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December 12-13, 2008


I. Computer Fundamentals

a. Definition of Computer
b. Computer Terms
c. Computer Basic Units and Functions

II. Software and Hardware Fundamentals

1. Software
a. Definition
b. Kinds of Software
c. Examples
2. Hardware
a. Definition
b. Kinds of hardware and Functions

III. Computer Servicing Fundamentals

1. Assembling & disassembling a computer unit

2. Assembling/Installing the Internal parts of the computer (System Unit).
3. Booting a computer.
4. Formatting a hard disk drive/flash disk/ floppy disk
5. Installing/Uninstalling Software
a. printer driver
b. cd/dvd writer driver
c. MS Office 2000/2003
6. CD/DVD Burning
a. data
b. music
c. video

IV. Internet Fundamentals

a. Browsing/Surfing
b. Create E-mail Address
c. Sending and Attaching Files
1. e-mail
2. document/s
3. pictures
4. voice
5. video
d. Uploading/Downloading Files
e. Opening websites

V. Internet Communication
a. Using Yahoo Messenger for Communication
b. Chatting
c. Viewing video thru web cam
December 12-13, 2008


Education Supervisor I (SpED/ICT)

Division ICT Coordinator (Elementary)

Administrative Aide VI (Technical Support Staff)

Administrative Aide I (Technical Support Staff)

ICT Student Support Staff (OJT)

A computer is basically a group of electronic devices designed to process data
according to a programmed instruction. It works following the input process - out put
system model. The computer performs data processing operations automatically such
as recording, sorting, computing, classifying, summarizing, storing, and communicating.

The computer consists of the three major components, namely: Input unit, control unit
and output unit.


Input Unit

- is the component of the computer system that converts source data into
communication, the computer can "understand" the process. It accepts
senses, reads or feeds the data into the storage portion of the control-
processing unit.

Central Processing Unit

- (CPU) is the heart of the computer consisting of the three major components,
namely: (1) storage unit, (2) control unit, (3) arithmetical/logic unit.

Storag Central
e Unit Logic Unit
System Unit
The system unit is the main part of the computer that houses its electronic components. All of
the internal processing capabilities of the computer takes place within the system unit.

The major part of the system unit is the motherboard, which is a circuit board that houses most
of the computer's electronic components. Most of the electronic components on the motherboard
are called chips. Chips are small pieces of semiconducting material made up of circuits that carry
electronic signals.

The most important chip on the motherboard is the Central Processing Unit, or CPU. The CPU
manages the computer's operations by interpreting and carrying out the basic instructions that
run the computer. The CPU is necessary to communicate with the devices that connect to the
computer, such as the monitor or a printer, in order to perform their functions.

The microprocessor, is a single chip that contains the CPU. The microprocessor also contains
the system clock, which controls the speed of the computer. Clock speed is measured in
megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). One megahertz is equal to one million ticks of the system
clock, and one gigahertz is equal to one billion ticks of the system clock. The faster the clock
speed, the faster the CPU can carry out instructions.

Other types of chips on the motherboard include memory chips. Memory stores data and
instructions while the processor performs its functions. There are three main types of information
stored by memory: the operating system and other system software that control the computer,
application software, such as a word processor, and the data while it is being processed by the
application software.
Memory is stored in bytes, which is the basic storage unit of memory. One byte is equal to one
character, such as a letter or number. A kilobyte is equal to about 1,000 bytes (1,024 to be
exact), a megabyte is equal to about a million bytes, and a gigabyte is equal to about a billion

There are two types of memory in the system unit: volatile memory and nonvolatile
memory. Volatile memory is erased when the computer loses power. Nonvolatile memory stays
permanently stored even when there is no power.

In the system unit are memory chips called RAM, or random access memory, which are a
type of volatile memory. When you boot up your computer, the operating system files are loaded
from your hard drive into RAM while you are working on your computer. RAM also stores data
while you are working on a document. For instance, if you are typing a paper in a word processor,
but have not saved it to a storage device such as a floppy disk, that work is stored temporarily in
RAM. But if your computer were to suddenly lose power, you would lose all that work. That is why
it is important to save your work often.

The more RAM you have on your computer, the faster it can work and the more
applications and files you can work on at once. When buying software, it is important to check the
amount of RAM it requires and ensure that your computer has the necessary capacity to run that

A type of nonvolatile memory in the system unit is ROM, or read-only memory. ROM
chips store data that does not change, such as the instructions for loading the operating system
when you turn on your computer. ROM is nonvolatile because it does not lose what is stored in its
memory when the computer is turned off.

