Sie sind auf Seite 1von 46

A LIFE IN YOUR HANDS

If a child lives with criticism, He learns to condemn, If a child lives with hostility, He learns to fight, If a child lives with ridicule, He learns to be shy, If a child lives with shame, He learns to feel guilty, If a child lives with tolerance, He learns to be patient, If a child lives with encouragement, He learns confidence, If a child lives with praise, He learns-to appreciate, If a child lives with fairness, He learns justice, If a child lives with security, He learns to have faith, If a child lives with approval, He learns to like himself, If a child lives with a c c e p t a n c e and friendship, He learns to find love in the world.
- Dor othy Law Holte

WHAT DO `YOUR' CHILDREN LIVE WITH?

OUR VISION AND MISSIONS.... Resource centre for Educational Counseling, formerly known as Resource Centre for Learning disability, established at Madurai Institute of Social Sciences, has a primary purpose of disseminating the knowledge on Learning Difficulties to school teachers in the Southern part of Tamil Nadu, South India. Our observation of the curriculum of the Teacher training courses available in various colleges regular and distance education - had shown that they do not have adequate scope far training our teachers in the specific areas of Learning disability. It has been erroneously believed that the course on learning difficulty should be given to special educators and not to the teachers meant for normal school. Our observation clearly indicates that the children in normal school do have learning problems and the teachers are not able to guide them. These field realities prompted us to establish a Resource Centre for Educational Counseling. Our Vision is: Enriching human potential through Establishing Joy in Learning.

Our Missions are: To collect relevant literature, testing materials in the area of Learning Disability and maintain a resource centre; To offer short courses for interested teachers and train them on identification of learning differences among their wards and help these teachers to imbibe the skills of handling children with learning problems; To translate the literature in local language and run specific courses for rural teachers: To impress upon the Educational authorities to understand the status of children with learning problems and take steps in reviewing the pattern of evaluation; To develop a team of volunteer teachers who are willing to offer their services to train other teachers and to invite experts from within and outside India to share their experiences among the teachers; To effectively use the electronic media like Audio recorders, Video films and computer software to help the children with learning problems;

The present background reading and testing materials are compiled from available literature such as the work of Jan Poustie et al, workshop sheets provided by Rick Pollack, Pauline Neasmith, Chris Kemp, Julie and Alpha & Omega Centre. The Centre acknowledges their contribution and express its gratitude for their support. October, 2009 Dr. P.N.Narayana Raja

1. LEARNING
What learning is.

Websters Dictionary defines learning as the act or experience of one that learns; knowledge of skill acquired by instruction or study; modification of a behavioral tendency by experience." Learning is often defined as a change in behavior (Birkenholz, 1999), which is demonstrated by people implementing knowledge, skills, or practices derived from education.

Basically, from an educators perspective, learning involves helping people along the learning process, and learning includes all of the things that we do to make it happen. As an end result, we know that learning occurs when people take newfound information and incorporate it into their life. For example, if we are working with an audience that lacks basic financial management skills for budgeting, one of our objectives is to see people gain knowledge in this area and to actually implement the new skills hopefully, over a long period of time. 1.1.THEORIES OF LEARNING 1.1.1. Classical Conditioning. Classical Conditioning is an important type of learning that was actually discovered accidentally by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who discovered this phenomenon while doing research on digestion. His research was aimed at better understanding the digestive patterns in dogs. During his experiments, he would put meat powder in the mouths of dogs that had tubes inserted into various organs to measure bodily responses. What he discovered was that the dogs began to salivate before the meat powder was presented to them. Then, the dogs began to salivate as soon as the person feeding them would enter the room. He soon began to gain interest in this phenomenon and abandoned his digestion research in favour of his now famous Classical Conditioning study. Basically, the findings support the idea that we develop responses to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring. When we touch a hot stove, our reflex pulls our hand back. It does this instinctually, no learning involved. It is merely a survival instinct. But why now do some people, after getting burned, pull their hands back even when the stove is not turned on? Pavlov discovered that we make associations which cause us to generalize our response to one stimuli onto a neutral stimuli it is paired with. In other words, hot burner = ouch (Used to express sudden pain or displeasure), stove = burner, therefore, stove = ouch. Pavlov began pairing a bell sound with the meat powder and found that even when the meat powder was not presented, the dog would eventually begin to salivate after hearing the bell. Since the meat powder naturally results in salivation, these two

variables are called the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and the unconditioned response (UCR), respectively. The bell and salivation are not naturally occurring; the dog was conditioned to respond to the bell. Therefore, the bell is considered the conditioned stimulus (CS), and the salivation to the bell, the conditioned response (CR). Many of our behaviors today are shaped by the pairing of stimuli. Have you ever noticed that certain stimuli, such as the smell of a perfume, a certain song, a specific day of the year, specific place results in fairly intense emotions? It's not that the smell or the song or the place are the cause of the emotion, but rather what that smell or song or the place that has been paired with...perhaps an ex-boyfriend or exgirlfriend, the death of a loved one, or maybe the day you met your husband or wife. We make these associations all the time and often dont realize the power that these connections or pairings have on us. But, in fact, we have been classically conditioned. 1.1.2. Operant Conditioning. Another type of learning, very similar to that discussed above, is called Operant Conditioning. The term "Operant" refers to how an organism operates on the environment, and hence, operant conditioning comes from how we respond to what is presented to us in our environment. It can be thought of as learning due to the natural consequences of our actions. The classic study of Operant Conditioning involved a cat who was placed in a box with only one way out; a specific area of the box had to be pressed in order for the door to open. The cat initially tries to get out of the box because freedom is reinforcing. In its attempt to escape, the area of the box is triggered and the door opens. The cat is now free. Once placed in the box again, the cat will naturally try to remember what it did to escape the previous time and will once again find the area to press. The more the cat is placed back in the box, the quicker it will press that area for its freedom. It has learned, through natural consequences, how to gain the reinforcing freedom. We learn this way every day in our lives. Imagine the last time you made a mistake; you most likely remember that mistake and do things differently when the situation comes up again. In that sense, youve learned to act differently based on the natural consequences of your previous actions. The same holds true for positive actions. If something you did results in a positive outcome, you are likely to do that same activity again. 1.1.2.1. Reinforcement The term reinforce means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to any stimulus which strengthens or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your dog to sit on command, you may give him a treat every

time he sits for you. The dog will eventually come to understand that sitting when told to will result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it and will result in him sitting when instructed to do so. This is a simple description of a reinforcer (Skinner, 1938), the treat, which increases the response, sitting. We all apply reinforcers everyday, most of the time without even realizing we are doing it. You may tell your child "good job" after he or she cleans their room; perhaps you tell your partner how good he or she look when they dress up; or maybe you got a promotion at work after doing a great job on a project. All of these things increase the probability that the same response will be repeated. There are two types of reinforcement: positive and negative 1.1.2.1.1 Positive Reinforcement. The examples above describe what is referred to as positive reinforcement. Think of it as adding something in order to increase a response. For example, adding a treat will increase the response of sitting; adding praise will increase the chances of your child cleaning his or her room. The most common types of positive reinforcement are praise and rewards. 1.1.2.1.1.Negative Reinforcement. Think of negative reinforcement as taking something negative away in order to increase a response. Loud buzz in some cars when ignition key is turned on; driver must put on safety belt in order to eliminate irritating buzz. Here the buzz is a negative reinforcer for putting on the seat-belt. Another example, Rushing home in the winter to get out of the cold or Fanning oneself to escape from the heat. Cold weather as negative reinforcer for walking home (the colder the faster you walk), and heat is a negative reinforcer for fanning. Cleaning the house to get rid of disgusting mess or cleaning the house to get rid of your mother's nagging. Here, Nagging/Mess as negative reinforcer to cleaning. In some books you may also see punishment as reinforcer. Punishment refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior. The most common example of this is disciplining (e.g. spanking) a child for misbehaving. The reason we do this is because the child begins to associate being punished with the negative behavior. The punishment is not liked and therefore to avoid it, he or she will stop behaving in that manner. Research has found positive reinforcement is the most powerful of any of these. Adding a positive to increase a response not only works better, but allows both parties to focus on the positive aspects of the situation. Punishment, when applied immediately following the negative behavior can be effective. Punishment can also invoke other negative responses such as anger and resentment and hence it cannot be taken as a good reinforcer.

