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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A.

Background

English is the most important communication tool in the world, it can be use for expressing opinion, idea, and for improving knowledge, science, technology and culture by using it. However, the ability to communicate is not only to speak but also to read, listen and write. The government of Indonesia has made the function and aim of learning English at school, especially for SMP level as a tool of communication in order to be able to access information in daily life, make interpersonal relationship, exchange information and enjoy the beauty of English in its background culture. As we know that writing is the complex skill for students who are learning English as a foreign language. Richards and Renandya (2002:303) states that there is no doubt that writing is the most difficult skill for second language learners to master. The difficulty lies not only in generating and organizing ideas, but also in translating these ideas into readable text. The skills involved in writing are highly complex. In this research, the researcher focuses in writing. It is based on this observation in MTs Negeri 1 Parepare, at the eight year students exactly. Compared with the other skill of language, there are many students are still poor in writing composition, especially to write descriptive text. Writing is assumed to be the most difficult thing to learn because they have to pay attention to higher

level skills of planning and organizing as well as lower of content, punctuation, word choice, and so on. That is way, a lot of methods or techniques had been tried by teachers as effort to develop the students ability, especially in writing skill. Referring on the observation of the Eight Year Students of MTs Negeri Parepare appears problem in learning English, although some methods or techniques have been applied in teaching writing. The researcher concludes that writing of students is still low than other skills. The researcher concludes that writing of students is still low than other skills. The mean score in writing skill that was taken from teacher document test is less than 56.53 rate score. It was taken from teacher document test. It is categorized as not mastered classifying that standardized by minimum criteria of achievement of MTs Negeri Parepare and by Diknas (2005:2) categorized as fair. The researcher assumes that teaching by using sequence question is effective way to increase writing ability of the students. It can make the students interested and enjoy in learning writing, especially to write descriptive text. Yet, the researcher will focus in developing students ability to write descriptive paragraph because the time is limited. Considering the explanation above, the researcher is interested to conduct a research through the title Increasing the Ability of the Seventh Year Students of MTs Negeri to Write Descriptive Paragraph through Sequence Questions.

B. Problem Statement

Based on the observation at MTs Negeri Parepare on the background above, the researcher formulates a research question as follows: Can the use of sequence questions increase the ability of the Eight Year Students of MTs Negeri Parepare to write descriptive paragraph?
C. Objective of the Research

Based on the previous problem statement, the objective of the research is to find out whether or not the use of sequence questions can increase the ability of the Students of MTs Negeri Parepare to write descriptive paragraph.
D. Significance of the Research The significance of this research is divided into two benefits, theoretically and practically, where described as follows: 1. Theoretically, the result of this research is expected to be useful in developing English study, especially in writing skill. 2. Practically, the result of this research is expected to be a piece of useful contribution for English teachers at MTs Negeri Parepare in teaching English. Hopefully, the finding may become one of the references for the next researcher who wants to find other studies dealing with technique in teaching writing

E. Scope of the Research The scope of the research is described to discipline, content, and activity. 1. By discipline, this research is limited to the field of applied linguist study which concerns the teaching subject in writing. 2. By content, this research focuses on teaching writing through sequence questions and the researcher will give the materials concerning description of place, thing, and personal person. 3. By activity, the research will use sequence questions in teaching writing. The students will be given sequence questions to form a descriptive paragraph.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter deals with previous research findings, some pertinent ideas, conceptual frame work, and hypothesis. A. Previous Research Findings There are some researchers who have research by using few techniques or methods in teaching writing. They are: 1. Amilah (2008:41) in her research on writing composition about unforgettable story to the second year student of SMA Negeri 1 Suppa. She found that teaching writing comprehension about unforgettable story to the second year students of SMA Negeri 1 Suppa can help student in writing practice. 2. Fatmawati (2006:30) found that real object observation in English teaching can improve the writing ability of the students. The mean score of the students pre-test is lower than the mean score of the students posttest. It also support of the result of the t-test value is higher than t-table value. 3. Yusmiati (2004:31) found out that teaching writing skill through short story generates ideas based on topics of interest is effective. The data analysis and the discussion tell that there was a significant difference on the students ability before and after taught through short story generating

