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EECS 117

Lecture 4: Transmission Lines with Time Harmonic Excitation


Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 1/2

Lossless T-Line Termination


Z0 ,

ZL z=0

z =

Okay, lossless line means = j ( = 0), and (Z0 ) = 0 (real characteristic impedance independent of frequency) The voltage/current phasors take the standard form
v(z) = V + ez + V ez V + z V z i(z) = e e Z0 Z0
University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 2/2

Lossless T-Line Termination (cont)


At load ZL =
v(0) i(0)

V + +V V + V Z0

The reection coefcient has the same form


ZL Z 0 L = ZL + Z0

Can therefore write


v(z) = V + ejz + L ejz V + jz i(z) = e L ejz Z0

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 3/2

Power on T-Line (I)


Lets calculate the average power dissipation on the line at point z 1 Pav (z) = [v(z)i(z) ] 2 Or using the general solution
1 |V + |2 Pav (z) = 2 Z0 ejz + L ejz ejz ejz L

The product in the terms can be expanded into four terms 1 + L e2jz e2jz |L |2 L
aa

Notice that a a = 2j(a)


University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 4/2

Power on T-Line (II)


The average power dissipated at z is therefore
Pav |V + |2 = 1 |L |2 2Z0

Power ow is constant (independent of z ) along line (lossless) No power ows if |L | = 1 (open or short) Even though power is constant, voltage and current are not!

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 5/2

Voltage along T-Line


When the termination is matched to the line impedance ZL = Z0 , L = 0 and thus the voltage along the line |v(z)| = |V + | is constant. Otherwise
|v(z)| = |V + ||1 + L e2jz | = |V + ||1 + L e2j |

The voltage magnitude along the line can be written as


|v()| = |V + ||1 + |L |ej(2) |

The voltage is maximum when the 2 is a equal to + 2k , for any integer k ; in other words, the reection coefcient phase modulo 2
Vmax = |V + |(1 + |L |)
University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 6/2

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (SWR)


Similarly, minimum when + k , where k is an integer k=0 Vmin = |V + |(1 |L |) The ratio of the maximum voltage to minimum voltage is an important metric and commonly known as the voltage standing wave ratio, VSWR (Sometimes pronounced viswar), or simply the standing wave ratio SWR 1 + |L | Vmax = V SW R = Vmin 1 |L | It follows that for a shorted or open transmission line the VSWR is innite, since |L | = 1.

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 7/2

SWR Location
Physically the maxima occur when the reected wave adds in phase with the incoming wave, and minima occur when destructive interference takes place. The distance between maxima and minima is in phase, or 2x = , or x = = 2 4 VSWR is important because it can be deduced with a relative measurement. Absolute measurements are difcult at microwave frequencies. By measuring VSWR, we can readily calculate |L |.

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 8/2

VSWR Impedance Measurement


By measuring the location of the voltage minima from an unknown load, we can solve for the load reection coefcent phase
min = 2min =

Note that
|v(min )| = |V + ||1 + |L |ejmin |

Thus an unknown impedance can be characterized at microwave frequencies by measuring VSWR and min and computing the load reection coefcient. This was an important measurement technique that has been largely supplanted by a modern network analyzer with built-in digital calibration and correction.
University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 9/2

VSWR Example
Consider a transmission line terminated in a load impedance ZL = 2Z0 . The reection coefcient at the load is purely real
21 1 zL 1 = = L = zL + 1 2+1 3

Since 1 + |L | = 4/3 and 1 |L | = 2/3, the VSWR is equal to 2. Since the load is real, the voltage minima will occur at a distance of /4 from the load

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 10/2

Impedance of T-Line (I)


We have seen that the voltage and current along a transmission line are altered by the presence of a load termination. At an arbitrary point z , wish to calculate the input impedadnce, or the ratio of the voltage to current relative to the load impdance ZL
v() Zin () = i()

It shall be convenient to dene an analogous reection coefcient at an arbitrary position along the line
V ej () = + j = L e2j V e
University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 11/2

Impedance of T-Line (II)


(z) has a constant magnitude but a periodic phase. From this we may infer that the input impedance of a transmission line is also periodic (relation btwn and Z is one-to-one) 1 + L e2j Zin () = Z0 1 L e2j

The above equation is of paramount important as it expresses the input impedance of a transmission line as a function of position away from the termination.

