extra charge comes by discharging the last capacitor As this capacitor discharges. though. does not have a capacitor to charge Thus the last inductor is discharged . 22/2 . so does it’s neighboring capacitor to the left Again there is a delay in discharging the caps due to the inductors − This discharging represents the backward wave v1 University of California..Physical Intuition: Shorted Line (II) The volage on the line goes up from left to right due to the delay in charging each inductor through the inductors The last inductor. Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 2 – p.

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