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Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

Z0 ,

ZL z=0

z =

Okay, lossless line means = j ( = 0), and (Z0 ) = 0 (real characteristic impedance independent of frequency) The voltage/current phasors take the standard form

v(z) = V + ez + V ez V + z V z i(z) = e e Z0 Z0

University of California, Berkeley

At load ZL =

v(0) i(0)

V + +V V + V Z0

ZL Z 0 L = ZL + Z0

v(z) = V + ejz + L ejz V + jz i(z) = e L ejz Z0

Lets calculate the average power dissipation on the line at point z 1 Pav (z) = [v(z)i(z) ] 2 Or using the general solution

1 |V + |2 Pav (z) = 2 Z0 ejz + L ejz ejz ejz L

The product in the terms can be expanded into four terms 1 + L e2jz e2jz |L |2 L

aa

University of California, Berkeley

The average power dissipated at z is therefore

Pav |V + |2 = 1 |L |2 2Z0

Power ow is constant (independent of z ) along line (lossless) No power ows if |L | = 1 (open or short) Even though power is constant, voltage and current are not!

When the termination is matched to the line impedance ZL = Z0 , L = 0 and thus the voltage along the line |v(z)| = |V + | is constant. Otherwise

|v(z)| = |V + ||1 + L e2jz | = |V + ||1 + L e2j |

|v()| = |V + ||1 + |L |ej(2) |

The voltage is maximum when the 2 is a equal to + 2k , for any integer k ; in other words, the reection coefcient phase modulo 2

Vmax = |V + |(1 + |L |)

University of California, Berkeley

Similarly, minimum when + k , where k is an integer k=0 Vmin = |V + |(1 |L |) The ratio of the maximum voltage to minimum voltage is an important metric and commonly known as the voltage standing wave ratio, VSWR (Sometimes pronounced viswar), or simply the standing wave ratio SWR 1 + |L | Vmax = V SW R = Vmin 1 |L | It follows that for a shorted or open transmission line the VSWR is innite, since |L | = 1.

SWR Location

Physically the maxima occur when the reected wave adds in phase with the incoming wave, and minima occur when destructive interference takes place. The distance between maxima and minima is in phase, or 2x = , or x = = 2 4 VSWR is important because it can be deduced with a relative measurement. Absolute measurements are difcult at microwave frequencies. By measuring VSWR, we can readily calculate |L |.

By measuring the location of the voltage minima from an unknown load, we can solve for the load reection coefcent phase

min = 2min =

Note that

|v(min )| = |V + ||1 + |L |ejmin |

Thus an unknown impedance can be characterized at microwave frequencies by measuring VSWR and min and computing the load reection coefcient. This was an important measurement technique that has been largely supplanted by a modern network analyzer with built-in digital calibration and correction.

University of California, Berkeley

VSWR Example

Consider a transmission line terminated in a load impedance ZL = 2Z0 . The reection coefcient at the load is purely real

21 1 zL 1 = = L = zL + 1 2+1 3

Since 1 + |L | = 4/3 and 1 |L | = 2/3, the VSWR is equal to 2. Since the load is real, the voltage minima will occur at a distance of /4 from the load

We have seen that the voltage and current along a transmission line are altered by the presence of a load termination. At an arbitrary point z , wish to calculate the input impedadnce, or the ratio of the voltage to current relative to the load impdance ZL

v() Zin () = i()

It shall be convenient to dene an analogous reection coefcient at an arbitrary position along the line

V ej () = + j = L e2j V e

University of California, Berkeley

(z) has a constant magnitude but a periodic phase. From this we may infer that the input impedance of a transmission line is also periodic (relation btwn and Z is one-to-one) 1 + L e2j Zin () = Z0 1 L e2j

The above equation is of paramount important as it expresses the input impedance of a transmission line as a function of position away from the termination.

This equation can be transformed into another more useful form by substituting the value of L

ZL Z 0 L = ZL + Z0 ZL (1 + e2j ) + Z0 (1 e2j ) Zin () = Z0 Z0 (1 + e2j ) + ZL (1 e2j )

Using the common complex expansions for sine and cosine, we have

sin(x) (ejx ejx )/2j tan(x) = = jx cos(x) (e + ejx )/2

The expression for the input impedance is now written in the following form

ZL + jZ0 tan() Zin () = Z0 Z0 + jZL tan()

This is the most important equation of the lecture, known sometimes as the transmission line equation

The shorted transmission line has innite VSWR and L = 1. Thus the minimum voltage Vmin = |V + |(1 |L |) = 0, as expected. At any given point along the transmission line

v(z) = V + (ejz ejz ) = 2jV + sin(z)

V + jz (e + ejz ) i(z) = Z0

or

2V + cos(z) i(z) = Z0

University of California, Berkeley

The impedance at any point along the line takes on a simple form

v() = jZ0 tan() Zin () = i()

This is a special case of the more general transmision line equation with ZL = 0. Note that the impedance is purely imaginary since a shorted lossless transmission line cannot dissipate any power. We have learned, though, that the line stores reactive energy in a distributed fashion.

A plot of the input impedance as a function of z is shown below

Zin (/4)

10 8

Zin (z) Z0

6 4 2

Zin (/2)

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

University of California, Berkeley

Shorted transmission line can have innite input impedance! This is particularly surprising since the load is in effect transformed from a short of ZL = 0 to an innite impedance. A plot of the voltage/current as a function of z is shown below

v(/4) v/v

2

+

1. 5

v(z)

i(z) Z0

i(/4)

0. 5

z/

University of California, Berkeley

/4 inductor < /4 inductive reactance = /4 open (acts like resonant parallel LC circuit) > /4 but < /2 capacitive reactance

jX(z)

10 7. 5 5 2. 5 0 -2.5 -5 -7.5 .25 .5 .75 1.0 1.25

The open transmission line has innite VSWR and L = 1. At any given point along the transmission line

v(z) = V + (ejz + ejz ) = 2V + cos(z)

V + jz (e ejz ) i(z) = Z0

or

The impedance at any point along the line takes on a simple form

v() = jZ0 cot() Zin () = i()

This is a special case of the more general transmision line equation with ZL = . Note that the impedance is purely imaginary since an open lossless transmission line cannot dissipate any power. We have learned, though, that the line stores reactive energy in a distributed fashion.

A plot of the input impedance as a function of z is shown below

Zin (/2)

10 8

Zin (z) Z0

6 4 2

Zin (/4)

-1

-0.8

-0.6

z -0.4

-0.2

University of California, Berkeley

Open transmission line can have zero input impedance! This is particularly surprising since the open load is in effect transformed from an open A plot of the voltage/current as a function of z is shown below

i(/4) v/v +

2

1. 5

v(z)

i(z)Z0 v(/4)

0. 5

z/

/4 capacitor < /4 capacitive reactance = /4 short (acts like resonant series LC circuit) > /4 but < /2 inductive reactance

jX(z)

10 7. 5 5 2. 5 0 -2.5 -5 -7.5 .25 .5 .75 1.0 1.25

/2 Transmission Line

Plug into the general T-line equaiton for any multiple of /2 ZL + jZ0 tan(/2) Zin (m/2) = Z0 Z0 + jZL tan(/2)

m/2 =

2 m 2

= m

/4 Transmission Line

Plug into the general T-line equaiton for any multiple of /4

m/4 =

2 m 4

= m 2

2 Z0 ZL

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