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Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary

.
Continuum damage mechanics of
geomaterials
Subjected to Large Transformations
Ali KARRECH
1
K. Regenauer-Lieb
2
and T. Poulet
1
CSIRO: Earth Science and Resource Engineering, 26 Dick Perry Ave,
Kensington, WA 6151 Australia. 2 CSIRO and WACOE
18-03-2010
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Outline
1
Introduction
Motivations
Framework
2
Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains
Multiplicative decomposition
Constitutive relations
3
Damage mechanism
Void growth under several control mechanisms
The limit theory approximation
4
Applications
Validation of the large transformations model
Damage of a notched plate and effects of pressure
Diffusion through a damaging rock
5
Summary
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Motivations
Plate tectonics
The predicted forces for
splitting continents apart
are much higher then
available from plate
tectonics.
Time and length scales
cant be achieved in the
laboratory.
Regenauer-Lieb et al 06
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Motivations
Plate tectonics
Several dissipation
feedbacks can help
predicting the plate
tectonics in a more
accurate manner;
How to introduce these
weakening mechanisms?
How to adapt damage,
as one of these
mechanisms, in a
geoscientic context?
What about the validity of
CDM?
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Motivations
Large deformations
Large transformations to describe earth systems
instabilities
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Motivations
Classic rates
*
How to formulate
thermo-mechanical
coupled viscoplastic
models for frictional
materials in nite strain
How to overcome these
spurious oscillations?
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Framework
Framework
RVE: statistical representation of typical material
properties;
Mass
*
, energy, and entropy variations
**
through the
volumetric contributions and the surface uxes;
As a state variable, our damage parameter contributes to
the energy dissipation;
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Framework
Application of the principle of maximum dissipation
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Multiplicative decomposition
Small perturbations versus large transformations
Small perturbations: du << u,
<< 1 and <<
0
Well understood + Easy
integration
Limitations in predicting
instabilities
Large transformations are needed to predict instabilities in
geo-materials
In plate tectonics, the key events take place at relatively
high temperatures, loading and deformations
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Multiplicative decomposition
Small perturbations versus large transformations
Small perturbations: du << u,
<< 1 and <<
0
Well understood + Easy
integration
Limitations in predicting
instabilities
Large transformations are needed to predict instabilities in
geo-materials
In plate tectonics, the key events take place at relatively
high temperatures, loading and deformations
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Multiplicative decomposition
Small perturbations versus large transformations
Small perturbations: du << u,
<< 1 and <<
0
Well understood + Easy
integration
Limitations in predicting
instabilities
Large transformations are needed to predict instabilities in
geo-materials
In plate tectonics, the key events take place at relatively
high temperatures, loading and deformations
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Multiplicative decomposition
Gradient of deformation
The deformation gradient
at X is expressed by
F
T
/X.
*
The multiplicative
decomposition Lee and
Lui (67,69):
F
to
= F
th
F
e
F
vp
The thermal gradient is: F
th
= J
th
I
The athermal gradient is: F = F
e
F
vp
As a measure of deformation we consider the Hencky
tensors: h =
1
2
ln(b) =
1
2
ln
_
FF
t
_
and h
e
=
1
2
ln
_
F
e
F
e
t
_
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Multiplicative decomposition
Objective rates
The deformation rate tensor and the vorticity tensor can be
dened as follows (l =

FF
1
):
d =
1
2
(l +l
t
) and w =
1
2
(l l
t
)
We use the logarithmic corotational rate for objectivity
*
and stability
**
considerations (to derive Eulerian
quantities):

A =

A +A

A
A Corotational rate of an Eulerian strain measure dened
by

is objective if and only if

= w +Y and Y(b, d) is
isotropic Xiao et al 98-06.
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Multiplicative decomposition
Objective rates
The logarithmic spin tensor

was derived by Xiao et al.


(98-06):

= w +
n

A,B=1,A=B
_

A
+
B

B
+
2
ln
A
ln
B
_
p
A
dp
B
where p
A
= n
A
n
A
Among all possible strain tensor measures, only h enjoys
the property d =

h, where

is used as a corotational
spin (Xiao et al. 98-06)
Logarithmic strain rates are the only objective conjugates
of Kirchhoff stress which produce self consistent
elastoplasticity models
*
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Constitutive relations
Dissipation inequality
In light of (Simo 91), we consider that the free energy
describes the stored energy related to the elastic lattice
deformation:
(h
e
, , D, )
Applying the principle of virtual work, the rst and second
principles of thermodynamics, Clausius-Duhem inequality
can be obtained:
D = : (

h
e
) +
_


h
e
_
:

h
e
(s +

.