ideas based on topics of interest. The result of post-test is better than the result of post-test. 4. Sitti (2005:40), conduct is a research on "the use of direct observation" as a mediator to improve the student ability in writing descriptive. the result

of her research indicated that the student's writing for experimental group is higher than control group because they write descriptive paragraph trough direct observation. B. Some Pertinent Ideas 1. Writing Ability Writing is the complex skill for students who are learning English as a foreign language. Writing is assumed to be the most difficult thing to learn because they have to pay attention to higher level skills of planning and organizing as well as lower of content, organization, vocabulary (word chice), language use and mechanics. a. Definition of writing The following some definitions of writing that stated by linguistics: 1) Meyer in yunus (2008:7) states that writing is thinking on paper. Thinking is mood at work finding facts seeing relationship, testing the truth of them, reaching conclusion and forming opinions. In this way, our mind produced a huge variety of ideas and the fact that support them are the materials, which go into any pieces of writing. 2) Lauer in Jamaluddin (2008:8) states that writing is one of way of making form experiences for oneself and for others. Furthermore, he says that
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writing serves as the most available and the most coevally way because the outcome, visible language, is startlingly permanent record of thought and feelings. 3) Crimmon in Hartiny (2006:7) states that writing is hard work but writing also an opportunity to convey something about ourselves, to communicate ideas, to people our immediate vicinity, and to learn something we didnt know. From some definition above, the researcher can conclude that writing is one of skill of language, which produces message into written language. It involves some processes such as organize and formulate the ideas, feelings, and opinions on the paper so that the reader can follow the writers message as well as in oral language. b. Types of writing Hornby and Rosman in Kasmawati (2004:5) divided writing into three kinds, as follows: narration, description, and exposition. 1) Narration Narration is the form of writing used to relate the stay of act of events. Narration places occurrences in time and tell what happened according to natural time sequence. One thing happens and then another thing happens, and the events are told in the same order. A narration tells a story-a series of conducted incidents, or an action-process of an action. In narration, the incidents that make up the story are usually told in the order in which they

would really happen. Types of narration include short story, novels and new stories, as well as a large part of our every day social interchange in the form of later and conversation. 2) Description Description is a form of writing that describes something. It is reproduces the way thing looks, smell, taste, feel or sound: it may also evoke moods such as happiness, or fear. It used to created visual image of people, places event of units of time days, or reason. It may be used also to describe more than the outward appearance of people. It may tell about their tries of character or personality. 3) Exposition Exposition is a form of writing that explains something. It often answers to the question of what, how and why. It is used in giving information, making explanation, and meanings. Its purpose is to present ideas and to make the ideas clear as possible. c. Elements of writing Syahril (2006:8) pointed out five significant components in writing. They are content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics. 1) Content Content is a basic one in writing because it must be the same with the theme. In content, there are four things that can be measured in connecting with content the composition should contain one central purpose only, should unity, coherence and continuity should be adequately developed.

2) Organization The purpose of organization material in writing involves coherence, order of importance, general to specific, specific to general, chronological order and spatial order of pattern. When writing, the learner should present their ideas based on the order of which happened from the beginning to the end. 3) Vocabulary The effective used of word will always result goods writing both specific and technical writing. The dictionary is very considerable. Vocabulary is one of components of writing. To express ideas, we always deal with vocabulary. The lack of vocabulary makes of difficult to express ideas. 4) Language use Language use in writing involves correct language and point of grammar. An adequate grammar should have capability in producing a good grammar. We should not be able to do anything more than utter separate item of language for separate function and also grammar can help students improve the use of form in language. 5) Mechanics There are at least two main parts of mechanics in writing, namely punctuation and capitalization. Punctuation is important as the way to clarify meaning. In English writing, capital letters have two principles. First, they are used to distinguish between particulars and things. Seconds, it is used as first words in quotations, a formal statement and proper adjectives.