1.1.3. Social Learning Theory: The social learning theory of Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states: "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action". Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. The component processes underlying observational learning are: (1) Attention, including modeled events and observer characteristics, (2) Retention, (3) Motor Reproduction, and (4) Motivation. The most common examples of social learning situations are television commercials. Commercials suggest that drinking a certain beverage or using a particular hair shampoo will make us popular and win the admiration of attractive people. Depending upon the component processes involved (such as attention or motivation), we may model the behavior shown in the commercial and buy the product being advertised.

2. LEARNING STYLES:
Learning styles are simply different approaches or ways of learning. 2.1. Types of learning styles: 2.1.1.Visual Learners: learn through seeing... .

These learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information. 2.1.2 Auditory Learners: learn through listening... They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.

2.1.3. Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners: learn through , moving, doing and touching... Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration. 2.2. BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS OF LEARNING STYLE

Visual Features organized Neat and orderly Observant Good speller Memorizes by picture

Auditory

Kinesthetic

Easily organized Move slips when reading Speaks pattern in a

Respond rewards

to

physical

Physically oriented

rhythmic Learns by doing Touches people

Likes music Memorizes procedure by

steps, Memorizes by walking Responds physically

Would rather read than Sequence be read to Spelling

Accurate, sees words Spells with a phonetic Counts out letters with and can spell them approach, spells with body movements and rhythmic movements checks with internal feelings Reading Strong speed successful has Attacks unknown words, Likes plot oriented books, enjoys reading aloud, reflects action of the story often slow because of sub- with body movement vocalizing

Writing Having it look okay is Having it look Okay is Thick pressured hand important important writing not as good as the others

2.3. SUGGESTED AIDS FOR LEARNING STYLES Use these aids to sharpen your students particular dominant learning modality or to strengthen a weaker one. Try to be aware of the different activities they do daily to help all three of your students modalities.

Visual use guided imagery form pictures in your mind take notes see parts of words use "cue" words use notebooks use color codes use study cards use photographic pictures watch T V watch filmstrips watch movies use charts, graphs u s e m a p s demonstrate draw /use drawings use exhibits watch lips move in front of a mirror use mnemonics (acronyms, visual chains, mind maps, acrostics, hook-ups),

Auditory use tapes watch TV listen lo music speak/listen to speakers m a k e u p rhymes/poems read aloud talk to yourself repeat things orally use rhythmic sounds h a v e d i s c u s s i o n s listen carefully use oral directions sound out words use theater say words in syllables use mnemonics (word links, rhymes, poems, lyrics), Computers Voice

Kinesthetic pace /walk as you study physically "do it" practice by repeated motion breathe slowly role play exercise d an ce write write on surfaces with finger Take notes associate feelings with concept/information write lists repeatedly stretch/move in chair watch lips move in front of a mirror use mnemonics (word links, rhymes, poems, lyrics),

3. LEARNING DISABILITY
3.1. Meaning Of Learning Disability: Unlike other disabilities, such as paralysis or blindness, a learning disability, (LD) is a hidden handicap. A learning disability doesn't disfigure or leave visible signs that would invite others to be understanding or offer support. A LEARNING DISABILITY IS A LIFELONG DISORDER WHICH AFFECTS THE MANNER IN INDIVIDUALS - WITH NORMAL OR ABOVE AVERAGE INTELLIGENCE - SELECT, RETAIN, AND EXPRESS INFORMATION WHICH MAY BECOME SCRAMBLED AS IT TRAVELS BETWEEN THE SENSES AND BRAIN. LD is a disorder that affects people's ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain. These limitations can show up in many ways such as specific difficulties with spoken and written language, coordination, self-control, or attention. Such difficulties extend to schoolwork and can impede learning to read or write, or to do math. Learning disabilities can be lifelong conditions that, in some cases, affect many parts of a person's life: school or work, daily routines, family life, and sometimes even friendships. In some people, many overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent. Other people may have a single, isolated learning problem that has little impact on other areas of their lives. It has been found that number of conditions is present in individuals who have a 'Specific Learning Difficulty profile'. It is believed by many that these conditions are related to each other primarily through the area of language. Persons affected by Specific Learning Difficulty are likely to have a combination of language based difficulties which is termed as Dysphasia. These difficulties can be apparent in any or all of the areas of written, spoken, heard languages. The appropriate use of language, information processing, understanding and acquiring the areas of language can all be affected. Children with Specific Learning Difficulty have all sorts of barriers from adequately accessing each small aspect of language and have no control over these barriers but were born with them. They can be helped, taught to overcome the barriers to a greater or lesser degree. Theoretician and practioners use various names to identify each of the conditions within the Specific Learning Difficulty profile and each condition has its own set of characteristics by which it can be recognized. Some of the conditions are:

3.1.1.DYSLEXIA: It is a "complex neurological condition which is constitutional in origin. The symptoms may affect many areas of learning and function, and may be described as a specific difficulty in reading, spelling and written language. One or more of these areas may be affected. Numeracy, notational skills (music), motor function and organizational skills may also be involved. However, it is particularly related to mastering written language, although oral language may be affected to some degree". It is a developmental disability in reading or spelling, generally becoming evident in early schooling. To a dyslexic, letters and words may appear reversed, e.g., d seen as b or was seen as saw. Many dyslexics never learn to read or write effectively, although they tend to show above average intelligence in other areas. With the aid of computerized brain scans such as positron emission tomography (PET), recent studies have offered strong evidence that dyslexia is located in the brain. Damage to the brain can cause a reading disability similar to dyslexia, known as acquired dyslexia or alexia. 3.1.2.DYSPHASIA: It is a general term relating to a loss of language ability. Some children will have a delay in language but for others with a language disorder the difficulty is more complex. 3.1.3.DYSPRAXIA: It is a motor learning difficulty which may or may not be associated with Specific Learning Difficulty - Dyslexia - and quite often is. Some authors regard this as "a motor form of Dyslexia. 3.1.4.DYSCALCULIA: Impairment of the ability to solve mathematical problems, usually resulting from brain dysfunction. Combinations of different conditions Dyspraxia based handwriting difficulties + Dyscalculia (calculation difficulties) Dyspraxia based handwriting difficulties + Dyslexia Undifferentiated Attention Deficit Disorder + Dyspraxia + Dyscalculia Low-level Speech/Language Impairment + Dyspraxia + Dyscalculia

