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Organizational Analysis Resource and Capabilities Analysis The Resource-Based View Approach
Organizational Analysis
Organizational Analysis
Resource and Capabilities Analysis The Resource-Based View Approach
Resource and Capabilities
Analysis
The Resource-Based View
Approach
Analysing Resources and Capabilities: the Interface between strategy and the Firm The Firm •Goals and
Analysing Resources and Capabilities: the Interface between strategy and the Firm
Analysing Resources and Capabilities:
the Interface between strategy and the Firm
The Firm •Goals and Values •Resources & Capabilities •Structure & Systems The Industry Environment
The Firm
•Goals and Values
•Resources &
Capabilities
•Structure & Systems
The Industry
Environment
•Competitors
STRATEGY
•Customers
STRATEGY
•Suppliers
The Firm-Strategy
Interface
The environment-
Strategy Interface
Basing Strategy on Resouces and Capabilities When the external environment is in a state of
Basing Strategy on Resouces and Capabilities
Basing Strategy on Resouces and
Capabilities
When the external environment is in a state of flux, the firm itself, in terms
When the external environment is in a state of flux,
the firm itself, in terms of the bundles of resources
and capabilities, may be a much more stable basis on
which to define its identity and the more likely it is
that internal R & C will provide a secure foundation
for long-term strategy.
its identity and the more likely it is that internal R & C will provide a
The Evolution of Honda Motor Company – Resource and Capabilities Honda Technical 4-cylinder Research Institute
The Evolution of Honda Motor Company – Resource and Capabilities
The Evolution of Honda Motor Company –
Resource and Capabilities
Honda Technical 4-cylinder Research Institute Competes in Isle of Man TT motorcycle races 750cc motorcycle
Honda
Technical
4-cylinder
Research
Institute
Competes in
Isle of Man TT
motorcycle
races
750cc
motorcycle
1 st gasoline-powered
car to meet US Low
Emission Vehicle Standard
Civic Hybrid
(dual gasoline/
electric)
founded
Portable
Power products:
Civic GS
generator
1 st motorcycle:
98cc, 2-cycle
gas
Dream D
motor
ground tillers, marine
engines, generators,
pumps, chainsaws
snowblowers
(natural
405cc
powered)
cycle
1946 1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Acura Car
N360 mini
Home co-
4 cycle
division
car
The 50cc
generation
engine
1000cc
Supercub
system
Goldwing
Honda
touring
Civic
Enters Indy
motor cycle
First product:
Enters Formula 1
Gran Prix racing
car racing
Model A
clip-on engine
for bicycles
Honda FCX
fuel cell
car
Canon: Products and Core Technical Capabilities
Canon: Products and Core Technical Capabilities
Fine Precision Optics Mechanics 35mm SLR camera Compact fashion camera EOS autofocus camera Digital camera
Fine
Precision
Optics
Mechanics
35mm SLR camera
Compact fashion camera
EOS autofocus camera
Digital camera
Video still camera
Plain-paper copier
i
C
o or cop er
l
Color laser copier
Laser copier
Basic fax
Laser fax
Mask aligners
Excimer laser aligners
Stepper aligners
Inkjet printer
Laser printer
Color video printer
Calculator
Notebook computer
Micro-
Electronics
The Links between Resources, Capabilities and Competitive Advantage COMPETITIVE STRATEGY ADVANTAGE INDUSTRY KEY
The Links between Resources, Capabilities and Competitive Advantage
The Links between Resources, Capabilities
and Competitive Advantage
COMPETITIVE STRATEGY ADVANTAGE INDUSTRY KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
COMPETITIVE
STRATEGY
ADVANTAGE
INDUSTRY KEY
SUCCESS FACTORS

ORGANIZATIONAL

CAPABILITIES RESOURCES TANGIBLE INTANGIBLE HUMAN •Financial •Technology •Physical •Reputation •Culture
CAPABILITIES
RESOURCES
TANGIBLE
INTANGIBLE
HUMAN
•Financial
•Technology
•Physical
•Reputation
•Culture
•Skills/know-how
•Capacity for
communication
& collaboration
•Motivation
The Resource Based-View TheThe keykey toto profitabilityprofitability isis NOTNOT throughthrough doingdoing thethe
The Resource Based-View
The Resource Based-View

TheThe keykey toto profitabilityprofitability isis NOTNOT throughthrough doingdoing thethe samesame asas otherother firms,firms, butbut ratherrather throughthrough exploringexploring differencesdifferences EstablishingEstablishing competitivecompetitive advantageadvantage involvesinvolves formulatingformulating andand implementingimplementing aa strategystrategy thatthat exploitsexploits thethe uniquenessuniqueness ofof aa firmfirm´´ss portfolioportfolio ofof resourcesresources andand capabilities.capabilities.

