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Unit 7: Digestion Lecture Study Guide Based on information found in the lecture folder or other sources, answer the

following questions. 1. What is digestion? The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into usable molecules

2. List some other names of the digestive tract. Alimentary canal, GI tract

3. Explain where and how the mechanical breakdown of food occurs. 9 meter long tube, movement through is wavelike motion called peristalsis

4. How does food move through the digestive tract. Peristalsis

5. What is released from the gall bladder when food is in the duodenum? bile

6. The organs of the digestive tract form a continuous tube from mouth to anus. List the organs of the tract including specific regions of the small and large intestine, from proximal to distal in the blanks Mouth -> _______________ -> _________________ -> small intestine (3 parts are):________________ -> _________________ -> ___________________ -> large intestine: cecum, appendix, ->(4 parts of large intestine are): _____________________ -> _____________________ -> _________________ -> __________________ -> rectum -> ________________ 7. Fill in the chart. Organ Mouth Function Secretes Helps to digest what food type (carb, prot,fat)? carbohydrates

Begins digestion Saliva

mechanically Esophagus Stomach Pancreas Liver Production of bile, proteins, cholesterol; conversion of glucose Storage of bile Receive secretion from pancreas and liver; completes digestion of nutriets in chime; absorbs products of digestion Forms and stores feces Expels waste
8. What are the 3 major classes of food? Which is the first and last to be broken

Food passageway Creates paste called chine Pepsin Proteins Carbs, fats, nucleic acids, proteins Carbs, proteins

Aids in digestion Pancreatic juices Bile

Gallbladder Small intestine

Bile Nutrients

Large intestine Anus

Water and electrolytes from chime

down during digestion? Nutrients, vitamins, minerals

9. What are the major vitamins we need and why? A, C, D, E, K, Thiamin, Riboflavin,

Niacin, B6, Folate, B12, Biotin, Pantothenic acid; for normal metabolic processes

10. List the major minerals we need and what purpose they serve in our bodies.

Calcium and phosphorous (body needs: potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, magnesium). Bone and tooth formation, enzyme formation, cartilage, tendon, proteins, nerve impulse transmission, nerve function, balance 11. Name the 3 pairs of salivary glands. Parotid, sublingual, submaxillary

12. What tissue type and muscle type do you find in the esophagus? How does affect function? Skeletal muscle, circular muscle layers, stratified squamous epithelium

13. Where does the pancreas empty digestive enzymes? Hepatopacreatic ampulla

14. Where does the gall bladder empty digestive enzymes? Hepatopacreatic ampulla

15. In which part of the digestive system does food spend the most time? Small intestine

16. What are the muscles like in the stomach? Longitudinal, circular, oblique

17. What are goblet cells, Peyers patches, and villi? Where are they found and why

are they important? They are in the small intestine; goblet cells are on the villi, peyers patches are large lymph nodes; lubrication, movement of food, absorption
18. Where is most digested food absorbed? Large intestine 19. What is the main function of the large intestine? Absorption of food; forms food

into waste&stores
20. What causes heartburn? Effects of gastric juices on the esophagus 21. How long is the human digestive system? 9meters

22. Describe the structure and function of villi. 17 23. What is the relationship of size between large and small intestine? The large

intestine is shorter than the long intestine and forms the remaining food from the small intestine
24. Name the 3 pair of salivary glands and explain the function of saliva. Parotid,

sublingual, submaxillary; to begin the digestion process

25. What does amylase digest? carbs 26. Explain where and how the mechanical breakdown of food takes place. Takes

place in mouth when your chew

27. Why is the stomach acid and how does the stomach protect itself from being


hyrdochloric acid; it relines itself every three days Small

28. What are the end products of protein, fat, and carbohydrate digestion?

29. Solid wastes are discharged through the ____. anus 30. How many calories are produced when 1 gram or carbohydrate is oxidized? What

about 1 gram of protein and 1 of fat? protein....4 calories per gram carbs....4 calories per gram fats....9 calories per gram 31. Define:

emulsify, to combine two liquids that normally do not combine easily peristalsis, radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles constipation, bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having three or more loose
or liquid bowel movements

metabolism, set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living

organisms to sustain life

anabolism, produce peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic


catabolism, the metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones,

often resulting in a release of energy.

gluconeogenesis, the synthesis of glucose from molecules that are not


glycogenolysis is the conversion of glycogen polymers to glucose monomers. Glycogenesis process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are
added to chains of glycogen for storage

BMR basal metabolic rate; is the estimated minimum level of energy Pharynx the part of the throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and
nasal cavity

Esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube

through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach

Pyloric sphincter or valve, is a strong ring of smooth muscle at the end of the
pyloric canal which lets food pass from the stomach to the duodenum

parietal cells or oxyntic cells, are the stomach epithelium cells that secrete
gastric acid and intrinsic factor in response to histamine

dentin calcified tissue of the body propulsion alternate waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles buccal phase tongue collects food and pushes it back into oropharynx. Rennin active enzyme found in rennet Ulcer discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane that impedes the organ of
which that membrane is a part from continuing its normal functions