Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

Quantum Mechanics

Where did it come form? It may look like pulling a rabbit out of a hat . . .but it is not.

Quantum mechanics was developed to understand the properties of atoms and molecules. In quantum mechanics physicists use the wave properties of matter to understand atoms. The main equation is called the Schrdinger equation 2 2 d y 2 Scientists understood waves ( 2 = y ( x) ). dx 2 x y( x) = A sin( )

Scientists understood particles could behave like waves ( = h/p). Schrdinger combined these two equations to develop the Schrdinger equation.

To understand QM, you need to understand standing waves.

STANDING WAVES Plucking a guitar string is an example of a standing wave. Because the ends of the string are fixed, only certain wavelengths are allowed. The longest wavelength occurs when the string is plucked in the middle. In this case the wavelength is twice the length of the string. This is illustrated in the following slides.

Standing wave fixed at 0 and 10; maximum amplitude is 0.2. Wavelength = = 2L = 20


0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

(click through these slides at high speed for a simulation of a plucked stretched string.)

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

0.2 0.15 0.1 Amplitude 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 Length 0 2 4 6 8 10

OTHER POSSIBLE STANDING WAVES


___ n=3

2L 3

Nodes
n=2

2L =L 2

n=1 0

=
L

2L = 2L 1
The greater the number of nodes the greater the frequency
Reger

Functions that are solutions to the wave equation are given the Greek letter (psi). Classically, ||2 intensity for a wave Quantum mechanically, ||2 = probability particle at that location

dx = 1

Example: A stretched string of length L (like a guitar string) is analogous to a particle (say an electron) constrained to travel back and forth along a line of length L (called a 1 dimensional box).

Results for 1 dimensional particle in a box E ||2

Quantum Mechanics

any E

Classical

Some observations or thoughts: The results of the Schrdinger equation are not part of our everyday experience and not at all obvious or easy to understand. Its usefulness is determined by testing it on atoms and molecules. It turns out to work well and is an extremely useful model.