While dealing with the children, the teachers may find combinations of different conditions that are shown above and hence what is important is that the teacher shall learn to identify all the different conditions within the Specific Learning Difficulty Profile and help the individuals within it to overcome their difficulties. In another way learning difficulty can be seen just describing various symptoms or disorderliness. 3.2. TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES: "Learning disability" is not a diagnosis in the same sense as "chickenpox" or "mumps." Chickenpox and mumps imply a single, known cause with a predictable

set of symptoms. Rather, LD is a broad term that covers a pool of possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Partly because learning disabilities can show up in so many forms, it is difficult to diagnose or to pinpoint the causes. And no one knows of a pill or remedy that will cure them. Not all learning problems are necessarily learning disabilities. Many children are simply slower in developing certain skills. Because children show natural differences in their rate of development, sometimes what seems to be a learning disability may simply be a delay in maturation. To be diagnosed as a learning disability, specific criteria must be met. Learning problems due to biological factors manifest themselves right from early development of the child. Such children can be broadly grouped into 4 categories: Group 1: Problem with general abilities. Such children have low intellectual abilities compared to average children and are known as slow learners. Group 2: Problem with attention. These children are restless and some are hyperkinetic. They have Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Group 3: Problems with visual and auditory perceptions. Some of these children may read or write 'b' as 'd'. They also manifest soft neurological signs such as difficulty in motor coordination or clumsy behaviour. Group 4: These children are quite intelligent but have specific problems in spelling or writing or mathematics. Children of groups 3 & 4 are called dyslexics. Like the adults, children too have some basic needs which are necessary for their sound, overall development. It is therefore important to understand children and to provide them with a favourable environment at school and home as well as give them relevant, need-based education in order to make them grow into productive adults. Before you read further take a piece of paper and write down the needs of children that you are aware of. Once you have done that, read on and see for yourself what you have missed out: Physical needs: food, clothing, shelter, protection from pain and sickness, time to play. Psychological needs: acceptance as an individual, emotional satisfaction, reassurance, warmth, love and affection.

Educational needs: warm and understanding atmosphere at school, encouragement for new learning and achievement, education to meet life's challenges. Deprivation can seriously affect the students physical, emotional, social and mental development. This leads to certain socio-emotional problems, which can be classified into two broad categories: emotional problems and conduct problems. Vikram keeps failing in his school exams. His class work is of poor quality and he cannot understand anything explained to him unless simple, concrete examples are given to him from everyday life situations. He also finds it difficult to understand things, which are outside his range of immediate experience. This means that he will not be ready for formal learning (reading, writing and arithmetic) at the same age as the other children of his class. He is probably at a lower intellectual level than his classmates. However, he is able to take care of his personal and social needs under guidance and is also capable of learning at the concrete level. So, he probably falls in the category of the mentally retarded, although his retardation does not seem to be very severe. He belongs Learning disabilities can be divided into three broad categories: Developmental speech and language disorders Academic skills disorders "Other," a catch-all that includes certain coordination disorders and learning handicaps not covered by the other terms Each of these categories includes a number of more specific disorders. 2.1.Developmental Speech and Lanquaqe Disorders Speech and language problems are often the earliest indicators of a learning disability. People with developmental speech and language disorders have difficulty producing speech sounds, using spoken language to communicate, or understanding what other people say. Depending on the problem, the specific diagnosis may be: Developmental articulation disorder Developmental expressive language disorder Developmental receptive language disorder p I.Develo mentalArticulation Disorder

2.

1.

Children with this disorder may have trouble controlling their rate of speech. Or they may lag behind playmates in learning to make speech sounds. For example, Sunder at age 6 still said "wabbit" instead of "rabbit" and "thwim" for "swim." Developmental articulation disorders are common. They appear in at least 10

percent of children, younger than age 8. Fortunately, articulation disorders can often be outgrown or successfully treated with speech therapy. 2.1.2.Developmental Expressive Language Disorder.Some children with language impairments have problems expressing themselves in speech. Their disorder is called, therefore, a developmental expressive language disorder. Suguna, who often calls objects by the wrong names, has an expressive language disorder. Of course, an expressive language disorder can take other forms. A 4-year-old who speaks only in two-word phrases and a 6-year-old who can't answer simple questions also have an expressive language disability. 2.1.3. Developmental Receptive Language Disorder Some people have trouble understanding certain aspects of speech. It is as if their brains are set to a different frequency and the reception is poor. There is the toddler who doesn't respond to his name, a preschooler who hands you a bell when you asked for a ball, or the worker who consistently can't follow simple directions. Their hearing is fine, but they can't make sense of certain sounds, words, or sentences they hear. They may even seem inattentive. These people have a receptive language disorder. Because using and understanding speech are strongly related, many people with receptive language disorders also have an expressive language disability. Of course, in preschoolers, some misuse of sounds, words, or grammar is a normal part of learning to speak. It's only when these problems persist that there is any cause for concern. 2.2. Academic Skills Disorders Students with academic skills disorders are often years behind their classmates in developing reading, writing, or arithmetic skills. The diagnoses in this category include: Developmental reading disorder Developmental writing disorder Developmental arithmetic disorder 2.2.1. Developmental Reading Disorder

This type of disorder, also known as dyslexia, is quite widespread. In fact, reading disabilities affect 2 to 8 percent of elementary school children. When you think of what is involved in the "three R's" i.e. reading, 'writing, and 'arithmetic, it's astounding that most of us do learn them. Consider that to read, you must simultaneously: Understand words and grammar

Build ideas and images Compare new ideas to what you already know ap Store ideas in memory ed am Such mental juggling requires a rich, intact network of nerve cells that connect the Alm brain's centers of vision, language, and memory. I =Ed

A person can have problems in any of the tasks involved in reading. However, scientists found that a significant number of people with dyslexia share an inability to distinguish or separate the sounds in spoken words. Niranjana, for example, can't identify the word "bat" by sounding out the individual letters, b-a-t. Other children with dyslexia may have trouble with rhyming games, such as rhyming "cat" with "bat." Yet scientists have found these skills fundamental to learning to read. Fortunately, remedial reading specialists have developed techniques that can help many children with dyslexia acquire these skills. However, there is more to reading than recognizing words. If the brain is unable to form images or relate new ideas to those stored in memory, the reader can't understand or remember the new concepts. So other types of reading disabilities can appear in the upper grades when the focus of reading shifts from word identification to comprehension. 2.2.2.Developmental Writing Disorder Writing, too, involves several brain areas and functions. The brain networks for vocabulary, grammar, hand movement, and memory must all be in good working order. So a developmental writing disorder may result from problems in any of these areas. For example, Niranjana, who was unable to distinguish the sequence of sounds in a word, had problems with spelling. A child with a writing disability, particularly an expressive language disorder, might be unable to compose complete, grammatical sentences. 2.2.3.Developmental Arithmetic Disorder If you doubt that arithmetic is a complex process, think of the steps you take to solve this simple problem: 25 divided by 3 equals? Arithmetic involves recognizing numbers and symbols, memorizing facts such as the multiplication table, aligning numbers, and understanding abstract concepts like