Resources and Capabilities (or competences) ResourceResource areare productiveproductive assetsassets ownedowned byby
Resources and Capabilities (or competences)
Resources and Capabilities (or competences)
ResourceResource areare productiveproductive assetsassets ownedowned byby thethe firmfirm IndividualIndividual
ResourceResource areare productiveproductive assetsassets ownedowned byby thethe
firmfirm IndividualIndividual resourcesresources dodo NOTNOT conferconfer
competitivecompetitive advantageadvantage
CapabilitiesCapabilities areare whatwhat thethe firmfirm cancan dodo oror
knowsknows howhow toto dodo withwith itsits resourcesresources CreateCreate
superiorsuperior performance.performance.
Appraising Resources RESOURCE CHARACTERISTICS INDICATORS Financial Borrowing capacity Internal funds generation
Appraising Resources
RESOURCE
CHARACTERISTICS
INDICATORS
Financial
Borrowing capacity
Internal funds generation
Tangible
Debt/ Equity ratio
Credit rating
Net cash flow
Resources
Physical
Plant and equipment:
size, location, technology
flexibility.
Land and buildings.
Raw materials.
Market value of
fixed assets.
Scale of plants
Alternative uses for
fixed assets
Technology
Intangible
Resources
Patents, copyrights, know how
R&D facilities.
Technical and scientific
employees
No. of patents owned
Royalty income
R&D expenditure
R&D staff
Reputation
Brands. Customer loyalty. Company
reputation (with suppliers, customers,
government)
Oraganizational Culture!
Brand equity
Customer retention
Supplier loyalty
Human
Resources
Training, experience, adaptability,
commitment and loyalty of employees
Employee qualifications,
pay rates, turnover.
World´s Most Valued Brands (2010)
World´s Most Valued Brands (2010)
World´s Most Valued Brands (2010) Firm Country Value (USD $ Millions) Rating Walmart USA 41,365 AA-

Firm

Country

Value (USD $ Millions)

Rating

Walmart

USA

Walmart USA 41,365 AA-

41,365

AA-

Google

USA

36,191

AAA

Coca-Cola

USA

34,844

AAA

IBM

USA

33,706

AA-

Microsoft

USA

33,604

AAA

GE

USA

31,909

AA

HSBC

UK

28,472

AAA

HP

USA

27,383

AA+

Nokia

Finland

19,558

AA+

Citi

USA

14,362

A

http://www.brandfinance.com/

Capabilities: Some examples
Capabilities: Some examples

RR && DD SpeedSpeed ofof distributiondistribution ResearchResearch NegotiationNegotiation skillsskills FlexibilityFlexibility andand speedspeed ofof responseresponse ResponsivenessResponsiveness toto marketmarket trendstrends BrandBrand managementmanagement CustomerCustomer managementmanagement relationshiprelationship