D
.

D
q

.grad() 0
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Constitutive relations
Helmholtz free energy and a dissipation function of the form
D
I
= : 0; D
T
=
q

.grad() 0
=

h
e
; s =

; Y =

D
; =

Hence, the following constitutive relations can be


obtained:We postulate the following free energy:
(h
e
, T) = G

A=1,3
ln
2
(

e
A
) +
_
1
2
K lnJ +
2
3
G
_
lnJ
3K (
0
) lnJ (
cx
2
0
)(
0
)
2
where

e
A
= J
1/3
_

e
A
, is the coefcient of thermal
expansion, c is the specic heat capacity,
x = 1 9K
2

0
/c. K = (1 D)K
0
G = (1 D)G
0
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Constitutive relations
Dissipation
we also postulate a dissipation function
D =
2a
1
_
2
3

ij

ij
+ ((
ii
) a + r
ii
)

ii
3r
+
1
1

2
(
_
2
3

ij

ij
) + (


c
1
_
2
3

ij

ij
) + F(D)

D
Euler theorem of homogeneous functions on the plastic
part => Thermodynamic forces in the dissipative regime

ij
,
D
, etc.
Expressions of these forces result in equalities of the form:
f
p
(
ij
) = f
D
(
D
) = 0.0
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Constitutive relations
Application of the principle of maximum dissipation
Legendre-Fenchel: optimisation problem under equality
constraint results in

ij
=
p
f
p

ij
=
p
3
2

ij

q
+
p
r
ij
and

D =
p
f
D

D
The maximum dissipation results in forces-velocity
orthogonality ==> relationships between
ij
=
ij
, Y =
D
In hyperelasticity, the thermodynamic force, Y, was
deduced from Helmholtz free energy.
What is the suitable potential f
D
?
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Void growth under several control mechanisms
Void growth controlled by independent mechanisms (Cocks and
Ashby)
where
b0
,
s0
and are material properties and f = (r
h
/l )
2
Validity of CDM
f can be interpreted as a damage parameter D
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Void growth under several control mechanisms
Void growth controlled by independent mechanisms (Cocks and
Ashby)
where
b0
,
s0
and are material properties and f = (r
h
/l )
2
Validity of CDM
To the rst order, each one of the mechanisms derives to the
evolution laws of Lemaitre, Chaboche and Kachanov.
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Void growth under several control mechanisms
Void growth controlled by independent mechanisms (Cocks and
Ashby)
where
b0
,
s0
and are material properties and f = (r
h
/l )
2
Validity of CDM
The original Lemaitre interpretation is justied only if (i) a single
creep mechanism is used (ii) f is small
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Void growth under several control mechanisms
Void growth controlled by independent mechanisms (Cocks and
Ashby)
where
b0
,
s0
and are material properties and f = (r
h
/l )
2
Validity of CDM
A potential f
D
still need to be identied
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
The limit theory approximation
Void growth controlled by independent mechanisms
We consider the effects of diffusion and dislocation
mechanisms:
voids are of arbitrary axisymmetric generatrice and within
an RVE
spacing of min(2d, 2L), where d and L are distances in the
longitudinal and radial directions respectively
voids are assumed to be of small size as compared to the
RVE
Applying the upper bound theory (Cocks and Ashby, Chuang et
al. 80s):
_
V
_
W(

) + W

dV
_

i
u

i
d
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
The limit theory approximation
Upper bound
The decomposition of the strain rates results in:
W( ) = A
d

2
2
+ A
p
n
n+1
n + 1
and W() = A
d

2
2
+ A
p

n+1
n + 1
The decomposition of the total volume into porous and solid
parts results in:
V
V
=
V
s
V
s
+

1
It can be deduced that:

D
g
=
_
1
(1 D)
n
(1 D)
_

in
eq
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
The limit theory approximation
Upper bound
Hence by identication, it can be seen that:

D
g
=
_
1
(1 D)
n+1
_
cY
Unlike the original model of Lemaitre and Chaboche, no
growth is possible if D =0
Nucleation can be taken into account through an additional
term which depends only on the thermodynamic force Y:

D =
_
1
(1 D)
n+1
_
cY + (
Y
H
)

Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary


Validation of the large transformations model
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Validation of the large transformations model
Simple shear: elastoplasticity
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Validation of the large transformations model
Elastoplastic response of frictional materials
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Damage of a notched plate and effects of pressure
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Damage of a notched plate and effects of pressure
Viscoplasticity, damage and shear heating
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Damage of a notched plate and effects of pressure
Effect of pressure dependency
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Damage of a notched plate and effects of pressure
Experimental (Courtesy of Prof Arcady Dyskin)
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Diffusion through a damaging rock
Model and Geometry (Poulet et al. 2010)
Thermal gradient, Rate dependency, damage
*
Single diffusion ow (neglecting the advective effects)
Dirichlet boundary conditions in concentration
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Diffusion through a damaging rock
Inelastic deformation
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Diffusion through a damaging rock
Substance concentration
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Conclusion
The models were formulated within the framework of
thermodynamics of frictional materials (Houlsby and Puzrin
(06));
New numerical techniques are used to integrate the model;
Robust algorithm developed where pressure, temperature,
damage and rate dependencies can be included;
Thermo-coupling is included in the models;
Introduction Elasto-visco-plasticity at nite strains Damage mechanism Applications Summary
Perspective
Advection terms (need for a transport code);
Coupling of the current formulations with the reactive
transport code (by Thomas Poulet)
Multi-scaling techniques are needed to estimate ranges of
validity.
References
Consider the orthogonal time-dependent second order tensor
Q(t ) that describes the relationship the positions with respect
to two different observers:
x

0
= Q(t )(x x
0
)
A physical quantity should be invariant relative to a change of
observer: v

= Q(t )v and T

= Q(t )TQ(t )
t
objective rate tensors can be written as:

=

QTQ
t
+ Q

TQ
t
+ QT

Q
t
notice that I = QQ
t
then

QQ
t
+ Q

Q
t
= 0 and denote = Q

Q
t
Q
t

T

Q =

T
0
=

T + T T
back
References
Truesdell rate of the Cauchy stress:

= l l
T
+ tr(l )
Green-Naghdi rate (F = R U and
=

R R
T
):

= +
Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress

= + w w
back
References
Slef-consistent: exactly integrable to deliver an
hyperelastic relation whenever a process of purely elastic
deformation is involved (D = D
e
).
The following relationship is usually used to characterize
common materials: D
e
= C :

how to choose the objective rate



so that the above
equation is self-consistent?.
Simo and Pister (1984) showed that the above equation is
inconsistent with elasticity when the classic corotational
rates (Jauman, Green-Naghdi, Truesdell etc).
It was recently shown that there only one (and strictly one)
rate that fulls the self-consistent criteria. It is

=

log
back
References
Principles of conservation
Internal energy and entropy conservation (g = e, s specic
quantities):
dG
dt
=
_

[ g + div(u)g +

g] d +
_

k
gu
k
.nda (1)
Conservation of mass
dM
dt
=
_

[ + div(u)] d +
_

k
u
k
.nda = 0 (2)
where
k
and u
k
represent the density and the entering velocity
of the k
th
substance in through the surface da.
back
References
Energy balance and Clausius-Duhem inequality
Application of the rst law of thermodynamics and the principle
of virtual work results in:
[ + div(u)] e+

e+div(
k
eu
k
) = : +
k

k
+r div(q) (3)
where
k
and
k
generically denote the chemical potential and
number of moles or equivalent quantities in terms of concent.
and a dual thermodynamic force. r is a heat source and q is a
heat ux.
Application of the second law of thermodynamics results in:
[ + div(u)] +
_

+

Ts
_
+ div(
k
u
k
)
k
su
k
.gradT
q.gradT
T
:
k

k
(4)
where is Helmholtz free energy.
back
References
Kinematics of a deformable body
Consider an open bounded domain
0
R
3
representing
the reference conguration.
This body is embedded in three dimensional Euclidian
space.
In Lagrangian coordinates, the material points are denoted
by X R
3
.
Motion is described by deformation map : (
0
, R
+
) R
3
such that x = (X, t ).
The deformation gradient at X is expressed by F /X
back
References
Material properties
Parameter Quartz
Density, (Kgm
3
) 2730
Moduli, K/G(GPa) 52/31.2
Initial Yield, Y
0
(MPa) 100
Diffusion Coefcient, k = k
0
+ aD(m
2
/s) 4.6 10
7
, 4.6 10
5
Activation energies, Q(kJmol
1
) 135e3
Exponent, n 4.0
Pre-Coefcient Disl A(MPa
n
s
1
) 6.32 10
12
Friction/Dilatation Angle, 20
4.45
Table: Simulation Parameters.
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