Input Devices
1. Keyboard
2. Mouse
3. Web Camera
4. Digital Camera
5. Scanner

Control/Process Device
1. System Unit

Storage Devices
1. Hard Disk Drive
2. Thumb Drive/Flash Disk
4. Floppy Disk

Output Devices
1. Monitor
2. Speaker
3. Printer
The main Components/Internal Parts of the Computer:

This is the most important chip. This chip gathers data, processes
Data and creates some output. This chip is identified by three

Chip Number each chip has a number (8088,80286,…

…80286,……..). In general, the higher the
number, the more data chip can process at
one time.
Chip Type the chip type indicates a chip step down
than the original chip. SX chip is slower than
Chip Type: SX, DX, DX2, DX4

Chip Speed the chip speed is measured in Mega hertz.

The higher the number; the faster the data
is processed.
Chip Speed: 33, 66, and 100, 133
This is where different kinds of chips are located and where the
other internal parts are attached.

Power Supply
This component supplies the needed electricity of the other
internal parts.
Floppy Disk Drive
This drive is where floppy diskettes are inserted. It sends
information back and forth the floppy disk and the CPU.

Hard Disk
This is a non- removable disk that stores more information

Internal View
External View

Memory Chips
These are small, rectangular pieces attached to the motherboard that
perform different tasks.

This keeps the inside of the CPU cool so that it won’t overheat. A
humming sound is heard when the computer is turned on.
Boards and Cards/ Daughter Board
These Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) or cards enhance the ability of the

1. Video Card
2. Sound Card
3. LAN Card
4. USB Card
5. Internal Modem Card

Video card
Expansion slots
These are slots where boards and cards are inserted.


FDD/ HDD Controllers or Bus

This is a group of small wires hat carry computer signals.


Mother Board

FDD Controllers Power Supply

HDD Controllers Floppy Disk Drive

CPU/Microprocessor Hard Drive/Disk

Daughter Board Memory Chips

Expansion Slots SDRAM


The storage unit of the CPU is the file cabinet and memory system of the
computer. Sometimes called main or internal storage, it receives and holds all computer
programs that the computer follows during the processing. Also, it holds the result of
processing until these results are released or printed as output.

Internal Memory

Read Only Memory (ROM)

This is a built-in memory that could not be changed. It contains
the permanent startup instructions for the computer, and instructions that check the parts
of the computer to make sure everything is connected and working properly. ROM chips
are like a book, with its words already set on each page.

Random Access Memory (RAM)

This is a memory that has no fixed value. Instructions or data can
be temporarily stored in silicon RAM chips that are mounted directly on the computers
main circuit board or in chips mounted on peripheral cards that into the computers main
circuit board. These RAM chips consist of up to a million switches that are sensitive to
changes in electronic current RAM chips are like pieces of paper that can be written on,
erased, and used again.

The control unit of the CPU executes the stored programs. It directs the
computer to perform the processes required in the program. It also takes care of
inspecting the instructions and accepting those that are in correct form and rejecting the
deviants. It also issues orders and guides the computer, direct and coordinates the input
and output units, transfer data to and form storage, and control the arithmetic/logic unit.

The arithmetic/logic unit of the CPU carries out calculation function such as
adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing. During processing, it monitors condition
and changes the sequence or made appropriate adjustments or actions when


The output unit provides the end results of a computer job. The output unit
releases the answer, solution or information from the storage unit in computer print,
punched card, magnetic tape or disks.


- is used to describe any program, application, routine, etc. that is added to the
computer to perform a particular function. Software falls into a number of categories,
such as:

 Operating System
 Applications
 Utilities/Drivers
 Security System

Software is required to operate certain peripherals, that is, to interpret commands so that
the computer can communicate with the device.

-are the programs designed to perform those tasks that make your computer truly useful.
Applications packages fall into a number of categories, such as:

 Desktop Publishing
 Word Processing
 Database Programs
 Spreadsheets
 Integrated Software
 Paint & Draw Programs
 Communications
 Multimedia Programs
- this includes the programs or instruction that direct the hardware to perform data
processing functions.
- programs and applications that can be run on a computer system


1. System software - it directs and controls the operation of the

computer system. It essentially programmed to activate the
hardware to operate.
Examples: Windows 95/98/ME/2000/XP/Vista

2. Application software - directs the processing of particular

applications, such as "inventory control system", "payroll system", etc.
Examples: - MS Office 97/2000/2003
MS Word MS Publisher MS Outlook
MS PowerPoint MS Access
MS Excel MS Front Page
- Games
- Utilities/Drivers


1. Microcomputer- desktop- or notebook-size computing device that uses a

microprocessor as its central processing unit, or CPU (see Computer).
Microcomputers are also called personal computers (PCs), home computers,
small-business computers, and micros. The smallest, most compact are
called laptops.