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 12/2

Impedance of T-Line (III)


This equation can be transformed into another more useful form by substituting the value of L
ZL Z 0 L = ZL + Z0 ZL (1 + e2j ) + Z0 (1 e2j ) Zin () = Z0 Z0 (1 + e2j ) + ZL (1 e2j )

Using the common complex expansions for sine and cosine, we have
sin(x) (ejx ejx )/2j tan(x) = = jx cos(x) (e + ejx )/2

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 13/2

Impedance of T-Line (IV)


The expression for the input impedance is now written in the following form
ZL + jZ0 tan() Zin () = Z0 Z0 + jZL tan()

This is the most important equation of the lecture, known sometimes as the transmission line equation

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 14/2

Shorted Line I/V


The shorted transmission line has innite VSWR and L = 1. Thus the minimum voltage Vmin = |V + |(1 |L |) = 0, as expected. At any given point along the transmission line
v(z) = V + (ejz ejz ) = 2jV + sin(z)

whereas the current is given by


V + jz (e + ejz ) i(z) = Z0

or

2V + cos(z) i(z) = Z0
University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 15/2

Shorted Line Impedance (I)


The impedance at any point along the line takes on a simple form
v() = jZ0 tan() Zin () = i()

This is a special case of the more general transmision line equation with ZL = 0. Note that the impedance is purely imaginary since a shorted lossless transmission line cannot dissipate any power. We have learned, though, that the line stores reactive energy in a distributed fashion.

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 16/2

Shorted Line Impedance (II)


A plot of the input impedance as a function of z is shown below
Zin (/4)
10 8

Zin (z) Z0

6 4 2

Zin (/2)

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

The tangent function takes on innite values when approaches /2 modulo 2


University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 17/2

Shorted Line Impedance (III)


Shorted transmission line can have innite input impedance! This is particularly surprising since the load is in effect transformed from a short of ZL = 0 to an innite impedance. A plot of the voltage/current as a function of z is shown below
v(/4) v/v
2
+

1. 5

v(z)

i(z) Z0

i(/4)

0. 5

0 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0

z/
University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 18/2

Shorted Line Reactance


/4 inductor < /4 inductive reactance = /4 open (acts like resonant parallel LC circuit) > /4 but < /2 capacitive reactance
jX(z)
10 7. 5 5 2. 5 0 -2.5 -5 -7.5 .25 .5 .75 1.0 1.25

And the process repeats ...

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 19/2

Open Line I/V


The open transmission line has innite VSWR and L = 1. At any given point along the transmission line
v(z) = V + (ejz + ejz ) = 2V + cos(z)

whereas the current is given by


V + jz (e ejz ) i(z) = Z0

or

2jV + i(z) = sin(z) Z0

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 20/2

Open Line Impedance (I)


The impedance at any point along the line takes on a simple form
v() = jZ0 cot() Zin () = i()

This is a special case of the more general transmision line equation with ZL = . Note that the impedance is purely imaginary since an open lossless transmission line cannot dissipate any power. We have learned, though, that the line stores reactive energy in a distributed fashion.

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 21/2

Open Line Impedance (II)


A plot of the input impedance as a function of z is shown below
Zin (/2)
10 8

Zin (z) Z0

6 4 2

Zin (/4)

-1

-0.8

-0.6

z -0.4

-0.2

The cotangent function takes on zero values when approaches /2 modulo 2


University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 22/2

Open Line Impedance (III)


Open transmission line can have zero input impedance! This is particularly surprising since the open load is in effect transformed from an open A plot of the voltage/current as a function of z is shown below
i(/4) v/v +
2

1. 5

v(z)

i(z)Z0 v(/4)

0. 5

0 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0

z/

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 23/2

Open Line Reactance


/4 capacitor < /4 capacitive reactance = /4 short (acts like resonant series LC circuit) > /4 but < /2 inductive reactance
jX(z)
10 7. 5 5 2. 5 0 -2.5 -5 -7.5 .25 .5 .75 1.0 1.25

And the process repeats ...

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 24/2

/2 Transmission Line
Plug into the general T-line equaiton for any multiple of /2 ZL + jZ0 tan(/2) Zin (m/2) = Z0 Z0 + jZL tan(/2)
m/2 =
2 m 2

= m

tan m = 0 if m Z Zin (m/2) = Z0 ZL = ZL Z0

Impedance does not change ... its periodic about /2 (not )

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 25/2

/4 Transmission Line
Plug into the general T-line equaiton for any multiple of /4
m/4 =
2 m 4

= m 2
2 Z0 ZL

tan m = if m is an odd integer 2 Zin (m/4) =

/4 line transforms or inverts the impedance of the load

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 117 Lecture 4 p. 26/2