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Prof. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley

Consider a point charge q sitting a distance d above a conductive ground plane. Wed like to nd the electric eld E everywhere Clearly E = 0 for z < 0 due to the conductor. Also, since = 0 everywhere except for point (0, 0, d). Thus we can say that satises Laplaces equation for all points z > 0 except (0, 0, d) where the point charge lives

(0, 0, d) z>0 d E=0 q E = Ez z

Method of Images

Consider now a problem we have met before. If we have two charges of equal and opposite magnitude at z = d, then the solution is trivial. How is this problem related? Notice that for this new problem the electric eld is normal to the xy plane at z = 0

q(x + y d) x y z q(x + y + d) x y z + + E(z = 0) = 2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2 2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2 4 (x 4 (x

q2d z E(z = 0) = 4 (x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

University of California, Berkeley

Now consider placing a conductive plane at z = 0. Do the elds need to change? The boundary condition is already satised by this eld conguration. In other words, this problem satises the same boundary conditions as our original problem This negative charge is the image charge that actually solves our original problem! Recall that the solution of Poissons equation is uniquely determined by the boundary conditions. Since this image problem satises the problem for z > 0 and also the boundary conditions, its the solution! Of course its only the solution for points z > 0 since we know that E = 0 for z < 0

University of California, Berkeley

E Field Plots

+

_

The vector eld plot for a dipole distribution is shown on the left. The upper half eld plot is also the solution to the monopole charge placed near a ground plane.

For a conductive boundary, the normal component of D is equal to the surface charge density

2qd s (x, y, 0) = E(z = 0) = z 4(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

As expected, there is a negative charge density induced on the surface of the plane

2qd + y 2 + d2 )3/2

s (x, 0, 0) = 2qd 4(x2 + d2 )3/2

s (x, y, 0) =

4(x2

-4

-2

Forces on Dielectrics

Due to polarization, a dielectric will feel a force when in the presence of a eld We can use the principle of virtual work to calculate how much work it takes to slightly displace a dielectric in a eld. This work must go into the energy of the eld Example: Consider the force on a dielectric insulator placed part-way into a parallel plate capacitor. Lets assume that the plates of the capacitor are charged to a voltage difference of V0

d1

++++++++++++++++++++++++

0

_____________________

Energy Calculation

The energy stored in the capacitor volume is (ignoring fringing elds)

1 1 2 C1 V0 + C0 V02 E = 2 2 1 wd1 2 1 w( d1 ) 0 2 = V0 + V0 2 t 2 t

1 w(d1 + d) 2 1 w( d1 d) 0 2 V0 + V0 E = 2 t 2 t

The energy of the system has been increased due to the additional amount of material polarization. Does this energy come from us pushing or the battery?

University of California, Berkeley

The energy difference between the nal and initial state is simply

wdV02 E = E E = ( 2t

0)

If the motion is incremental, we can say that E = dF The force is therefore given by

2 2 F = V0 ( 2t 1 2 0 ) = wtE0 ( 2

0)

Electrons in Metals

Electrons are the charge carriers in most metals. They are free to move unimpeded in the crystal at low temperatures. At high temperature the random vibration (phonons) of the positive ion lattice can scatter electrons. Likewise, the presence of impurities can also scatter electrons. At thermal equilibrium with no external elds, therefore, the electrons are in motion with random direction and speed. The net velocity of the ensemble of electrons is zero. The thermal velocity is quite high ( 1 mv 2 = 2 vth 107 cm/s

kT 2 )

with

Drift Velocity

When a carrier in a conductor is accelerated by an external eld, it initially travels in the direction of the eld. But after scattering with an impurity or phonon, the electrons new trajectory is random and independent of the eld Lets suppose that the average time between collisions is tc . Then in this period the momentum of electrons is increased by qE due to the external eld, mvd /tc = qE . The average velocity of carriers increases proportional to the eld E qtc vd = E = E m The constant is the mobility and the drift velocity vd is so named because most of the motion is still random as vd vth

University of California, Berkeley

Electron Drift

v=

1 N

i

vi = 0

v=

1 N

vi xv d

i

In the left gure, electrons are moving with random velocity (net motion is zero). On the right gure, electrons are moving with random velocity plus a drift component to the right (drift has been exaggerated).

University of California, Berkeley

Denition of Current

Current is dened as the amount of charge crossing a particular cross sectional area per unit time. Consider a density of N carriers carrying a charge q and moving with drift velocity vd . How many cross a perpendicular surface A? In a time t, carriers move a distance of vd t. So any carriers in the volume Avd t will cross the surface if they are all moving towards it. The current is therefore

Avd tN q = vd N qA I= t

J = N qvd

University of California, Berkeley

Conductivity

Since we found that the velocity is proportional to the eld, it follows that J is also proportional

J = N qvd = N qE

The constant = qN is known as the conductivity of the material. It varies over several orders of magnitude for conductors and dielectrics This is in fact a statement of Ohms law V = RI in microscopic form. Often we work with the resistivity of the material = 1 Since is very easy to measure, we can indirectly calculate tc for a material. For a good conductor 107 S/m.

University of California, Berkeley

Ohms Law

We assert that the ratio between the voltage and current in a conductor is always constant. We see this stems from J = E

I=

A

J dS =

A

E dS

V =

C

Ed

V = R= I Ed A E dS

C

Resistance

The integrals over E depend only on the geometry of the problem and scale with voltage Equivalently, if we increase V , the ux lines for E remain the same but of a higher magnitude. Thus the current J is the same and only I increases by the same factor that V increases. Example: Block of conductor. The electric eld will be shown to be everywhere constant and parallel to the conductor

V = E0 I = AE0

University of California, Berkeley

I J = E0 = A V R= = I A

Charge Conservation

One of the fundamental facts of nature is charge conservation. This has been experimentally observed and veried in countless experiments. Therefore if we look at a volume bounded by surface S , if there is net current leaving this volume, it must be accompanied by a charge pile-up in the region of opposite polarity

J dS = t S

dV

V

Current Continuity

We can transform this simple observation by employing the Divergence Theorem

J dS =

S V

JdV

JdV t dV =

V V

J+ t

dV = 0

=0 J+ t

University of California, Berkeley

Excess Charge

Since J = E, we have

E + =0 t

E+ =0 t

It is experimentally observed that Gauss law is satised in all reference frames of constant velocity so E =

+ =0 t

If we assume that is a function of time only, the equation d + =0 dt Let = / and solve the above equation

= 0 e

t

Thus the charge density in a conductor decays exponentially to zero with a rate determined by the time constant = / , or the relaxation time of the material Earlier we deduced that conductors have zero volume charge density under electrostatic conditions. Now we can estimate the time it takes to reach this equilibrium

University of California, Berkeley

In fact, a good conductor like copper has 108 S/m Its hard to measure the dielectric constant of a good conductor since the effect is masked by the conductive response. For 0 , we can estimate the relaxation time 10 1012 s 1019 s 108 This is an extremely short period of time! How do electrons move so fast ? Note this result is independent of the size of the conductor. Answer: They dont, only a slight displacement in the charge distribution can balance the net charge and thus transfer it to the border region.

University of California, Berkeley

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