2. Minicomputers - mid-level computer built to perform complex computations

while dealing efficiently with a high level of input and output from users
connected via terminals. Minicomputers also frequently connect to other
minicomputers on a network and distribute processing among all the attached
machines. Minicomputers are used heavily in transaction-processing applications
and as interfaces between mainframe computer systems and wide area

3. Mainframes - are large computers, which has the combination of 2 or more

Central Processing Units.
- a high-level computer designed for the most intensive computational tasks.
Mainframe computers are often shared by multiple users connected to the
computer via terminals. The most powerful mainframes, called supercomputers,
perform highly complex and time-consuming computations and are used heavily
in both pure and applied research by scientists, large businesses, and the


1.) Monitor 11.) Digital Microphone

2.) Mouse 12.) Web Camera
3.) AVR 13.) CD ROM Drive
4.) System Unit 14.) DVD ROM Drive
5.) Printer 15.) Headset
6.) UPS 16.) CD ROM Writer
7.) Keyboard 17.) DVD ROM Writer
8.) Scanner 18.) USB Thumb Drive/Flash Disk
9.) Speaker System 19.) Joy Stick
10.) MODEM

Hardware - refers to any tangible parts of the computer, any physical components and
phases installed.

Hardware Name Description

Display the data and

1. Monitor Serves as the output unit of the

Serves as the heart and brain of

a computer.
Processes the data and
2. System Unit

Similar to that of a
typewriter, where you can enter
text and graphics.
Serves as the input unit of the
3. Keyboard

Hardware Name Description

It is used to select objects and

4. Mouse buttons, serves as the input unit
of a computer.

Prints the data and information

displayed on the screen.
Converts data and information
5. Printer into a printed form. Serves as
the output unit of a computer.

5. Scanner Functions like that of a copier

machine. It is used to copy
objects (extreme) to the CPU of
the computer, serves as the
input unit of the computer.

Types of Scanner
This scanner relies on the
steadiness of a human hand to
accurately render an image.
5.1 Hand-held scanner This is generally less expensive
because it doesn’t require a
mechanism to move the scan
head or paper.
In this kind of scanner, the page
is stationary behind a glass
5.2 Flatbed scanner window while the head moves
past the page; similar to the way
a copying machine works.
In a sheet-fed scanner,
mechanical rollers move the
paper past the scan head. It is
5.3 Sheet-fed scanner
captured more accurately but is
limited to scanning single,
ordinary- sized sheets.
Hardware Name Description

Maintains the supply voltage to

6. AVR - Automatic Voltage a specified power supply AC
Regulator voltage to the computer.

.also known as a battery back-

up provides emergency power
and, depending on the topology,
provide line regulation as well to
connected equipment by
supplying power from a
separate source when utility
power is not available. It differs
from an auxiliary power supply
7. UPS - Uninterrupted
or standby generator, which
Power Supply
does not provide instant
protection from a momentary
power interruption. A UPS,
however, can be used to
provide uninterrupted power to
equipment, typically for 5-15
minutes until a generator can
be turned on or utility power is

A player/drive used for audio

8. CD ROM Drive - Compact
and video compact disks.
Disk Random On Memory

Produce audio
frequency or sound, where
music or sound frequency is
8. Speaker System
being heard. Serves as an
output unit of the computer.
Serves as the input and output
9. MODEM- modulator and a unit of the computer.
demodulator Processes International

Types of MODEM
Type of MODEM, which is
connected inside the computer
9.1 Internal MODEM motherboard.

Type of MODEM, which

9.2 External MODEM connected outside the
Converts electrical energy into
a mechanical energy that
produce audio frequency. It
10. Digital Microphone
serves as the input unit of the

are video capturing devices

connected to computers or
computer networks, often using
USB or, if they connect to
networks, ethernet or Wi-Fi..
11. Digital Web Camera

Hardware Name Description

A combination of a headphone
and a digital microphone. It
serves as the input and out put
12. Headset
unit of the computer for audio

Compact Disk Read Only

Memory Writer Drive. Able to
13. CD ROM Writer
write video, data and music to
the CD write able disk.