place value and fractions. Any of these may be difficult for children with developmental arithmetic disorders. Problems with numbers or basic concepts are likely to show up early. Disabilities that appear in the later grades are more often tied to problems in reasoning. Many aspects of speaking, listening, reading, writing, and arithmetic overlap and build on the same brain capabilities. So it's not surprising that people can be diagnosed as having more than one area of learning disability. For example, the ability to understand language underlies learning to speak. Therefore, any disorder that hinders the ability to understand language will also interfere with the development of speech, which in turn hinders learning to read and write. A single gap in the brain's operation can disrupt many types of activity. 2.3. "Other" Learning Disabilities The additional categories of LDs are such as "motor skills disorders" and "specific developmental disorders not otherwise specified." These diagnoses include delays in acquiring language, academic, and motor skills that can affect the ability to learn, but do not meet the criteria for a specific learning disability. Also included are coordination disorders that can lead to poor penmanship, as well as certain spelling and memory disorders. 2.4. Attention Disorders Some of the children have a type of disorder that leaves them unable to focus their attention. Some children and adults who have attention disorders appear to daydream excessively. And once you get their attention, they're often easily distracted. Sunder, for example, tends to mentally drift off into a world of his own. Children like Sunder may have a number of learning difficulties. If, like Sunder, they are quiet and don't cause problems, their problems may go unnoticed. They may be passed along from grade to grade, without getting the special assistance they need. In a large proportion of affected children--mostly boys--the attention deficit s accompanied by hyperactivity. Niran is an example of a person with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder--ADHD. They act impulsively, running into traffic or toppling desks. Like young Niran, who jumped on the sofa to exhaustion, -iyperactive children can't sit still. They blurt out answers and interrupt. In games, -hey can't wait their turn. These children's problems are usually hard to miss. Because of their constant motion and explosive energy, hyperactive children often oet into trouble with parents, teachers, and peers. By adolescence, physical hyperactivity usually subsides into fidgeting and -estlessness. But the problems with attention and concentration often continue

-ito adulthood. At work, adults with ADHD often have trouble organizing tasks or zompleting their work. They don't seem to listen to or follow directions. Their work ay be messy and appear careless. Attention disorders, with or without hyperactivity, are not considered earning disabilities in themselves. However, because attention problems can seriously interfere with school performance, they often accompany academic skills sorders. 3. Causes of Learning Disabilities Understandably, one of the first questions parents ask when they learn their child has a learning disorder is "Why? What went wrong?" Mental health professionals stress that since no one knows what causes learning disabilities, it doesn't help parents to look backward to search for possible reasons. There are too many possibilities to pin down the cause of the disability with certainty. It is far more important for the family to move forward in finding ways to get the fight help. Scientists, however, do need to study causes in an effort to identify ways to prevent learning disabilities. Once, scientists thought that all learning disabilities were caused by a single neurological problem. But recent research has helped us see that the causes are more diverse and complex. New evidence seems to show that most learning disabilities do not stem from a single, specific area of the brain, but from difficulties in bringing together information from various brain regions. Today, a leading theory is that learning disabilities stem from subtle disturbances in brain structures and functions. Some scientists believe that, in many cases, the disturbance begins Wore birth. 3.1. Errors in Fetal Brain Development Throughout pregnancy, the fetal brain develops from a few all-purpose cells into a complex organ made of billions of specialized, interconnected nerve cells called neurons. During this amazing evolution, things can go wrong that may alter how the neurons form or interconnect. In the early stages of pregnancy, the brain stem forms. It controls basic life functions such as breathing and digestion. Later, a deep ridge divides the cerebrum, the thinking part of the brain, into two halves, a right and left hemisphere. Finally, the areas involved with processing sight, sound, and other

senses develop, as well as the areas associated with attention, thinking, and emotion. As new cells form, they move into place to create various brain structures. Nerve cells rapidly grow to form networks with other parts of the brain. These networks are what allow information to be shared among various regions of the brain. Throughout pregnancy, this brain development is vulnerable to disruptions. If the disruption occurs early, the fetus may die, or the infant may be born with widespread disabilities and possibly mental retardation. If the disruption occurs later, when the cells are becoming specialized and moving into place, it may leave errors in the cell makeup, location, or connections. Some scientists believe that these errors may later show up as learning disorders. 3.2. Other Factors That Affect Brain Development Through experiments with animals, scientists are tracking clues to determine what disrupts brain development. By studying the normal processes of brain development, scientists can better understand what can go wrong. Some of these studies are examining how genes, substance abuse, pregnancy problems, and toxins may affect the developing brain. 3,2. 1. Genetic Factors The fact that learning disabilities tend to run in families indicates that there may be a genetic link. For example, children who lack some of the skills needed for reading, such as hearing the separate sounds of words, are likely to have a parent with a related problem. However, a parent's learning disability may take a slightly different form in the child. A parent who has a writing disorder may have a child with an expressive language disorder. For this reason, it seems .unlikely that specific learning disorders are inherited directly. Possibly, what is inherited is a subtle brain dysfunction that can in turn lead to a learning disability. 3.2.2. Environmental factors There may be an alternative explanation for why LD might seem to run in families. Some learning difficulties may actually stem from the family environment. For example, parents who have expressive language disorders might talk less to their children or the language they use may be distorted. In such cases, the child lacks a good model for acquiring language and therefore, may seem to be learning disabled. 3.2.3. Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Druq Use

Many drugs taken by the mother pass directly to the fetus. Research shows that a mother's use of cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs during pregnancy may have damaging effects on the unborn child. Scientists have found that mothers who smoke during pregnancy may be more likely to bear smaller babies. This is a concern because small newborns, usually those weighing less than 5 pounds, tend to be at risk for a variety of problems, including learning disorders. Alcohol also may be dangerous to the fetus' developing brain. It appears that alcohol may distort the developing neurons. Heavy alcohol use during p regnancy has been linked to fetal alcohol syndrome, a condition that can lead to 'ow birth weigh, intellectual impairment, hyperactivity, and certain physical defects. Any alcohol use during pregnancy, however, may influence the child's -evelopment and lead to problems with learning, attention, memory, or problem solving. Because scientists have not yet identified "safe" levels, alcohol should be -sed cautiously by women who are pregnant or who may soon become pregnant. Drugs such as cocaine, especially in its smokable form known as crack, seem to affect the normal development of brain receptors. These brain cell parts help to transmit incoming signals from our skin, eyes, and ears, and help regulate our physical response to the environment. Because children with certain learning disabilities have difficulty understanding speech sounds or letters, some researchers believe that learning disabilities, as well as ADHD, may be related to faulty receptors. Current research points to drug abuse as a possible cause of receptor damage. 3.2.4. Problems During Pregnancy or Delivery Other possible causes of learning disabilities involve complications during pregnancy. In some cases, the mother's immune system reacts to the ferns and attacks it as if it were an infection. This type of disruption seems to cause newly formed brain cells to settle in the wrong part of the brain. Or during delivery, the umbilical cord may become twisted and temporarily cut off oxygen to the fetus. This, too, can impair brain functions and lead to LD. 3.2.5. Toxins in the Child's Environment New brain cells and neural networks continue to be produced for a year or so after the child is born. These cells are vulnerable to certain disruptions, also. Researchers are looking into environmental toxins that may lead to learning disabilities, possibly by disrupting childhood brain development or brain processes. Cadmium and lead, both prevalent in the environment, are becoming a leading focus of neurological research. Cadmium, used in making some steel products, can get into the soil, then into the foods we eat. Lead was once common in paint and gasoline, and is still present in some water pipes. A study of animals

