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Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

coaxial microstripline coplanar two wires stripline rectangular waveguide

T-Lines come in many shapes and sizes Coaxial usually 75 or 50 (cable TV, Internet) Microstrip lines are common on printed circuit boards (PCB) and integrated circuit (ICs) Coplanar also common on PCB and ICs Twisted pairs is almost a T-line, ubiquitous for phones/Ethernet

The transmission lines weve been considering have been propagating the TEM mode or Transverse Electro-Magnetic. Later well see that they can also propagation other modes Waveguides cannot propagate TEM but propagation TM (Transverse Magnetic) and TE (Transverse Electric) In general, any set of more than one lossless conductors with uniform cross-section can transmit TEM waves. Low loss conductors are commonly approximated as lossless.

i1 Z01 v1 z=0 i2 v2 Z02

Consider the junction between two transmission lines Z01 and Z02 At the interface z = 0, the boundary conditions are that the voltage/current has to be continuous

+ + v1 + v1 = v2 + + (v1 v1 )/Z01 = v2 /Z02

University of California, Berkeley

+ Solve these equations in terms of v1

The reection coefcient has the same form (easy to remember) v1 Z02 Z01 = + = Z01 + Z02 v1 The second line looks like a load impedance of value Z02

i1 Z01 + v1 z=0 Z02

Transmission Coefcient

The wave launched on the new transmission line at the interface is given by

+ + + + v2 = v1 + v1 = v1 (1 + ) = v1

2Z02 =1+= Z01 + Z02

Pin

+ |v1 |2 = 2Z01

Conservation of Energy

The reected and transmitted waves likewise carry a power of

Pref

+ |v1 |2 |v1 |2 = ||2 = 2Z01 2Z01

Ptran

Pin = Pref + Ptran 1 2 1 1 2 + = Z02 Z01 Z01

Bounce Diagram

Consider the bounce diagram for the following arrangement

Space T i m e

+ v1

Rs

Z01

1

Z02

2

RL

+ j v1 + j s v1

1 v +

1

td1 td

L 1 2

v1

L 1v 1

s 2 v + s L j 1 1 2v + 1

2td

3td

4td

5td

6td

Z03 Z01 Z02 z=0

+ + + v1 + v1 = v2 = v3 + + + v2 v3 v1 v1 = + Z01 Z02 Z02

+ + But v2 = v3 , so the interface just looks like the case of two transmission lines Z01 and a new line with char. impedance Z01 ||Z02 .

University of California, Berkeley

Rs Vs Z0 , td L

Lets analyze the problem intuitively rst When a pulse rst sees the inductance at the load, it looks like an open so 0 = +1 As time progresses, the inductor looks more and more like a short! So = 1

So intuitively we might expect the reection coefcient to look like this:

1

0.5

t/

-0.5

-1

The graph starts at +1 and ends at 1. In between well see that it goes through exponential decay (1st order ODE)

University of California, Berkeley

Do equations conrm our intuition?

d di vL = L = L dt dt v+ v Z0 Z0

L dv + L dv = v+ v + Z0 dt Z0 dt

For the step response, the derivative term on the RHS is zero at the load

Z0 v = Vs Z0 + R s

+

dv + dt

=0

L dv v + = v + Z0 dt

University of California, Berkeley

In the Laplace domain

sL L V (s) + V (s) v (0) = v + /s Z0 Z0

v+ v (0)L/Z0 V (s) = 1 + sL/Z0 s(1 + sL/Z0 )

1 1 L/Z0 = + s(1 + sL/Z0 ) 1 + sL/Z0 1 + sL/Z0

University of California, Berkeley

Invert the equations to get back to time domain t > 0

v (t) = (v (0) + v + )et/ v +

Note that v (0) = v + since initially the inductor is an open So the reection coefcient is

(t) = 2et/ 1

Compared with general transient case, sinusoidal case is very easy t j Sinusoidal steady state has many important applications for RF/microwave circuits At high frequency, T-lines are like interconnect for distances on the order of Shorted or open T-lines are good resonators T-lines are useful for impedance matching

Typical RF system modulates a sinusoidal carrier (either frequency or phase) If the modulation bandwidth is much smaller than the carrier, the system looks like its excited by a pure sinusoid Cell phones are a good example. The carrier frequency is about 1 GHz and the voice digital modulation is about 200 kHz(GSM) or 1.25 MHz(CDMA), less than a 0.1% of the bandwidth/carrier

Z Z Z Z Z

Z : impedance per unit length (e.g. Z = jL + R ) Y : admittance per unit length (e.g. Y = jC + G )

A lossy T-line might have the following form (but well analyze the general case)

L R L R L R L R

Applying KCL and KVL to a innitesimal section

v(z + z) v(z) = Z zi(z) i(z + z) i(z) = Y zv(z)

dv = Zi(z) dz di = Y v(z) dz

Taking derivatives (notice z is the only variable) we arrive at

d2 v di = Y Zv(z) = 2 v(z) = Z dz 2 dz dv d2 i = Y Zi(z) = 2 i(z) = Y dz 2 dz Where the propagation constant is a complex function = + j = (R + jL )(G + jC )

The voltage and current are related (just as before, but now easier to derive)

v(z) = V + ez + V ez V + z V z i(z) = e e Z0 Z0

Z Where Z0 = Y is the characteristic impedance of the line (function of frequency with loss)

University of California, Berkeley

Back to Time-Domain

Recall that the real voltages and currents are the parts of v(z, t) = ez ejt = ejtz and

Thus the voltage/current waveforms are sinusoidal in space and time Sinusoidal source voltage is transmitted unaltered onto T-line (with delay) If there is loss, then has a real part , and the wave decays or grows on the T-line

ez = ez ejz

University of California, Berkeley

For a passive line, we expect the amplitude to decay due to loss on the line The speed of the wave is derived as before. In order to follow a constant point on the wavefront, you have to move with velocity

d (t z = constant) dt

Or, v =

dz dt

= =

1 LC

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