Digital Video Disk Read Only

Memory Drive. Able to read
14. DVD ROM Drive
video, data and music to DVD
Digital Video Disk Read Only
Memory Drive. Able to write
15. DVD ROM Writer
video, data and music to DVD
write able disk.

- storage device which uses

16. USB Thumb Drive USB port. The memory capacity
ranges form 128 MB – 2 GB.

Joysticks consist of a single

post fixed at the base like a
stick shift that can move in all
directions. The newest
controllers include vibration;
17. Joystick when something happens on-
screen, the controller vibrates
and you feel the jolts and
motions of the game you are

Assembling & Disassembling a Computer Unit

Assembling Procedure:

1. Prepare the needed computer parts.

2. Connect the mouse ps2/USB connector to ps2/USB mouse port.
3. Connect the keyboard ps2/USB connector to ps2/USB keyboard port.
4. Connect the monitor serial connector to monitor serial port.
5. Connect the speaker baby plug connector to audio port.
6. Connect the power cord to the power port of the system unit.
7. Connect the power cord of the monitor.
8. Plug the AC plug of the System Unit to AVR.
9. Plug also the AC plug of the monitor to AVR.
10. Plug the AVR AC plug to AC 220v source.
11. Then turn on the monitor and the system unit.
Note: Be sure the wires are properly arranged, not in a mess connection.

Disassembling Procedure:

1. Unplug all connectors from the System Unit port.

Note: Be sure to unscrew the serial monitor connector before disconnecting it
and unplug connectors gently.

Assembling/Installing the Internal Parts of the Computer (System Unit).

Assembling Procedure:
1. Place the motherboard properly in casing aligned to the port casing.
2. Put screws as needed to fasten the mother board.
3. Connect the hard disk drive to its place in the computer casing and put
screws on it.
4. Connect floppy disk drive to its place in the computer casing and put screws
on it.
5. Connect the CD/DVD ROM/Writer to its place in the computer casing and put
screws on it.
6. Insert the CPU/Microprocessor to its socket and locked it with the heat sink.
7. Carefully insert the memory chips on the memory slots of the motherboard.
8. Connect the power supply to the computer casing and put screws on it.
9. Connect the HDD IDE/SATA connector/Bus to the IDE slot of the
motherboard, to the hard disk drive and to the CD/ DVD ROM/Writer.
10. Connect the FDD connector to the mother board and to the Floppy Disk
11. Connect the power supply connectors to the mother board power supply
socket/s, hard disk drive, floppy disk drive, DV/DVD ROM/Writer.
12. Be sure the connections are correctly connected and properly arranged the
wires to look professionally connected.

Booting a computer

Cold Boot- the process of turning ON a computer unit at off mode.
1. Press the power switch button of the System Unit.
2. Wait for the computer to beep once.
3. Wait for the computer to load the programs/software.

Hot Boot – the process of restarting/rebooting a computer unit.

1. Click Start button and select Shut Down command.
2. Click Restart button.
3. The computer will automatically reboot and wait for the computer to
load the program/software.

Formatting a Hard Disk Drive/Flash disk/ Floppy Disk

Hard Disk Drive

1. Open the casing of the system unit and connect the hard drive using the IDE
connectors in a salve mode.
2. Boot the computer.
3. Click Start button, select all programs, select accessories and click Windows
4. From the windows explorer, click my computer from the task pane located at
the left side of the screen.
5. Point and right click the hard disk to be formatted.
6. A pop-up menu will appear, click format command.
7. A dialog box will open, from the dialog box, select the file system, volume
label and format options.
8. Then click Start button and click close after the formatting is done.

Flash Disk
1. Insert the flash disk to the USB port.
2. Wait for the computer to detect the thumb drive.
3. Open My Computer icon.
4. Point and right –click the drive for flash disk, a pop-up menu will open as
shown below.
5. Select Format command and the type of File System and Format Options.

Start Button

6. Then click Start button and wait to finish formatting.

7. Point and right –click the drive of the flash disk, a pop-up menu will open.

8. Select Rename option and type the name, then press Enter key to activate
the flash disk name.

Floppy Disk
1. Insert the floppy disk to the floppy drive.
2. Open Windows Explorer, then right –click floppy disk drive: A.
3. Pop-up menu will open, select format command.
4. Click Start button to start formatting.
5. Then close button after formatting.

Installing/Uninstalling Software

Installing Software

Printer Driver
1. Connect the printer to the computer.
2. Wait for the computer to detect the printer.
3. Insert the printer cd driver.
4. Then follow the instruction/steps to install the printer software.

CD/DVD Writer
1. Insert the CD/DVD cd software driver.
2. Select from the item for installation.
3. Follow the instructions to install the software.