showed a connection between exposure to lead and learning difficulties. In the study, rats exposed to lead experienced changes in their brainwaves, slowing their ability to learn. The learning problems lasted for weeks, long after the rats were no longer exposed to lead. In addition, there is growing evidence that learning problems may develop in children with cancer who had been treated with chemotherapy or radiation at an early age. This seems particularly true of children with brain tumors who received radiation to the skull. 3.2.6 Learning Disabilities related to Differences in the Brain In comparing people with and without learning disabilities, scientists have observed certain differences in the structure and functioning of the brain. For example, new research indicates that there may be variations in the brain structure called the planum temporale, a language-related area found in both sides of the brain. In people with dyslexia, the two structures were found to be .equal in size. In people who are not dyslexic, however, the left planum temporale was noticeably larger. Some scientists believe reading problems may be related to such differences. Learning Difficulty should be considered as a possible cause if a child has trouble with one or more of the following thinking clearly learning to compute putting things in sequence learning to read following directions spelling accurately remembering facts writing legibly copying forms

The basic knowledge on Learning disability in general is provided here that would help the teachers to have a fair idea of the problem. In the subsequent pages, `he teachers would understand the details of different forms of learning disability and :o some extent how to help the children with those difficulties. "The Wisdom of all peoples is one and the same; there are not two or more wisdoms, there is only one. My only objection to religions and churches is their tendency to intolerance: neither Christian nor Mohammedan is likely to admit that his faith, though holy, is neither privileged nor patented, but a brother to

all the other faiths in which the truth tries to manifest itself'. - Herman Hesse 1946 Nobel Prize Winner for Literature

M. DYSLEXIA. - A LEARNING DIFFICULTY Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty in learning, in or more of reading, spelling and written language. It may be accompanied by difficulty in number work, short term memory, sequencing, auditory and/or visual perception and motor skills-, it is particularly related to mastering and using written language, alphabetic, numeric and musical notation. In addition, oral language is often affected to some degree. 1. RECOGNISING DYSLEXIA. No two individuals will look the same as there are many aspects to dyslexia but there is a core of indicators that we can use to spot them. "Two factors are invariably present in dyslexia: 1) a poor short term memory and 2) low self esteem. Unless effective intervention takes place, one can expect to see many errors in both reading and spelling. Likely errors are: 1.1.READING/ SPELLING: missing/adding in words/letters transposing words/letters( changing the position of a word or a letter e.g. Saying 'lots' for'lost' reads/spells words back to front 1.2. READING: repeat phrases/words when reading even though it was read correctly the first time reverse words/letters misreads the first word in a sentence struggle with a word even though it may have been read correctly seconds before lose place when reading dislike/avoid reading missing out lines of text

1.3. SPELLINGS: have difficulties in learning spellings unless taught using specialist teaching methods 1.4. WRITINGS: Write letters/numerals back to front and upside down which causes many confusions

between letters numerals e.g - bd pq hy, 69 25 un mw. 2. INDICATORS TO SPOT THE DYSLEXIC CHILD 1.A difference between their oral and written ability 2. A difference between the knowledge that they possess and their ability to communicate it on paper. 3.Confusions as to which is left and right 4. Difficulties in understanding, following or duplicating a sequence e.g tying show laces, learning tables/months of a year/days of the week. 5. Work erratically - one minute he can do it and the next he can't. (adult may feel that he is lazy) 6.Has a reading age below of his peers 1. Is under stress which can be shown in many different ways, stomach aches, irritable bowl syndrome, aggression, temper tantrums etc all of which are less noticeable when not in a school or the child may become totally passive in school situation 2. Written work can have words missed out, sentences that barely make sense and incorrect use of tenses: Their written work can follow any one of the following three patterns: they work very slowly and very neatly, produce less work than you would expect for their ability slowly and very untidily with hardly any work to show for an hour's effort they work fast, very untidily and will often pour out their thoughts in a tangled mess Poor short term memory, but often able to remember what they did on holiday last year.

9. Untidy rooms/ desks or the place where they keep their belongings. 10. 11. 12. Unable to make a start Poor ability to read the time accurately and/or poor time sense Difficulties in processing their thoughts.

13. Difficulties in copying accurately from a black board and/or from worksheet. 14. Difficulties in proof reading their work they cannot see their mistakes even if their work is read out to them 15- Likelihood of having any of the following i.e allergies, hay fever, asthma.

The first two conditions may not be visible to the

teacher if the child is shy. With regard to condition 6, the child's reading age can be artificially high it the parent has given the child considerable help. 3. WHAT YOU SHOULD IF YOU THINK THAT ONE OF YOUR STUDENTS MAY BE DYSLEXIC: Use the checklist given in the previous page to get a feel for the likelihood of a particular student being dyslexic. If this suggests that your student may indeed be dyslexic then you will need to talk directly to him or her. Stress that it is not uncommon that it does not mean that the student is stupid and help is available. Go through the later sections in the forthcoming pages and see if there is anything that you can do differently to make learning easier for your student. You and the student in consultation with the parents will then need to decide if it will help to get him/her formally referred to the qualified person for further help. 4. What ever you call it, Dyslexia is NOT.

a result of low intelligence based on class or ethnic origin merely concerned with" difficulties with reading" a result of poor eyesight or hearing a result of an emotional problem an impediment to an academic career a middle class excuse for poor academic attainment a mental handicap

5. Dyslexia is among other things:

a discrepancy between evident intelligence and actual performance a problem with processing language quickly a difficulty with auditory processing

a difficulty with visual processing

a directional problem - confusion of left and right

a weakness of short term memory a difficulty with fine motor co-ordination a difficulty with sequencing an organizational difficulty

Dyslexia means having to work ten times as hard. 6. QUESTIONS ABOUT DYSLEXIA 6.1. Why should teachers diagnose students as dyslexic? Dyslexia has begun to have a positive image, with students being able to identify with famous people who became successful in their particular field. (Einstein etc). To diagnose a student as dyslexic indicates a positive way of understanding *he problems and applying the best methods of training, teaching and employment in order that a person's skills and talents are used in the most appropriate way and not wasted. Without being aware of a student's specific strengths and weaknesses in reading, writing or spelling, or learning style, the teacher cannot organize and devise suitable teaching strategies to help the student progress. 6.2. Are there degrees of dyslexia? Yes. Some dyslexic people learned to talk early but found it difficult to learn *o read. Others learn to read but find spelling difficult Students in higher education .vho have battled their way through the language requirement may still have :: Ificulty in telling the time, remembering their times tables, organizing their essays ::-taking lecture notes. 6.3. Are there types of dyslexia? Yes. Dyslexia is a Veritable syndrome of difficulties and the continuum of nj cators makes definition of the condition difficult. However, as teachers, we can ::assify specific areas of processing difficulties which students may have into four a,in categories: visual processing difficulties, auditory processing difficulties, ifficulties with motor coordination and difficulties with organizing and sequencing. Dognosis is therefore important to establish which strategies would be most effective lo help the student to learn. 6.4. How are dyslexic learners different from slow learners?
,

