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Advantages of giving medicines

To avoid or minimize chronic diabetic complications To avoid acute/ chronic problems of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia

Acute/ chronic problems of hyperglycemia:

Positive in Diabetes Mellitus Mellitus

1. Polyphagia - frequent hunger

Negative in Diabetes


Always feel hungry Eat more that 5 x a day

Polydipsia - frequent thirst, especially excessive thirst

- Eat on time - eat 3-4 x a day

- Always feel thirsty -more than 10 glasses of water a day

- drink water as needed - Drinks 8-10 glasses of water

3. Polyuria - frequent urination

Cannot control voiding at night More than 6 x of voiding per night

- can control the voiding time


Blurred vision

Color Blind Only black and white are commonly seen

- Normal Color are seen



Always feel restlessness Few activity may cause easy fatigue

- feel well - can do the normal activity properly


Weight loss

Abnormal weight loss

- with normal body weight


Poor wound healing (cuts, scrapes, etc.)

Wound dont heal easily Wound may be irritated

- wound heal in several days

8. Dry mouth

Have pale and dry lips

- have normal lip color and moist


Dry or itchy skin

Have dry skin

- have moisture/soft skin


Tingling in feet or heels

Uncontrol tingling

- foots feel normal

Acute/chronic problems of hypoglycemia:

1. Nausea Vomiting

- uncontrol nausea and vomiting

2. Abdominal discomfort

- Feels well

3. Headache

Adequate control of diabetes leads to lower risk of complications associated with unmonitored diabetes including kidney failure (requiring dialysis or transplant), blindness, heart disease and limb amputation

Complications related to diabetes mellitus

Coronary heart disease Myocardial infarction Atherosclerosis Glaucoma Cataracts Diabetic retinopathy Obesity Abnormal blood fat (cholesterol) levels Kidney Disease Hyperlipidemia Ischemic heart disease (angina and myocardial infarction) Stroke and peripheral vascular disease Reduced vision Blindness Worst DEATH

How to live with patient with diabetes mellitus (relatives/Family)


they must learn all about diabetes. The more they know, the more they can help. Encourage

your relative to learn about diabetes they must learn what to do if hyper/hypoglycemia happen. They will prepare the food necessary to their family member with DM Encourage exercise. You might even want to exercise together. Learn how to recognize signs of problems. Learn the symptoms of a high blood sugar level (called hyperglycemia) and a low blood sugar level (called hypoglycemia) They must know if the patient is taking his/her medicine properly.

Tools to use in monitoring Blood sugar Level

Different Types of INSULIN

Sites if injecting insulin