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Campbell D. Galn Ms. J. Ferguson Biology (Per. 1) 6 March 2012 Chapter 16 Review 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

b c a d b b Scientists think that conditions aboveground were too harsh to support life at the time, whereas deep-sea hydrothermal vents provided a much better theory. There is no sunlight at these vents, so photosynthetic organisms cant thrive. 8. Differences contained in the nucleic acids, differences in RNA polymerases, and the peptidoglycan polymer in bacterias cell walls. 9. Genetic recombination: a. Transformation occurs when a prokaryote receives DNA from its environment b. Conjugation occurs when two prokaryotes bind together and one transfers its DNA to the other, by means of a sex pilus c. Transduction occurs when a virus obtains a small part of DNA through the host cell 10. In the early Earth atmosphere, there was plenty of water vapor and volcanic gases in the air, but no free oxygen. As the Earth cooled off, water rained and oceans formed. When the Archean era began (~2.5B years ago), oxygen built up by photochemical dissociation breakup of water and ammonia by UV. By then, the oxygen gas level was about 1 or 2% what it is today. Ozone began to form, shielding Earth from UV rays, and photosynthesis began. Cyanobacteria were the main producers of oxygen at the time. 11. Prokaryotes are easily the most important factor in nitrogen recycling. N2, atmospheric nitrogen, is useless to most organisms. Nitrate, NO3, is usable. Prokaryotes are solely capable of making this transformation. Also, bacteria, as well as fungi, are the only organisms that can decompose nitrogen waste back to nitrates. 12. Bioremediation: a. Cleanup of oil spills by adding nitrate and sulfate fertilizers to facilitate decomposition of oil by bacteria b. Buried anaerobic bacteria in the Hudson River stripping off chlorines 13. By producing toxins or by producing structures that allow the bacterium to attach to the victim surface. 14. A virus injects its genetic material into a host cell to take advantage of that cells reproductive abilities. Copies of the virus are produced inside the cell until they are eventually released. 15. Good hygiene. 16. Vaccines are purposed to teach the body how to deal with a certain strain of pathogen by placing parts or deactivated wholes of the pathogen in the body.

1. Infection 5. Cell lyses

2. Viral DNA forms circle


4. New phages produced

3. Integration

2. This can occur as an interruption of the lysogenic cycle or as normal procedure of the lytic cycle. 4. After integration, new viral DNA and proteins are created and put together. 5. At the end of the lytic cycle, the cell bursts open, releasing a swarm of new phages. 18. Graph a. Not enough information. Assuming no bacteria died, 560. b. 4.096 x 104 c. The lytic cycle d. Assuming no bacteria died, 32. 19. I have no idea. 20. Mr. Miller built a faux environment involving elements of water, water vapor, heat, electricity (lightning), and cold water, and was able to produce simple organic molecules. He inferred that life could have been spawned from the conditions on Earth at the time. 21. If I were Mr. Jenner: I think that exposure to the cowpox virus will develop immunity in the recipient both to cowpox and smallpox. 22. Bacteria can reproduce itself, whereas viruses must use a host cell to reproduce. They must be dealt with accordingly; bacteria can be combated with antibiotics and viruses cannot. 23. Statements a. What about the bodys own bacteria? They are not pathogenic. b. Viruses cannot reproduce themselves, and their only goal is replication. c. The cold may be caused by viruses. Also, the antibiotics might not work. d. Eukaryotic cells are larger, have a true nucleus, reproduce by mitosis, and can be multicellular.