The Rent-Earning Potential of Resources and Capabilities THE EXTENT OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ESTABLISHED Scarcity
The Rent-Earning Potential of Resources and Capabilities
The Rent-Earning Potential
of Resources and Capabilities
THE EXTENT OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ESTABLISHED
THE EXTENT OF THE
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
ESTABLISHED
Scarcity Relevance
Scarcity
Relevance
THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ESTABLISHED Scarcity Relevance Durability Transferability Replicability Property rights
THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ESTABLISHED Scarcity Relevance Durability Transferability Replicability Property rights
Durability Transferability Replicability
Durability
Transferability
Replicability
Property rights Relative bargaining power Embeddedness
Property rights
Relative
bargaining power
Embeddedness
THE PROFIT EARNING POTENTIAL OF A RESOURCE OR CAPABILITY DEPEND ON:
THE PROFIT
EARNING POTENTIAL
OF A RESOURCE OR
CAPABILITY DEPEND ON:
EARNING POTENTIAL OF A RESOURCE OR CAPABILITY DEPEND ON: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE APPROPRIABILITY
EARNING POTENTIAL OF A RESOURCE OR CAPABILITY DEPEND ON: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE APPROPRIABILITY
EARNING POTENTIAL OF A RESOURCE OR CAPABILITY DEPEND ON: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE APPROPRIABILITY
SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
SUSTAINABILITY OF THE
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
EARNING POTENTIAL OF A RESOURCE OR CAPABILITY DEPEND ON: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE APPROPRIABILITY
EARNING POTENTIAL OF A RESOURCE OR CAPABILITY DEPEND ON: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE APPROPRIABILITY
EARNING POTENTIAL OF A RESOURCE OR CAPABILITY DEPEND ON: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE APPROPRIABILITY
EARNING POTENTIAL OF A RESOURCE OR CAPABILITY DEPEND ON: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE APPROPRIABILITY
EARNING POTENTIAL OF A RESOURCE OR CAPABILITY DEPEND ON: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE APPROPRIABILITY
APPROPRIABILITY
APPROPRIABILITY
VW´s Resources and Capabilities
VW´s Resources and Capabilities
RESOURCES
RESOURCES

Importance

VW’s

Relative

Strength

CAPABILITIES
CAPABILITIES
 

C1. Product

R1. Finance

6

4

development

R2. Technology

7

5

C2. Purchasing

R3. Plant and equipment

8

8

C3. Engineering

 

C4. Manufacturing

R4. Location

7

4

 

C5. Financial

management

R5. Distribution

8

5

 

C6. R&D

C7. Marketing & sales

C8. Government relations

Importance

VW’s Relative

Strength

9

4

7

5

7

9

8

7

6

3

6

4

9

4

4

8

Relative Stre ngth

Relative Stre ngth Appraising VW’s Resources and Capabilities 10 5 1 Key Strengths Superfluous Strengths C3
Appraising VW’s Resources and Capabilities
Appraising VW’s Resources and
Capabilities

10

5

1

Key Strengths Superfluous Strengths C3 R3 C8 C4 C2 R2 R5 R1 C1 R4 C6
Key Strengths
Superfluous Strengths
C3
R3
C8
C4
C2
R2
R5
R1
C1
R4
C6
C7
C5
Zone of Irrelevance
Key Weaknesses

1

5

Strategic Importance

10

Approaches to Capability Development
Approaches to Capability Development
1) Acquire and develop the underlying resources. Especially human resources --Externally (hiring) --Internally through
1)
Acquire and develop the underlying resources. Especially
human resources
--Externally (hiring)
--Internally through developing individual skills
2)
Acquire/access capabilities externally through acquisition or
alliance
3)
Greenfield development of capabilities in separate
organizational unit (IBM & the PC, Xerox & PARC, GM & Saturn)
4)
Build team-based capabilities through training and team
development (i.e. develop organizational routines)
5)
Change management to transform values and behaviors (GE, BP)
6)
Knowledge Management (systematic approaches to acquiring,
storing, replicating, and accessing knowledge)
The Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE) Weight Rating W*R Strengths Brand recongnition - high 0.12
The Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix
(IFE)
Weight
Rating
W*R
Strengths
Brand recongnition - high
0.12
4
0.48
Product Flavour – high
0.05
4
0.20
Shareholder’s perception of the company
0.05
4
0.20
Efficiency in productive and logistics proc
0.05
3
0.15
Portfolio value – diversified and know
0.10
3
0.30
Know-how of the local market – Med-hig
0.08
3
0.24
Distribution coverage- high
0.15
4
0.60
Weaknesses
Product independence- low
0.10
1
0.10
Shareholders historical stability - low
0.05
2
0.10
Leadership image – med-low
0.10
2
0.20
Distributor´s independence
0.15
1
0.15
TOTAL
1
2,72
MEDIUM-HIGH INTERNAL POSITION
1-4