d. Definition of Descriptive Text There are some definition of description text that stated by linguist. They are: 1) Oshima and Hogue (1997:50) state that descriptive writing appeals to the sense, so it tells how something looks, feels, smells, tastes, and/or sounds. A good description is like word picture, the reader can imagine the object, the place or person in his or her mind. A writer of a good description is like an artist who paints a picture that can be seen clearly in the mind of the reader. 2) Wiener (1981:4) state that description is a basic element in the writers craft because many writing tasks demand the reproduction of details. To reproduce such a place in words is to describe for others the details that make it come alive. As a write, you can have to observe a scene around you with great care, and you have to present it faithfully so readers know exactly what you see. 3) Wiston and Burks in Asrifan (2007:15) state that description gives sense impressions, the feel, sounds, taste, smell, and look of things. Emotion may be described too, feeling such as happiness, fear, loneliness, gloom and joy. Description helps the reader through his imagination to visualize a scene or person or to understand a sensation or an emotion. Referring some previous definitions, the researcher can conclude that description text is one of writing genre which factions to describe a particular person, place or thing, so the reader can imagine what the writer mean.

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e. The Features of Descriptive Writing Referring Department Pendidikan Dasar and menegah (2003:81), the features descriptive writing divided into three parts. They are presented below: 1) Social Function Descriptive writing is to describe a particular person, place or thing. 2) Generic Structure a) Identification: Identifies phenomenon to be described b) Description: Describes parts, qualities, and characteristic. 3) Significant Lexicogrammatical Features a) Focus on specific participants b) Use of attribute and identifying processes c) Frequent use of Epithets and classifiers in nominal groups d) Use of simple present tense f. Definition of Paragraph Some of definition of paragraph that stated by linguists are the following: 1) Oshima and Hogue (1999:16) state that a paragraph is a basic of organization in writing in which a group of related sentences develops one main idea. A paragraph can be short as one sentence or as long as ten sentences. The number of sentences is unimportant, however, the paragraph should be long enough to develop the main idea.

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2) Swan (1995:400) states that written English text is usually divided into blocks called paragraph in order to make it easier to read. The divisions between paragraph break the material up into easily digestible sections, providing places where it is easy for the reader to pause and think for a moment if necessary. Based on the statement above, the researcher concludes that paragraph is a group of related sentences that develops one main idea. Usually it is consists of one topic sentence and some supporting sentences. A paragraph can also be defined as a group of related ideas. g. Definition of Descriptive Paragraph There are some definitions of description text that stated by linguist. They are 1) Dickens (2006) states descriptive paragraph are paragraphs often used to describe what a person looks like and acts like, what a place looks like and what an object look like. 2) Nordquist (2009) states descriptive paragraph is a paragraph that has purpose to make our readers see, feel, and hear what we have seen, felt, and heard. Whether we are describing a person, a place, or a thing, our aim is to reveal a subject through vivid and carefully selected details. Referring some definitions above, the researcher can concludes that descriptive paragraph is a group of sentences that are closely related in through and which serve one common purpose which describe ting, place and personal person.

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2. Sequence Questions There are many methods or techniques were used in teaching writing. In this research, the researcher will try to apply another method namely Sequence Questions. a) Definition of question The following some opinions about question: 1) Brewton in yunus (2008:21) states that questions are asked in interrogative sentence and ended with a question mark. 2) Cunnighan in Yunus (2008:22) states that a question is a verbal utterance that seeks a response to whom is directed. 3) According to Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary (1995), question are defined as (1) form of expression in speech or writing that requests an answer from somebody; (2) topic that is being or needs to be discussed, problem that needs to be solved. Referring previous some definitions, the researcher can conclude that sequence questions is interrogative sentences in a group (series) asked to find out or get information that request answer from someone. b) Definition of sequence question There are many kind of question, but the researcher just used Sequence question. Sequence questions are the question that is asked to learners to put items into a sequence from beginning to end by some rule or according to some principle. Learners are presented with a list of items in an incorrect

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order. They must move the items to put the items into the right relative positions within the list. Referring definition above, the researcher can conclude that sequence questions are the questions that ask to the learners which they must arrange the answers into place to represent relationships among tasks of a project. The answers of those questions must be assigned into the correct parts of a system into a whole. c) Why use sequence question? In order to get good result in writing descriptive paragraph, the researcher gives questions in a series. Seow in Richard and Renandya (2002:316) state that the students generate who, why, what, when, where and how questions about the topic. More such question can be asked of answers to the first string of Wh-questions and so on. This can go indefinitely. Referring the reason above, the researcher concludes that sequence questions is used as method in improving students ability to write descriptive paragraph because it can help to develop their imagination in describing an object, place, person and so on. Beside that, sequence questions can facilitate the students to formulate an idea into a topic sentence and the develop topic sentence into a paragraph.