Slow learners do not exhibit the same discrepancy between their intelligence and their written expression or between verbal and non verbal abilities. Many slow learners can spell and write adequately but have difficulties with concepts. The dyslexic student knows a lot and usually has a lot to say but finds it difficult to 'get it out', especially on paper. Dyslexic students usually make good progress when they follow a structured program of work based on their specific needs and learning style, whereas slow learners make slow progress. The dyslexic learner might be described as a 'quick forgetter' rather than a 'slow

learner'. 6.5. Can word processors help dyslexics? Some students, particularly those with motor problems, certainly benefit from using a word processor as they bypass the interference which poor motor coordination puts in the way of their spelling and written expression. Dyslexic students are usually poor spellers therefore spell checks may be useful to enable students to present work which reflects their abilities and not their spelling and writing difficulties. However, spell-checks vary in their usefulness. Poor sequencing abilities and organization are greatly helped by being able to move text around the screen. 6.6. Do dyslexic students have difficulties with maths? There is often a correlation between difficulties with written language and difficulties with maths where sequencing, directional and memorisational problems are evident. These may reveal themselves especially in long division and algebra. Some dyslexic students (often those with auditory processing problems) may be very good at maths. Sometimes the difficulties are with the language of maths. 7. Identifying dyslexia through the handwritings. We said earlier that the learning disability is the difficulty in selecting, retaining and expressing ideas due to information scrambling when it travels between the senses and brain. The scrambling may be in either of auditory processing or visual processing or of motor processing. The students' hand writing would give the teacher a good clue on the kind of difficulties that the student faces.

9.

How a teacher/parent can help?

There are three main ways of helping dyslexic students to learn and study: 9.1. encourage them to use aids and equipment, 9.2. modify the way you teach and conditions for tests and exams and 9.3. offer specialist learning support which will enable student* to achieve their full academic potential. 9.1.1 AIDS FOR LEARNING Micro-cassette Tape recorder: They are pocket size and very useful to record instructions or notes if the student cannot remember them. They can also be used as a memory aid to record instructions, directions or appointments. As dyslexic students tend to be very messy and disorganized, organization aids will help them overcome some of the stress which studying will place upon them. The tapes can be played when in the car or when listening to a Walkman. They can improve knowledge, vocabulary and expression. It helps the student to follow the course that he/she is studying. It also can be used for revision or simply .enable the student to enjoy a good story.

File dividers and organizers:

Taped books:

Video / film/ educational discs:

Educational discs are available on any particular topic that the student is studying. This will often give a more meaningful context to the subject for students with a 'global' learning style and help them acquire information more easily. With & word processing program. Word processors often help those students with handwriting difficulties as it improves their written expression They can also help enormously with the organisation of essays. Spell checks may be useful, but students have commented that spell-checks often have to be amended order to be of use.

Electronic Typewriter or A microcomputer:

9.3. The Learning Process Discuss the learning process with your students. -

explain why you are doing a particular activity explain skills you are hoping to develop discuss with students how they intend to go about learning something explore which strategies have worked for them encourage students to share strategies which have been successful develop students' analytic skills to decide why certain strategies work and others are less successful - help them to realize the necessity and value of practice to consolidate learning in order to acquire a new skill discuss how memory works relate new learning to successful learning in the past use 'mind mapping' use mnemonics Encourage students to take charge of their own learning. offer a variety of methods and approaches for them to select or discover which works best for them set up situations where they can explain or demonstrate things to each other, work in pairs or groups, select activities or projects, set goals stress self-checking and give plenty of opportunity for self Assessment 10. Specific Skills Dyslexic students require concentrating on certain. specific skills in enriching ~-!,eir vocabulary, skills in notes taking, reading and writing. Teachers need to give --7eIr attention to satisfy themselves that the dyslexic students under their care enrich their skills on the area mentioned above. The skills are: Technical vocabulary - Teachers shall discuss and explain the jargon of thier subject area encourage students to compile their own glossaries

help them focus on learning spellings of important technical vocabulary Note taking - Teachers shall make their own notes available to the students write main points and terminology on board - when using OHPs - type information, summarize points, don't put too much information onto sheet - make handouts clear and easily accessible Reading provide reading list with selected articles and clearly structured and presented material offer audio-visual sources on subject matter (e.g. Open University programmes, TV documentaries or discussions, video courses which often give structure to material which student can use to help written texts). Writing offer models of written work: essays reports, projects - explain the structure give outline plan and guide

BE SPECIFIC & PRACTICAL. WRITE EVERYTHING DOWN CLEARLY. DONT EXPECT STUDENT TO REMEMBER WITHOUT EXTRA REINFORCEMENT OR SCURF FRAMEWORK.

Make sure instructions are clear and written down for the student to check Be explicit to f or m ul a te que s ti on s B e c l e a r i n y our o wn communication

While dealing with the dyslexic children or children with any sort of learning disabilities, teachers shall remember the following points.

Som e students can only generalize from lots of specific concrete examples and practice When a student makes an error in a sequence you may need to retrace all the steps with them rather than just point out where they went wrong Some students may be easily distracted by noise, activity or visual 'clutter' Dyslexic students may need more time to absorb information -try to break-up learning sessions, discussions etc. to allow this processing to happen The final stage of learning is being able to 'teach' someone else -make opportunities for students to do this (through talking, writing, demonstrations) Always reinforce in the minds of dyslexic student that it simply means that , she needs to work 10 times harder than the normal children to be equal. "The test of Ahimsa is absence of jealousy" - Swami Vivekananda VIII. SUGGESTED AIDS FOR LEARNING STYLES Use these aids to sharpen your particular dominant learning modality or to strengthen a weaker one. Try lo be aware of the different activities you do dally to help all three of your modalities.

Visual use guided imagery form pictures in your mind take notes

Auditory use tapes watch TV listen lo music

Kinesthetic pace /walk as you study physically "do it" practice by repeated

see parts of words use "cue" words use notebooks use color codes use study cards use photographic pictures watch T V watch filmstrips watch movies use charts, graphs u s e m a p s demonstrate draw /use drawings use exhibits watch lips move in front of a mirror use mnemonics (acronyms, visual chains, mind maps, acrostics, hook-ups),

speak/listen to speakers m a k e u p aloud talk to yourself repeat things orally use rhythmic sounds h a v e d i s c u s s i o n s listen carefully use oral directions sound out words use theater say words in syllables use mnemonics (word links, rhymes, poems, lyrics), Computers Voice rhymes/poems read

motion breathe slowly role play exercise d an ce write write on surfaces with finger Take notes associate feelings with concept/information write lists repeatedly stretch/move in chair watch lips move in front of a mirror use mnemonics (word links, rhymes, poems, lyrics),

BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS OF LEARNING STYLE Visual organized Neat and orderly Auditory Easily organized Move slips when reading Kinesthetic Respond rewards to physical

Physically oriented

Observant Good speller Memorizes by picture

Speaks pattern

in

rhythmic Learns by doing Touches people

Likes music Memorizes procedure by

steps, Memorizes by walking Responds physically

Would rather read than be Sequence read to Spelling

Accurate, sees words and Spells with a phonetic Counts out letters with can spell them approach, spells with body movements and rhythmic movements checks with internal feelings Reading Strong speed successful has Attacks unknown words, Likes plot oriented books, enjoys reading aloud, reflects action of the story often slow because of sub- with body movement vocalizing