MS Office 2000/2003
1. Insert the CD to the CD/DVD drive.
2. If the installer is bootable, wait for the instruction to install the software.
3. Encode the CD key needed.
4. Click NEXT buttons and Install button until the software has finished

Uninstalling Software
1. Click Start button and click Control Panel.
2. From the control panel dialog box, select Add or Remove Programs as
shown below.

3. From the Add or Remove Programs, select the programs/software to

uninstall or remove from the system.

4. Click Remove command to uninstall the program/software as shown below.

CD/DVD Burning
1. Insert the blank CDR/CDRW in the CD/DVD drive.
2. Open Nero Start Smart of any software available for CD/DVD burning.
3. Select make data disk option.
4. Click ADD button. (See the indicator to fit the total space used.
5. Then click NEXT button.
6. Then click BURN button.
7. Wait for the computer to finish burning the file/data.
8. Automatically the CD/DVD drive will automatically eject the CD.
9. Then close the CD/DVD burning software.

1. Insert the blank CDR/CDRW in the CD/DVD drive.
2. Open Nero Start Smart of any software available for CD/DVD burning.
3. Select copy disk from the option if you want to copy the from the CD/DVD
4. If the music from your computer, click ADD button and select the music from
the directory. (See the indicator to fit the total space used.
5. Then click NEXT button.
6. Then click BURN button.
7. Wait for the computer to finish burning the file/data.
8. Automatically the CD/DVD drive will automatically eject the CD.
9. Then close the CD/DVD burning software.
1. Insert the blank CDR/CDRW in the CD/DVD drive.
2. Open Nero Start Smart of any software available for CD/DVD burning.
3. Select COPY DISK from the option if you want to copy the from the CD/DVD
4. If the music from your computer, click ADD button and select the video from
the directory. (See the indicator to fit the total space used.
5. Then click NEXT button.
6. Then click BURN button.
7. Wait for the computer to finish burning the file/data.
8. Automatically the CD/DVD drive will automatically eject the CD.
9. Then close the CD/DVD burning software.

Internet Fundamentals

A. Browsing/Surfing
1. Open Firefox/Internet Explorer as your browsers.
2. Start browsing by type the address in the address bar where you normally
type a web address. (ex.

URL Address
3. Press Enter or the icon that represent.
4. Then you can continue surfing by repeating same steps.

B. Creating E-mail Add

1. Open Firefox/Internet Explorer as your browsers.
2. Type the address in the address bar where you normally type a web address
or the site of the email provider. (ex.
3. On that web site click Sign Up to create new account in yahoo.

Sign Up Button

4. Then fill up the following requirements which needed.

C. Sending and attaching file

1. Open your email address by encoding your ID and password.
2. Click Sign In button.

Sign In button

3. Click compose to create a new message.

Compose Button
4. Insert or type the contact, your subject and your message on the space

Type Your Text


5. Then click send.

6. Click the Attach Files.

Attach Button

7. Browse the file in from your computer/directory, either pictures, documents,

videos and so on, then click again attach files. (Wait for the computer to
finish attaching the files.)

Browse Buttons

8. And then send your file by clicking the Send button.

Send Buttons
D. Uploading/downloading files

Uploading/Attaching File/s
Note: See attaching files procedure.

Downloading Files from E-Mail

1. Open your E-mail.
2. Click the Inbox/Spam folder that shows the unread message/s.

Inbox Folder

3. From your inbox, click the subject attach file/s link to open the

Attach file/s link

4. Click the attach file/s to download and save the file.

Requirements/Materials Needed:

1 Computer Unit (Functional with Windows XP Operating System)


1. Computer Casing
2. CD/DVD ROM/Writer with CD Driver
3. Memory Chips (DDR1 or DDR2, 256MB/512MB/1GB)
4. Mother board(Intel/AMD Socket) with built in Video /sound
5. Processor 1.7 Ghz or Higher (P4/Celeron/Dual Core/AMD)
6. ATX Power Supply
7. HDD and FDD Connectors/BUS/ SATA Connector
8. Floppy Disk Drive
9. Hard Disk Drive (IDE/SATA)

B. Monitor (CRT/LCD)
C. PS2/USB Mouse
D. PS2/USB Keyboard
E. Headset
F. AVR with AC Cords and Extension Cord
G. Printer any brand (USB/parallel) with CD Driver

Web Camera/ Digital Camera
Flash Disk/Thumb Drive (Any brand/memory capacity)
Floppy Disk
Philips Screw driver