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C. Resume Based on some previous research findings and some pertinent ideas, the researcher concludes that writing is the complex skill than the others because in writing we have to pay attention on five components. There are content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics. That is why the class must be made more interesting for students in teaching process. In this case, the researcher tries to apply one method in teaching English, especially to write descriptive paragraph namely sequences. This method is assumed can help students to increase their ability because it will bring the students to develop their imagination in describing something. By using successful method in teaching writing, the students can decrease their unwillingness in learning English. D. Conceptual Framework Teaching English as foreign language is to enable to communicate English. However, this seems that skill unsatisfactory that the students skill falls to use English as a tool of communication. On of methods makes the researcher interested is by using sequence questions. This method will be used by the researcher to increase ability of the Seventh Year students of MTs Negeri Parepare to write descriptive paragraph. The illustration of conceptual framework, the main focus of the research is increase write descriptive paragraph by using sequence questions. Teaching technique is very important in teaching English. Irvan (2009:32) a good teaching

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technique can arouse the students interest in learning English language and also can facilitate the students to understand the material. A teacher who masters a lot of particular teaching can teach well. E. Action Hypothesis Based on the explanation theories above, the researcher put forward the hypothesis, namely: The writing ability to eight year students of MTs Negeri Parepare after being taught through sequence question is higher than their ability before taught through sequence question.

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CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE RESEARCH A. Research Design This research is classroom action research. This research has characteristics to solve the problems which occur in the class so that it aims to increase the motivation, maximize the result of study or to know the effective of studying or lesson plan. This research, the researcher will be purposed two cycles. Every cycle consist of four steps. They are planning, action, monitoring, and reflection.
main problem Action plan Problem formulation Preparation

CYCLE I

CONDUCTING ACTION I

PLANNING ACTION I
OBSERVATION &

REFLECTION

CYCLE II

CONDUCTION ACTION II

PLANNING ACTION II

REPORT

OBSERVATION & REFLECTION

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B. Factors Researched Factors researched in this research as follows: 1. Factors of students consist of attendance, activeness, seriousness of student follow learning activity by doing test tasks. 2. Factors of teacher about teachers ability in applying sequence questions 3. Learning result which is seems of the last in every cycle. C. Setting and subject of the Research This research will be conducted at the eight year students of MTs Negeri Parepare. It is conducted for one month The subject of this research is the eight year students of MTs Negeri Parepare, second semester of academic year 2011/2012. The researcher will choose VIII class 2 which consists of 24 students. D. Target of the Research In this research, its target is to know whether the writing ability to the eight year students of MTs Negeri Parepare can improve through sequence question. E. Procedure of the Research The classroom action research here will be done at the second semester of academic year 2011/2012 consiting two cycle. Every cycle will present 2 weeks (4 meetings). In every cycle is divided into four steps. There are planning, action, monitoring/observation, and reflection.

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Cycle I 1. Planning This step is given with the following procedure: a. Make a learning plan will be implemented during learning and teaching process. The learning plan are preparing syllabus and lesson plan. b. Determining the material. In this research, the material will be taken is descriptive text. c. Developing lesson plan. Improving the draft learning set that is involved students book. Lesson plan based on the writing ability through sequence questions of the students. d. Preparation source of learning which is taken from the material. e. Making and developing test task as instrument will be used to measure te students activity. 2. Action The procedure in acting as follows: a. Doing a teaching and learning process based on the lesson plan that was made. Its integration between lesson material and practice. In this stage, the researcher delivery a material. b. The researcher will begin to stimulate students to use of sequence question technique for four meetings. The procedures were as follows: 1) Experience