Writing Having it look okay is Having it look Okay is Thick pressured hand important important writing not as good as the others

TEST NO 1. AUDITORY SEQUENTIAL MEMORY (DIGIT SPAN)

PURPOSE: To test the auditory sequential memory PROCEDURE: 1. Teacher recites A series of digits given below loud, at the rate of one per second. 1. Student must repeat thorn, with digits and their correct. Two trials for each length are given. 2. Stop testing when child gets both trials wrong SCORE : One mark for each correct repetition 3. When student has reached his limit on digits forward. he is then asked to repeat the next batch in reverse order. 4. Continue until he gets both trials of similar length wrong. FORWARD 2-6-5
7 2 6 1 2 2 6 1 5 9 1 2 5 4 1 6 4 7 4 9 4 1 8 6 9 3 2 3 2 2 5 5 4 7 1 5 7 5 4 7 8 2 6 1 8 4 4 2 5 6 1 9 6 3 7 2 1 9 3 1 1 7 6 3 6 7 1 2 7 6 3 6 5 4 8 3 4 6-9 35

REVERSE
7 2 5 04 1 1 3 8 1 8 4 6 3 5 7 2 1 7 6 7 5 3 4 5 5 9 1 7 9

1 - 3 PRACTICAL ITEMS

3 5 8 5 5 0 2 1 9 7 0 4 9 2 7 9 1 6 3 9 4 7 5 7 3 2 3 5 3 2 4 8 2 4 2 1 5 8 8 2

7 6- 9

SCORE : Sum of correct responses for digits forward and reverse Score 6 7 8 9 10 Test Age (Years & Months) 6-0 6-6 7-0 7-6 8-6 Score V 11 12 13 14 15 Test Age (Years & Mortis) 10-0 11-6 12-6 14-0 16+

TEST NO. 2 REVISED WEPMAN TEST OF AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION PURPOSE : To test the auditory discriminations capacity: PROCEDURE: Teacher shall ask the student to sit comfortably and instruct him to repeat what he says. Teacher shall cover his mouth to avoid lip reading. RUB RUG MAT MAP BACK WEB BEG PARK GUN BOAT VAN CHEEK PRIZE REACH THREAD WENT PASS TEN BAT DIM THANK COAST BACK WED BED PARK DONE BOAT THAN CHEAP PRIZE REACH SHRED WENT PATH PEN SACK DIN SANK TOAST DONE WITH COME OTHER MINE SHAVE WING BRIDGE PICK FREE FOAL CALL TAR PAT BUFF ROSE MARS TEN BUN WISH COMB OVER NINE SAVE WING BRIDGE KICK THREE FALL CALL TAR PET BUS ROSE MARSH TIN

EYE PNITERNS

V': Visual Constructed


Images of things that people have never seen before. When people are making it up in their head, they are using visual constructed. QUESTION: "What would your room look like if it were blue?"

VR: Visual Remembered


Seeing images from memory, recalling things they have seen before. (In addition, some people access visual remembered by defocussing their eyes.) QUESTION: "What color was the room you grew up in?

A': Auditory Constructed


Making up sounds that you have not heard before. QUESTION: "What would I sound like if I had Donald Duck's voice?"

A R : Auditory Remembered
When you remember sounds or voices that you've heard before, or things that you've said to yourself before. QUESTION: "What was the very last thing I said?" or "Can you remember the sound of your mother's voice?"

K Kinesthetic
(Feelings, sense of touch) People generally look in this direction when they are accessing their feelings. QUESTION: "What does it feel like to touch a wet rug?"

A D: Auditory Digital
This is where our eyes go when we are talking to oneself, internal dialogue. QUESTION: "Can you recite the pledge of Allegiance to yourself?"

HOW DO YOU LEARN BEST?

Choose either a, b, c that is closest to your style of learning. If you are.Learning Spelling Reading Hand writing a) Do you learn best by watching diagrams posters etc.? b) Do you like listening to a lecture etc.? c) Do you like to be actively involved in practical demonstrations? a) Do you try to picture the word? b) Do you sound it out? c) Do you write it to see if it feels right? a) Do you enjoy descriptions and find it easy to visualize the story? b) Do you enjoy dialogue and tend to skip lengthy description? c) Do you enjoy action and are fidgety when reading - not a keen reader? a) Do you think has is important and so you work on style? b) Did you write lightly and sometimes talk when writing? c) Do you find yon press hard with pen/pencil and find it difficult when space for writing becomes smaller? Remembering a) Do you remember faces but forget names? b) Do you remember names not faces? c) Do you remember what you did? a) Do you think in vivid detailed pictures? b) Do you think about sounds? b) Have few pictures and those seen have movement?

Visualizing

Solving problems a) Do you plan in advance listing possible problems? b) Do you talk yourself through problems? c) Do you tackle them by solutions that are physical? a) Are you distracted by visual mess? b) Do you find sounds distracting? c) Are you easily distracted particularly by Trying to respond a) Do you look at facial expressions? to someone's mood b) Do you listen to their tone of voice? c) Do you concentrate on their body language? In a new situation a) Do you look around carefully at everything? b) Talk about it, listening to alternatives? c) Do you weigh things up by trying things , b C (Visual, Auditory and Kinaesthetic) Distracte d

Count how many a

THE LEFT/RIGHT BRAIN MODEL The neo-cortex (the thinking bit of the brain) is split into two halves. 'The . two halves are connected down the middle with a fantastic network of nerves (called the Corpus Callosum). Some people say that we have one brain connected in the middle, some say it's two brains connected together. What happens i f I damage the right side of my brain? (The left side is paralyzed -due to cross-lateral connection.) Roger Sperry - two sides of your brain work on slightly different mental abilities.

What we've found is - the brain has ALL these capacities. So if one thinks that she/he can't do maths, or can't do art, or can't sign she/he is wrong. She/he can. All she/he has to do is to find out how her/his brain works and develop all these capacities. All her/his skills then start to get better. Educational experiments have been done on people who say, 1 can't do that" -they've been trained - they haven't found anyone who couldn't draw, or sign, or do maths, or whatever. As you develop, you don't just get better in the area in which you train. As you learn rhythm, you get better at numbers. The greatest musicians were also mathematicians, and the greatest mathematicians also musicians, [of Bach.] People have said - "all very well, but have used all of this - but did they?"
if so,

then great brains in history would

What side would Einstein have used? Left?

