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# EECS 117

## Lecture 3: Transmission Line Junctions / Time Harmonic Excitation

Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

## Transmission Line Menagerie

coaxial microstripline coplanar two wires stripline rectangular waveguide

T-Lines come in many shapes and sizes Coaxial usually 75 or 50 (cable TV, Internet) Microstrip lines are common on printed circuit boards (PCB) and integrated circuit (ICs) Coplanar also common on PCB and ICs Twisted pairs is almost a T-line, ubiquitous for phones/Ethernet

## Waveguides and Transmission Lines

The transmission lines weve been considering have been propagating the TEM mode or Transverse Electro-Magnetic. Later well see that they can also propagation other modes Waveguides cannot propagate TEM but propagation TM (Transverse Magnetic) and TE (Transverse Electric) In general, any set of more than one lossless conductors with uniform cross-section can transmit TEM waves. Low loss conductors are commonly approximated as lossless.

## Cascade of T-Lines (I)

i1 Z01 v1 z=0 i2 v2 Z02

Consider the junction between two transmission lines Z01 and Z02 At the interface z = 0, the boundary conditions are that the voltage/current has to be continuous
+ + v1 + v1 = v2 + + (v1 v1 )/Z01 = v2 /Z02
University of California, Berkeley

## Cascade of T-Lines (II)

+ Solve these equations in terms of v1

The reection coefcient has the same form (easy to remember) v1 Z02 Z01 = + = Z01 + Z02 v1 The second line looks like a load impedance of value Z02
i1 Z01 + v1 z=0 Z02

## EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 5/2

Transmission Coefcient
The wave launched on the new transmission line at the interface is given by
+ + + + v2 = v1 + v1 = v1 (1 + ) = v1

## This transmitted wave has a coefcient

2Z02 =1+= Z01 + Z02

Pin
+ |v1 |2 = 2Z01

## EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 6/2

Conservation of Energy
The reected and transmitted waves likewise carry a power of
Pref
+ |v1 |2 |v1 |2 = ||2 = 2Z01 2Z01

Ptran

## By conservation of energy, it follows that

Pin = Pref + Ptran 1 2 1 1 2 + = Z02 Z01 Z01

## EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 7/2

Bounce Diagram
Consider the bounce diagram for the following arrangement
Space T i m e
+ v1

Rs
Z01
1

Z02
2

RL

+ j v1 + j s v1

1 v +
1

td1 td

L 1 2

v1

L 1v 1

s 2 v + s L j 1 1 2v + 1

2td

3td

4td

5td

6td

Z03 Z01 Z02 z=0

## Again invoke voltage/current continuity at the interface

+ + + v1 + v1 = v2 = v3 + + + v2 v3 v1 v1 = + Z01 Z02 Z02

+ + But v2 = v3 , so the interface just looks like the case of two transmission lines Z01 and a new line with char. impedance Z01 ||Z02 .
University of California, Berkeley

## Reactive Terminations (I)

Rs Vs Z0 , td L

Lets analyze the problem intuitively rst When a pulse rst sees the inductance at the load, it looks like an open so 0 = +1 As time progresses, the inductor looks more and more like a short! So = 1

## Reactive Terminations (II)

So intuitively we might expect the reection coefcient to look like this:
1

0.5

t/
-0.5

-1

The graph starts at +1 and ends at 1. In between well see that it goes through exponential decay (1st order ODE)
University of California, Berkeley

## Reactive Terminations (III)

Do equations conrm our intuition?
d di vL = L = L dt dt v+ v Z0 Z0

## And the voltage at the load is given by v + + v

L dv + L dv = v+ v + Z0 dt Z0 dt

## Solution for Reactive Term

For the step response, the derivative term on the RHS is zero at the load
Z0 v = Vs Z0 + R s
+

dv + dt

=0

## We must solve the following equation

L dv v + = v + Z0 dt

## For simplicity, assume at t = 0 the wave v + arrives at load

University of California, Berkeley

## Laplace Domain Solution I

In the Laplace domain
sL L V (s) + V (s) v (0) = v + /s Z0 Z0

## Solve for reection V (s)

v+ v (0)L/Z0 V (s) = 1 + sL/Z0 s(1 + sL/Z0 )

## Break this into basic terms using partial fraction expansion

1 1 L/Z0 = + s(1 + sL/Z0 ) 1 + sL/Z0 1 + sL/Z0
University of California, Berkeley

## Laplace Domain Solution (II)

Invert the equations to get back to time domain t > 0
v (t) = (v (0) + v + )et/ v +

Note that v (0) = v + since initially the inductor is an open So the reection coefcient is
(t) = 2et/ 1

## Time Harmonic Steady-State

Compared with general transient case, sinusoidal case is very easy t j Sinusoidal steady state has many important applications for RF/microwave circuits At high frequency, T-lines are like interconnect for distances on the order of Shorted or open T-lines are good resonators T-lines are useful for impedance matching

## Why Sinusoidal Steady-State?

Typical RF system modulates a sinusoidal carrier (either frequency or phase) If the modulation bandwidth is much smaller than the carrier, the system looks like its excited by a pure sinusoid Cell phones are a good example. The carrier frequency is about 1 GHz and the voice digital modulation is about 200 kHz(GSM) or 1.25 MHz(CDMA), less than a 0.1% of the bandwidth/carrier

## Generalized Distributed Circuit Model

Z Z Z Z Z

Z : impedance per unit length (e.g. Z = jL + R ) Y : admittance per unit length (e.g. Y = jC + G )

A lossy T-line might have the following form (but well analyze the general case)
L R L R L R L R

## Time Harmonic Telegraphers Equations

Applying KCL and KVL to a innitesimal section
v(z + z) v(z) = Z zi(z) i(z + z) i(z) = Y zv(z)

## Taking the limit as before (z 0)

dv = Zi(z) dz di = Y v(z) dz

## Sin. Steady-State (SSS) Voltage/Current

Taking derivatives (notice z is the only variable) we arrive at
d2 v di = Y Zv(z) = 2 v(z) = Z dz 2 dz dv d2 i = Y Zi(z) = 2 i(z) = Y dz 2 dz Where the propagation constant is a complex function = + j = (R + jL )(G + jC )

## Lossless Line for SSS

The voltage and current are related (just as before, but now easier to derive)
v(z) = V + ez + V ez V + z V z i(z) = e e Z0 Z0
Z Where Z0 = Y is the characteristic impedance of the line (function of frequency with loss)

## For a lossless line we discussed before, Z = jL and Y = jC Propagation constant is imaginary = jL jC = j L C

University of California, Berkeley

## EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 21/2

Back to Time-Domain
Recall that the real voltages and currents are the parts of v(z, t) = ez ejt = ejtz and

Thus the voltage/current waveforms are sinusoidal in space and time Sinusoidal source voltage is transmitted unaltered onto T-line (with delay) If there is loss, then has a real part , and the wave decays or grows on the T-line
ez = ez ejz

## The rst term represents amplitude response of the T-line

University of California, Berkeley

## Passive T-Line/Wave Speed

For a passive line, we expect the amplitude to decay due to loss on the line The speed of the wave is derived as before. In order to follow a constant point on the wavefront, you have to move with velocity
d (t z = constant) dt

Or, v =

dz dt

= =

1 LC