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a) Ask the students some guided questions to build knowledge of the field. b) Explain the means and the characteristic of descriptive text c) Ask the students to read the descriptive text. 2) Generalization a) Ask them to look at the sentence then make their conclusion in groups (1) Underline the verb (2) Circle the words between the subject and the verb (3) Give the sign for (+); (-)and (?) sentence (4) How to form (+); (-) and (?) give the formula (5) When do we use it? (6) What do you call it? b) Ask them to report their answer c) Discuss their conclusion with class d) Give them the best conclusion for their notes 3) Reinforcement a) The researcher gives sentence samples b) The researcher offers the example of descriptive text; the students will the analyze it. 4) Application Ask them to write one descriptive paragraph by using sequence questions

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a) The researcher will give 7 till 10 questions in sequenced concerning to the material/theme. b) The researcher will help students to answer those questions in complete sentence. c) The students arrange those questions in a simple paragraph. 3. Monitoring/observation In this stage, the researcher and English teacher observe or monitoring all learning activity namely make a note all activity of the teacher and students during learning process, from opening, implementation, to closing of the activity. 4. Reflection 1. The result of research is collected and then analyzes it. 2. Discuss the result with the English teacher to know and consider effect of the action. 3. Revising the implementation of action based on the result of evaluation. The result of the reflection will be a revision for the next cycle. Cycle II Cycle II is continuation from the cycle I. in this cycle, all activities are same with activity in the first cycle. However, every activity in the second cycle will be done revision based on reflection in the first cycle.

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1. Planning All planning in this stage is generally same with planning in the first cycle. Making lesson plans for learning process. However, all wrong things in the first cycle will be revised. 2. Action All activity in section stage is same with action in the first cycle. Doing learning and teaching process based on the lesson plan. 3. Monitoring/observation In this step, the researcher observes and making note all activity during learning and teaching process. And then make a note all activity of the students based on the revision and evaluation in the first cycle. 4. Reflection All activity in reflection stage is same with reflection action in the first cycle. The teacher analyses and considers result of the second cycle, and compare result got in the first cycle. F. Source of Data and Technique of Collection Data 1. Source of Data Source of data from this Classroom Action Research is students, teacher and the school. 2. Technique of Collecting Data Technique of collecting data of this research as follows: 1. The data about all activity during learning process is taken by using sheet of observation.

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2. Data about learning result is taken with giving learning task result to the students. G. Instrument of the Research Instrument of this research will be used are: 1) Test task Test task will be used for to measure the result of students study. So, the researcher can identify whether the students can make progress in writing ability. 2) Observation Using sheet of observation is to get information about the application of sequence questions in teaching writing descriptive text. 3) Questionnaire It will be used for to know opinion and attitude of student. So, the researcher will get information from the students whether the sequence questions technique applied can motivate the students to actively involve during the teaching and learning process. H. Technique of Data Analysis To analyze the data collected through analysis qualitative data. This qualitative data can be analyzed in descriptive statistic, such as the indicator of achievement and the data such as information about behavior or the students of a new technique (sequence questions). The activities of the students are attention, enthusiasm in learning process, and motivation. There are steps that will be applied in analyzing the data: observation and

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discussion between the teacher and collaborator for reflecting the result cycle of the classroom action research I. The success of Indicator The successes of indicator in this researcher are: 1. If the achievement of the students can improve form cycle I to cycle II 2. If the completeness of the result of students study can improve from cycle I to cycle II 3. If the studying activities of the students can improve in learning process.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Anonim. 2010. Sequence Question. (online),

(http://www.horton.com/html/portfoliosequence.aspx retrieved 28 January 2012). Dickens, Charles. 2009. Descriptive Paragraph. (online), (http://www.exampleshelp.org.uk/english January 2012). Ekawati. 2007. Improving Writing Ability of the Eight Grade Students of SMP Muhammadiyah parepare by Using Sequence Pictures. Thesis FKIP Umpar. Fatmawati. 2006. Improving Writing Ability of the second Year Students of SMP Negeri 2 Parepare Through Real Object Observation. Thesis FKIP Umpar. Nordquist, Richard. 2009. Model Descriptive Paragraph. (online), grammar/descriptive-paragraphs.htm, retrieved 28

(http://grammar.about.com/od/developingparagraphs/a/samdescpars.htm retrieved 1 January 2012). Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 1997. Introduction to Academic Writing: Second Edition. New York. Longman.

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