Great musicians and painters? Right? Einstein's hobbies - daydreaming, playing the violin, drifting around in a sailboat. Who was one of the greatest brains, in the last 1000 years -best at everything. Leonardo da Vinci best painter, sculptor, mathematician, astronomer, geographer, inventor, best architect, strongest used both sides of his brain. Academic word draw pictures. Painting worked out using the geometry. Everyone of our brains is like da Vinci's or Einstein's - just have to work out how to use the brain. Solving a problem - where are you usually when your brain suddenly solves a problem - going to sleep - drifting off in the bath - in a car - in school, when slightly bored - daydreaming. Brain starts to organize and imagine. At school - what do we learn first - reading, riting, rithmetic. Left brain. But if you're good at tapping out rhythms on the desk and daydreaming? Described as dumb. Everyone is smarter than they thought - just that we have imbalances in different skills. HEMISPHERE PREFERENCES TEST (TENDENCIES ONLY) Please mark the following pairs of statements out of 10 and then transfer to the score sheet overleaf. 1. (a) I am able to follow directions easily (b) I have difficulty in following verbal directions 2. 3. 4. (a) My office, filing and diary organization is unstructured (b) My office and filing is structured (a) When at school I was prone to day dreams (b) When at school I was interested in the school environment (a) I deal easily with abstract definitions (b) The more exaggerated the explanation the easier I understand I prefer to learn about a subject by doing (touching) the objects it I am very fluent verbally 1 usually have a preferred sequence for a task 1 prefer to work in a spontaneous way without any particular order

5. (a) relates to (b) 6. (a) (b)

7. 8.

(a) (b)

I can only work to deadline I need enough time to plan my work and fix my deadlines

Which means more to you: (a) (a) 1,000,000 "I promise to pay you Elm" In exams, I prefer multiple choice questions In exams, I prefer essay or open ended questions Answers to questions 'just pop up' I arrive at answers intellectually I am usually late or early I am usually on time When meeting people I remember their name first When meeting people 1 remember their faces first

9. 10. 11. 12 13. 14. 15.

(a) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b~ (a) b

(a)I show my feelings (b) I prefer to deal with people in a detached way (a)I prefer to learn by moving (b) I prefer to learn by listening and watching (a)I prefer work to be organised hierarchically

c) I prefer short lines of communication and a democratic work environment


SCORING

(a)

(b) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (b) (b) (a) (b) (a). (b) (a) (a) (b) (a). (b) (b) (a) (b) (a) (b) (b) (a)

11 12 13 14 15

(b) (a) (b) (b)


(a)

(a) (b) (a) (a) (b)

Total READING TRAINING USING A TAPE RECORDER PURPOSE To improve the reading style, speed of the child. STEPS: 1. Ask the child to prepare 1-4 pages of Reading, (depending on his ability) 1. The passage may need to be read at least four timers 2. Ask the child to read his prepared passage as you start the tape recorder and record his efforts. 3. Stop the recorder; discuss the reading for meaning, checking any problems that accrued. Be patient in checking the problems. 4. Rewind the tape to the starting point. (If time - the child can either read along with himself or he can listen to himself, putting a pencil mark where he detect,. 3ny mistakes 5. Ask the child to re-read the passage again as quickly as possible and as he begins, turn the volume almost down to O. 6. As he reaches the end of the passage turn the volume up, to check how many words, sentence, or paragraphs he is able to race through in the second reading than in the first and how many words are still being read from the recorder. 7. Accuracy is very essential. Later, punctuation should also be noted. Expression should be put into the reading. Each is a stage of improvement.

Hints on Pronunciation I take it you already know of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble, but not you On hiccough, thorough, laugh and through? Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard, a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird, And dead: it's said like bed not bead For g ood ne ss sa k e d on' t c al l it 'd ee d l! Watch out for meat and great and threat (They rhyme with suite and straight and debt). A moth is not a moth in mother Nor both in bother, broth in brother, And here is not a match for there nor dear and fear for bear and pear, And then there's dose and rose and lose Just look them up - and goose and choose,

And cork and work and card and ward, And font and front and word and sword, And do and go and thwart and cart Come, come, I've hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Man alive, I'd mastered it when I was five!

Mind Maps for Study and Revision A Mind Map is a method of organizing your thoughts and recording information using key words and images. Key words are essential for recall. The more we can limit note-taking to key words the more likely we are to remember the information. 80-90% of what is written down is unnecessary to recall as it consists of words such as "and. though, but", used to create grammatical sentences. A Mind Map is a memory tool as it has a graphic shape and uses colour and images. As most of us have visual memories the more visual we can make information the more likely we are to remember it. A Mind Map uses the natural methods of the brain - connection, association and imagination. A Mind Map can condense pages of information to one page. This is easily referred to for revision and can be easily remembered. A Mind Mop can help to generate ideas quickly. A Mind Map can be used to:
14

Structure on essay Make notes on a subject Improve revision practice

Take notes in class Organise thoughts Improve memory

A Mind Map will improve confidence and efficiency in study. A Mind Map is FUN and improves motivation. RULES OF MIND-MAPPING Colourful picture in middle (pictures wherever possible). Key, important words printed on lines in centre. Draw single lines, on which you put either words or pictures. Use keywords. Foll^vv brain's ideas. Connect main Ideas to lines, because the brain winks works by association. Lines connecting to other lines, with single words printed. Entire brain - words, list logic, and pictures, colour imagination.
A41

Stupid ideas stay in.

( C e

Let brain go wherever it wants. If you get stuck - do a mind map on any part of the mind map. Get stuck - put in some lines - have a go at labeling tin new lines: Bigger the map gets, the easier it h to keep adding. When finished - edit out stupid ideas - but - they're probably unusual HOW TO ORGANISE YOUR MIND MAP

1. Take different colours and follow the shape of each brunch. Use different colours -maybe even, different styles. Advantage? (Solicit) Make it stand out, see it more clearly. 1. 1 could also put some numbers on it - order in which I want to deal with it, or talk about it. 2. Once you have done an initial, "brain-storm" version - you may want lo redraw it, with a different organization. Beware premature convergence - logic kills creativity. Create first, organize later. LEARNING PROBLEMS Learning problems due to biological factors manifest themselves right from early development of the child. Such children can be broadly grouped into 4 categories: Group 1: Problem with general abilities. Such children have low intellectual abilities compared to average children and are known as slow learners. Group 2: Problem with attention. These children are restless and some are hyperkinetic. They have Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Group 3: Problems with visual and auditory perceptions. Some of these children may read or write 'b' as 'd'. They also manifest soft neurological signs such as difficulty in motor coordination or clumsy behaviour. Group 4: These children are quite intelligent but have specific problems in spelling or writing or mathematics. Children of groups 3 & 4 are called dyslexics. Like the adults, children too have some basic needs which are necessary for their sound, overall development. It is therefore important to understand children and to provide them with a favourable environment at school and home as well as give them relevant, need-based education in order to make them grow into productive

adults. Before you read further take a piece of paper and write down the needs of children that you are aware of. Once you have done that, read on and see for yourself what you have missed out: Physical needs: food, clothing, shelter, protection from pain and sickness, time to play. Psychological needs: acceptance as an individual, emotional satisfaction, reassurance, warmth, love and affection. Educational needs: warm and understanding atmosphere at school, encouragement for new learning and achievement, education to meet life's challenges. Deprivation can seriously affect the students physical, emotional, social and mental development. This leads to certain socio-emotional problems, which can be classified into two broad categories: emotional problems and conduct problems. Vikram keeps failing in his school exams. His class work is of poor quality and he cannot understand anything explained to him unless simple, concrete examples are given to him from everyday life situations. He also finds it difficult to understand things, which are outside his range of immediate experience. This means that he will not be ready for formal learning (reading, writing and arithmetic) at the same age as the other children of his class. He is probably at a lower intellectual level than his classmates. However, he is able to take care of his personal and social needs under guidance and is also capable of learning at the concrete level. So, he probably falls in the category of the mentally retarded, although his retardation does not seem to be very severe. He belongs